Canada Not-for-profit Corporations Act (S.C. 2009, c. 23)

Assented to 2009-06-23

Proceedings

Marginal note:Rules of action

 The following rules apply in an action on a debt obligation:

  • (a) each signature on the debt obligation certificate or in a necessary endorsement is admitted unless specifically denied in the pleadings;

  • (b) a signature on the debt obligation is presumed to be genuine and authorized but, if the effectiveness of the signature is in issue, the burden of establishing that it is genuine and authorized is on the party claiming under the signature;

  • (c) if a signature is admitted or established, production of a debt obligation certificate entitles the holder to recover on it unless the other party establishes a defence or defect going to the validity of the debt obligation; and

  • (d) if the other party establishes the defence or defect, the plaintiff has the burden of establishing that the defence or defect is ineffective against the plaintiff or some other person under whom the claim is made.

Delivery

Marginal note:Delivery of debt obligations
  •  (1) A person who is required to deliver debt obligations may deliver any debt obligation of the specified issue

    • (a) in bearer form;

    • (b) in registered form in the name of the transferee; or

    • (c) endorsed to the person or in blank.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (2) Subsection (1) is subject to any agreement to the contrary, to any applicable Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, to any applicable regulation or to any applicable rule of a stock exchange or other regulatory body.

General

Marginal note:Incorporation by reference
  •  (1) The terms of a debt obligation include those stated on the debt obligation and those incorporated by reference to another document, an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, a regulation, a rule or an order to the extent that the incorporated terms do not conflict with those stated on the debt obligation.

  • Marginal note:Purchaser without notice

    (2) Subsection (1) applies to a good faith purchaser but the incorporation by reference is itself not notice of a defect to the purchaser even if the debt obligation expressly states that a person accepting it admits that notice.

Marginal note:Validity of debt obligation

 A debt obligation is valid in the hands of a good faith purchaser.

Marginal note:Defence

 Subject to section 62, the fact that a debt obligation is not genuine is a complete defence for the issuer even against a good faith purchaser.

Marginal note:Defences

 All other defences of an issuer, including non-delivery and conditional delivery of a debt obligation, are ineffective against a good faith purchaser.

Marginal note:Deemed notice
  •  (1) A purchaser is deemed to have notice of any defect in the issue of a debt obligation or any defence of the issuer if the debt obligation becomes stale within the meaning of subsection (2).

  • Marginal note:Stale debt obligation

    (2) A debt obligation becomes stale if

    • (a) the purchaser takes the debt obligation later than the prescribed period that is after

      • (i) the date on which performance of the principal obligation evidenced by the debt obligation was due, or

      • (ii) the date on or after which the debt obligation is to be presented or surrendered for redemption or exchange; or

    • (b) the payment of money or the delivery of debt obligations is required in order to present or surrender the debt obligation, the money or debt obligations are available on the day for the payment or delivery and the purchaser takes the debt obligation later than the prescribed period that is after that day.

Marginal note:Unauthorized signature
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), an unauthorized signature on a debt obligation is ineffective.

  • Marginal note:Limited effectiveness

    (2) An unauthorized signature on a debt obligation is effective in favour of a good faith purchaser if the signature was made by

    • (a) an authenticating trustee, transfer agent or other person entrusted by the issuer with the duty to sign the debt obligation, or similar debt obligations, or to prepare them for signing; or

    • (b) an employee of the issuer or a person referred to in paragraph (a) who handles the debt obligation in the ordinary course of their duties.

Marginal note:Completion of debt obligation

 If a debt obligation contains the signatures necessary for its issue or transfer but is incomplete in another respect, any person may complete it in accordance with their authority.

Marginal note:Enforceability

 A debt obligation that was completed incorrectly is enforceable by a good faith purchaser.

Marginal note:Fraud

 A completed debt obligation that was improperly altered, even if fraudulently altered, remains enforceable but only according to its original terms.

