Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2015-08-04 and last amended on 2015-07-23. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Possession of device to obtain unauthorized use of computer system or to commit mischief
  •  (1) Everyone who, without lawful excuse, makes, possesses, sells, offers for sale, imports, obtains for use, distributes or makes available a device that is designed or adapted primarily to commit an offence under section 342.1 or 430, under circumstances that give rise to a reasonable inference that the device has been used or is or was intended to be used to commit such an offence, is

    • (a) guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years; or

    • (b) guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Forfeiture

    (2) If a person is convicted of an offence under subsection (1), in addition to any punishment that is imposed, any device in relation to which the offence was committed or the possession of which constituted the offence may be ordered forfeited to Her Majesty and may be disposed of as the Attorney General directs.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (3) No order of forfeiture may be made under subsection (2) in respect of any thing that is the property of a person who was not a party to the offence under subsection (1).

  • Definition of “device”

    (4) In this section, “device” includes

    • (a) a component of a device; and

    • (b) a computer program within the meaning of subsection 342.1(2).

  • 1997, c. 18, s. 19;
  • 2014, c. 31, s. 17.

Robbery and Extortion

Marginal note:Robbery

 Every one commits robbery who

  • (a) steals, and for the purpose of extorting whatever is stolen or to prevent or overcome resistance to the stealing, uses violence or threats of violence to a person or property;

  • (b) steals from any person and, at the time he steals or immediately before or immediately thereafter, wounds, beats, strikes or uses any personal violence to that person;

  • (c) assaults any person with intent to steal from him; or

  • (d) steals from any person while armed with an offensive weapon or imitation thereof.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 302.
Marginal note:Robbery
  •  (1) Every person who commits robbery is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

    • (a) if a restricted firearm or prohibited firearm is used in the commission of the offence or if any firearm is used in the commission of the offence and the offence is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal organization, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of

      • (i) in the case of a first offence, five years, and

      • (ii) in the case of a second or subsequent offence, seven years;

    • (a.1) in any other case where a firearm is used in the commission of the offence, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of four years; and

    • (b) in any other case, to imprisonment for life.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent offences

    (2) In determining, for the purpose of paragraph (1)(a), whether a convicted person has committed a second or subsequent offence, if the person was earlier convicted of any of the following offences, that offence is to be considered as an earlier offence:

    • (a) an offence under this section;

    • (b) an offence under subsection 85(1) or (2) or section 244 or 244.2; or

    • (c) an offence under section 220, 236, 239, 272 or 273, subsection 279(1) or section 279.1 or 346 if a firearm was used in the commission of the offence.

    However, an earlier offence shall not be taken into account if 10 years have elapsed between the day on which the person was convicted of the earlier offence and the day on which the person was convicted of the offence for which sentence is being imposed, not taking into account any time in custody.

  • Marginal note:Sequence of convictions only

    (3) For the purposes of subsection (2), the only question to be considered is the sequence of convictions and no consideration shall be given to the sequence of commission of offences or whether any offence occurred before or after any conviction.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 344;
  • 1995, c. 39, s. 149;
  • 2008, c. 6, s. 32;
  • 2009, c. 22, s. 14.