Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2016-05-12 and last amended on 2015-07-23. Previous Versions

Provincial Court Judge’s Jurisdiction with Consent

Marginal note:Trial by provincial court judge with consent
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), if an accused is charged in an information with an indictable offence other than an offence that is mentioned in section 469, and the offence is not one over which a provincial court judge has absolute jurisdiction under section 553, a provincial court judge may try the accused if the accused elects to be tried by a provincial court judge.

  • Marginal note:Nunavut

    (2) With respect to criminal proceedings in Nunavut, if an accused is charged in an information with an indictable offence other than an offence that is mentioned in section 469 and the offence is not one over which a judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice has absolute jurisdiction under section 553, a judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice may try the accused if the accused elects to be tried by a judge without a jury.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 554;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), ss. 105, 203;
  • 1999, c. 3, s. 38;
  • 2002, c. 13, s. 31.
Marginal note:Provincial court judge may decide to hold preliminary inquiry
  •  (1) Where in any proceedings under this Part an accused is before a provincial court judge and it appears to the provincial court judge that for any reason the charge should be prosecuted by indictment, he may, at any time before the accused has entered on his defence, decide not to adjudicate and shall thereupon inform the accused of his decision and continue the proceedings as a preliminary inquiry.

  • Marginal note:Where subject-matter is a testamentary instrument or exceeds $5,000 in value

    (2) Where an accused is before a provincial court judge charged with an offence mentioned in paragraph 553(a) or subparagraph 553(b)(i), and, at any time before the provincial court judge makes an adjudication, the evidence establishes that the subject-matter of the offence is a testamentary instrument or that its value exceeds five thousand dollars, the provincial court judge shall put the accused to his or her election in accordance with subsection 536(2).

  • Marginal note:Continuing proceedings

    (3) Where an accused is put to his election pursuant to subsection (2), the following provisions apply, namely,

    • (a) if the accused elects to be tried by a judge without a jury or a court composed of a judge and jury or does not elect when put to his or her election, the provincial court judge shall continue the proceedings as a preliminary inquiry under Part XVIII and, if the provincial court judge orders the accused to stand trial, he or she shall endorse on the information a record of the election; and

    • (b) if the accused elects to be tried by a provincial court judge, the provincial court judge shall endorse on the information a record of the election and continue with the trial.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 555;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), ss. 106, 203;
  • 1994, c. 44, s. 58;
  • 2002, c. 13, s. 32.
Marginal note:Decision to hold preliminary inquiry — Nunavut
  •  (1) If in any criminal proceedings under this Part an accused is before a judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice and it appears to the judge that for any reason the charge should be prosecuted by indictment, the judge may, at any time before the accused has entered a defence, decide not to adjudicate and shall then inform the accused of the decision and continue the proceedings as a preliminary inquiry.

  • Marginal note:If subject-matter is a testamentary instrument or exceeds $5,000 in value — Nunavut

    (2) If an accused is before a judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice charged with an indictable offence mentioned in paragraph 553(a) or subparagraph 553(b)(i), and, at any time before the judge makes an adjudication, the evidence establishes that the subject-matter of the offence is a testamentary instrument or that its value exceeds five thousand dollars, the judge shall put the accused to an election in accordance with subsection 536.1(2).

  • Marginal note:Continuation as preliminary inquiry — Nunavut

    (3) A judge shall continue the proceedings as a preliminary inquiry under Part XVIII if the accused is put to an election under subsection (2) and elects to be tried by a judge without a jury and requests a preliminary inquiry under subsection 536.1(3) or elects to be tried by a court composed of a judge and jury or does not elect when put to the election.

  • Marginal note:Continuing proceedings — Nunavut

    (4) If an accused is put to an election under subsection (2) and elects to be tried by a judge without a jury and does not request a preliminary inquiry under subsection 536.1(3), the judge shall endorse on the information a record of the election and continue with the trial.

  • Marginal note:Application to Nunavut

    (5) This section, and not section 555, applies in respect of criminal proceedings in Nunavut.