Marginal note:Guarantees
  •  (1) A person signing a debt obligation as an authenticating trustee, transfer agent or other person entrusted by the issuer with the duty to sign the debt obligation guarantees to a good faith purchaser that

    • (a) the debt obligation is genuine;

    • (b) the person’s acts in connection with the debt obligation are within the person’s authority; and

    • (c) the person has reasonable grounds for believing that the debt obligation is in the form and within the amount the issuer is authorized to issue.

  • Marginal note:Liability

    (2) Unless agreed otherwise, a person referred to in subsection (1) does not assume any further liability for the validity of the debt obligation.

Marginal note:Acquisition of rights
  •  (1) On delivery of a debt obligation, the purchaser of the debt obligation acquires the rights in it that the transferor had or had authority to convey.

  • Marginal note:Claim free

    (2) A good faith purchaser of a debt obligation acquires it free from any adverse claim.

  • Marginal note:No better position

    (3) A purchaser who was a party to a fraud or illegality affecting a debt obligation or who, as a prior holder, had notice of an adverse claim does not have a better position by taking from a later good faith purchaser.

Marginal note:Limitation of the purchase

 A purchaser acquires rights only to the extent of the interest or right purchased.

Marginal note:Deemed notice
  •  (1) A purchaser of a debt obligation, or a broker for a seller or purchaser, is deemed to have notice of an adverse claim if

    • (a) the debt obligation has been endorsed “for collection” or “for surrender” or for a purpose other than transfer; or

    • (b) the debt obligation is in bearer form and has a statement on it that it belongs to a person other than the transferor.

  • Marginal note:Name

    (2) The mere writing of a name on a debt obligation is not a statement for the purposes of paragraph (1)(b).

Marginal note:No duty to inquire
  •  (1) A purchaser of a debt obligation, or a broker for a seller or purchaser, has no duty to inquire into the rightfulness of the transfer and, subject to sections 69 and 71, has no notice of an adverse claim.

  • Marginal note:Third party holding

    (2) Subsection (1) applies even if the purchaser or broker has notice that the debt obligation is held by a third person or is registered in the name of or endorsed by a fiduciary.

Marginal note:Deemed notice

 A purchaser or broker who knows that the transaction is for the personal benefit of the fiduciary or is otherwise in breach of the fiduciary’s duty is deemed to have notice of an adverse claim.

Marginal note:Staleness
  •  (1) The following events do not constitute notice of an adverse claim except if the debt obligation becomes stale within the meaning of subsection (2):

    • (a) an event that creates a right to performance of the principal obligation evidenced by the debt obligation; or

    • (b) an event that sets the date on or after which the debt obligation is to be presented or surrendered for redemption or exchange.

  • Marginal note:Staleness of debt obligation

    (2) A debt obligation becomes stale if

    • (a) the purchaser takes the debt obligation later than the prescribed period that is after

      • (i) the date on which performance of the principal obligation evidenced by the debt obligation was due, or

      • (ii) the date on or after which the debt obligation was to be presented or surrendered for redemption or exchange; or

    • (b) the payment of money or the delivery of debt obligations is required in order to present or surrender the debt obligation, the money or debt obligations are available on the day for the payment or delivery and the purchaser takes the debt obligation later than the prescribed period that is after that day.

Marginal note:Guarantee
  •  (1) A person who presents a debt obligation for registration of transfer or for payment or exchange guarantees to the issuer that the person is entitled to do so.

  • Marginal note:Limitation on guarantee

    (2) A good faith purchaser who receives a new, reissued or re-registered debt obligation and who registers a transfer guarantees only that the purchaser has no knowledge of any unauthorized signature in a necessary endorsement.

Marginal note:Content of guarantee

 A person who transfers a debt obligation to a purchaser for value guarantees by the transfer only that

  • (a) the transfer is effective and rightful;

  • (b) the debt obligation is genuine and has not been materially altered; and

  • (c) the person knows of nothing that might impair the validity of the debt obligation.

 
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