Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. B-3)

Act current to 2017-09-14 and last amended on 2015-02-26. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Removal and appointment

 The court, on the application of any interested person, may for cause remove a trustee and appoint another licensed trustee in the trustee’s place.

  • 1992, c. 27, s. 9.
Marginal note:Where there is no licensed trustee, etc.

 Where a debtor resides or carries on business in a locality in which there is no licensed trustee, and no licensed trustee can be found who is willing to act as trustee, the court or the official receiver may appoint a responsible person residing in the locality of the debtor to administer the estate of the debtor, and that person, for that purpose, has all the powers of a licensed trustee under this Act, and the provisions of this Act apply to that person as if a licence had been issued to that person under paragraph 5(3)(a).

  • 1992, c. 27, s. 9.
Marginal note:No trustee is bound to act
  •  (1) No trustee is bound to assume the duties of trustee in matters relating to assignments, bankruptcy orders or proposals, but having accepted an appointment in relation to those matters the trustee shall, until discharged or another trustee is appointed in the trustee’s stead, perform the duties required of a trustee under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (1.1) In subsections (1.2) to (6), a reference to a trustee means a trustee in a bankruptcy or proposal and includes

    • (a) an interim receiver;

    • (b) a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2); and

    • (c) any other person who has been lawfully appointed to take, or has lawfully taken, possession or control of any property of an insolvent person or a bankrupt that was acquired for, or is used in relation to, a business carried on by the insolvent person or bankrupt.

  • Marginal note:No personal liability in respect of matters before appointment

    (1.2) Despite anything in federal or provincial law, if a trustee, in that position, carries on the business of a debtor or continues the employment of a debtor’s employees, the trustee is not by reason of that fact personally liable in respect of a liability, including one as a successor employer,

    • (a) that is in respect of the employees or former employees of the debtor or a predecessor of the debtor or in respect of a pension plan for the benefit of those employees; and

    • (b) that exists before the trustee is appointed or that is calculated by reference to a period before the appointment.

  • Marginal note:Status of liability

    (1.3) A liability referred to in subsection (1.2) is not to rank as costs of administration.

  • Marginal note:Liability of other successor employers

    (1.4) Subsection (1.2) does not affect the liability of a successor employer other than the trustee.

  • Marginal note:Liability in respect of environmental matters

    (2) Notwithstanding anything in any federal or provincial law, a trustee is not personally liable in that position for any environmental condition that arose or environmental damage that occurred

    • (a) before the trustee’s appointment; or

    • (b) after the trustee’s appointment unless it is established that the condition arose or the damage occurred as a result of the trustee’s gross negligence or wilful misconduct or, in the Province of Quebec, the trustee’s gross or intentional fault.

  • Marginal note:Reports, etc., still required

    (3) Nothing in subsection (2) exempts a trustee from any duty to report or make disclosure imposed by a law referred to in that subsection.

  • Marginal note:Non-liability re certain orders

    (4) Notwithstanding anything in any federal or provincial law but subject to subsection (2), where an order is made which has the effect of requiring a trustee to remedy any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting property involved in a bankruptcy, proposal or receivership, the trustee is not personally liable for failure to comply with the order, and is not personally liable for any costs that are or would be incurred by any person in carrying out the terms of the order,

    • (a) if, within such time as is specified in the order, within ten days after the order is made if no time is so specified, within ten days after the appointment of the trustee, if the order is in effect when the trustee is appointed, or during the period of the stay referred to in paragraph (b), the trustee

      • (i) complies with the order, or

      • (ii) on notice to the person who issued the order, abandons, disposes of or otherwise releases any interest in any real property, or any right in any immovable, affected by the condition or damage;

    • (b) during the period of a stay of the order granted, on application made within the time specified in the order referred to in paragraph (a), within ten days after the order is made or within ten days after the appointment of the trustee, if the order is in effect when the trustee is appointed, by

      • (i) the court or body having jurisdiction under the law pursuant to which the order was made to enable the trustee to contest the order, or

      • (ii) the court having jurisdiction in bankruptcy for the purposes of assessing the economic viability of complying with the order; or

    • (c) if the trustee had, before the order was made, abandoned or renounced or been divested of any interest in any real property, or any right in any immovable, affected by the condition or damage.

  • Marginal note:Stay may be granted

    (5) The court may grant a stay of the order referred to in subsection (4) on such notice and for such period as the court deems necessary for the purpose of enabling the trustee to assess the economic viability of complying with the order.

  • Marginal note:Costs for remedying not costs of administration

    (6) If the trustee has abandoned or renounced any interest in any real property, or any right in any immovable, affected by the environmental condition or environmental damage, claims for costs of remedying the condition or damage shall not rank as costs of administration.

  • Marginal note:Priority of claims

    (7) Any claim by Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province against the debtor in a bankruptcy, proposal or receivership for costs of remedying any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting real property or an immovable of the debtor is secured by security on the real property or immovable affected by the environmental condition or environmental damage and on any other real property or immovable of the debtor that is contiguous with that real property or immovable and that is related to the activity that caused the environmental condition or environmental damage, and the security

    • (a) is enforceable in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the real property or immovable is located, in the same way as a mortgage, hypothec or other security on real property or immovables; and

    • (b) ranks above any other claim, right, charge or security against the property, despite any other provision of this Act or anything in any other federal or provincial law.

  • Marginal note:Claim for clean-up costs

    (8) Despite subsection 121(1), a claim against a debtor in a bankruptcy or proposal for the costs of remedying any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting real property or an immovable of the debtor shall be a provable claim, whether the condition arose or the damage occurred before or after the date of the filing of the proposal or the date of the bankruptcy.

  • 1992, c. 27, s. 9;
  • 1997, c. 12, s. 15;
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 16;
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 17;
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 9.
Marginal note:Effect of defect or irregularity in appointment

 No defect or irregularity in the appointment of a trustee vitiates any act done by the trustee in good faith.

  • 1992, c. 27, s. 9.

Corporations as Trustees

Marginal note:Majority of officers and directors must hold licences

 A body corporate may hold a licence as a trustee only if a majority of its directors and a majority of its officers hold licences as trustees.

  • 1992, c. 27, s. 9.
Marginal note:Acts of body corporate

 A body corporate that holds a licence as a trustee may perform the duties and exercise the powers of a trustee only through a director or officer of the body corporate who holds a licence as a trustee.

  • 1992, c. 27, s. 9.
Marginal note:Not carrying on business of trust company

 Every body corporate that is incorporated by or under an Act of Parliament and that holds a licence as a trustee may carry on the business of a trustee anywhere in Canada and shall not, in respect of its operations as a trustee, be construed to be carrying on the business of a trust company.

  • 1992, c. 27, s. 9.

Official Name

Marginal note:Official name in bankruptcy and proposal proceedings

 The official name of a trustee acting in bankruptcy proceedings is “The Trustee of the Estate of (insert name of the bankrupt), a bankrupt”, and the official name of a trustee acting with respect to a proposal by an insolvent person is “The Trustee acting in re the proposal of (insert the name of the debtor)”.

  • R.S., c. B-3, s. 11.
 
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