  • 1999, c. 3, s. 39;
  • 2002, c. 13, s. 33.
Marginal note:Organization
  •  (1) An accused organization shall appear by counsel or agent.

  • Marginal note:Non-appearance

    (2) Where an accused organization does not appear pursuant to a summons and service of the summons on the organization is proved, the provincial court judge or, in Nunavut, the judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice

    • (a) may, if the charge is one over which the judge has absolute jurisdiction, proceed with the trial of the charge in the absence of the accused organization; and

    • (b) shall, if the charge is not one over which the judge has absolute jurisdiction, fix the date for the trial or the date on which the accused organization must appear in the trial court to have that date fixed.

  • Marginal note:Preliminary inquiry not requested

    (3) If an accused organization appears and a preliminary inquiry is not requested under subsection 536(4), the provincial court judge shall fix the date for the trial or the date on which the organization must appear in the trial court to have that date fixed.

  • Marginal note:Preliminary inquiry not requested — Nunavut

    (4) If an accused organization appears and a preliminary inquiry is not requested under subsection 536.1(3), the justice of the peace or the judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice shall fix the date for the trial or the date on which the organization must appear in the trial court to have that date fixed.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 556;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 107;
  • 1999, c. 3, s. 40;
  • 2002, c. 13, s. 34;
  • 2003, c. 21, ss. 9, 22.
Marginal note:Taking evidence

 If an accused is tried by a provincial court judge or a judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice in accordance with this Part, the evidence of witnesses for the prosecutor and the accused must be taken in accordance with the provisions of Part XVIII, other than subsections 540(7) to (9), relating to preliminary inquiries.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 557;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 203;
  • 1999, c. 3, s. 41;
  • 2002, c. 13, s. 35.

Jurisdiction of Judges

Judge’s Jurisdiction with Consent

Marginal note:Trial by judge without a jury

 If an accused who is charged with an indictable offence, other than an offence mentioned in section 469, elects under section 536 or 536.1 or re-elects under section 561 or 561.1 to be tried by a judge without a jury, the accused shall, subject to this Part, be tried by a judge without a jury.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 558;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 108;
  • 1999, c. 3, s. 41.
Marginal note:Court of record
  •  (1) A judge who holds a trial under this Part shall, for all purposes thereof and proceedings connected therewith or relating thereto, be a court of record.

  • Marginal note:Custody of records

    (2) The record of a trial that a judge holds under this Part shall be kept in the court over which the judge presides.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 489.

Election

Marginal note:Duty of judge
  •  (1) If an accused elects, under section 536 or 536.1, to be tried by a judge without a jury, a judge having jurisdiction shall

    • (a) on receiving a written notice from the sheriff or other person having custody of the accused stating that the accused is in custody and setting out the nature of the charge against him, or

    • (b) on being notified by the clerk of the court that the accused is not in custody and of the nature of the charge against him,

    fix a time and place for the trial of the accused.

  • Marginal note:Notice by sheriff, when given

    (2) The sheriff or other person having custody of the accused shall give the notice mentioned in paragraph (1)(a) within twenty-four hours after the accused is ordered to stand trial, if the accused is in custody pursuant to that order or if, at the time of the order, he is in custody for any other reason.

  • Marginal note:Duty of sheriff when date set for trial

    (3) Where, pursuant to subsection (1), a time and place is fixed for the trial of an accused who is in custody, the accused

    • (a) shall be notified forthwith by the sheriff or other person having custody of the accused of the time and place so fixed; and

    • (b) shall be produced at the time and place so fixed.

  • Marginal note:Duty of accused when not in custody

    (4) Where an accused is not in custody, the duty of ascertaining from the clerk of the court the time and place fixed for the trial, pursuant to subsection (1), is on the accused, and he shall attend for his trial at the time and place so fixed.

  • (5) [Repealed, R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 109]

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 560;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), ss. 101(E), 109;
  • 1999, c. 3, s. 42;
  • 2002, c. 13, s. 36.
 
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