Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act (S.C. 2002, c. 18)

Act current to 2017-08-27 and last amended on 2015-06-23. Previous Versions

Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act

S.C. 2002, c. 18

Assented to 2002-06-13

An Act respecting the national marine conservation areas of Canada

Preamble

Whereas the protection of natural, self-regulating marine ecosystems is important for the maintenance of biological diversity;

Whereas the Government of Canada is committed to adopting the precautionary principle in the conservation and management of the marine environment so that, where there are threats of environmental damage, lack of scientific certainty is not used as a reason for postponing preventive measures;

And whereas Parliament wishes to affirm the need to

establish a system of marine conservation areas that are representative of the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific Oceans and the Great Lakes and are of sufficient extent and such configuration as to maintain healthy marine ecosystems,

ensure that Canada contributes to international efforts for the establishment of a worldwide network of representative marine protected areas,

consider implications for ecosystems in the planning and management of marine conservation areas so established,

provide opportunities for the people of Canada and of the world to appreciate and enjoy Canada’s natural and cultural marine heritage,

recognize that the marine environment is fundamental to the social, cultural and economic well-being of people living in coastal communities,

provide opportunities, through the zoning of marine conservation areas, for the ecologically sustainable use of marine resources for the lasting benefit of coastal communities,

promote an understanding of the marine environment and provide opportunities for research and monitoring,

consider traditional ecological knowledge in the planning and management of marine conservation areas, and

involve federal and provincial ministers and agencies, affected coastal communities, aboriginal organizations, aboriginal governments, bodies established under land claims agreements and other appropriate persons and bodies in the effort to establish and maintain the representative system of marine conservation areas;

NOW, THEREFORE, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:

Short Title

Marginal note:Short title

 This Act may be cited as the Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act.

Interpretation

Marginal note:Definitions
  •  (1) The definitions in this subsection apply in this Act.

    disposal

    immersion

    disposal has the same meaning as in section 122 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, read without reference to the sea. (immersion)

    ecosystem

    écosystème

    ecosystem means a dynamic complex of animal, plant and microorganism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. (écosystème)

    enforcement officer

    agent de l’autorité

    enforcement officer means a person designated under section 19 or belonging to a class of persons so designated. (agent de l’autorité)

    fishing

    pêche

    fishing has the meaning given to that expression in the Fisheries Act. (pêche)

    marine conservation area

    aire marine de conservation

    marine conservation area means a national marine conservation area of Canada named and described in Schedule 1. (aire marine de conservation)

    marine conservation area warden

    garde d’aire marine de conservation

    marine conservation area warden means a person designated under section 18. (garde d’aire marine de conservation)

    Minister

    ministre

    Minister means the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency. (ministre)

    public lands

    terres domaniales

    public lands means lands, including submerged lands, that belong to Her Majesty in right of Canada or that the Government of Canada has the power to dispose of, whether or not subject to the terms of any agreement between the Government of Canada and the government of a province. (terres domaniales)

    reserve

    réserve

    reserve means a national marine conservation area reserve of Canada named and described in Schedule 2. (réserve)

    superintendent

    directeur

    superintendent means a person appointed under the Parks Canada Agency Act who holds the office of superintendent of a marine conservation area, and includes any other person appointed under that Act who is authorized by that person to act on that person’s behalf. (directeur)

    waste or other matter

    déchets ou autres matières

    waste or other matter means waste or other matter listed in Schedule 5 to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. (déchets ou autres matières)

  • Marginal note:Aboriginal rights

    (2) For greater certainty, nothing in this Act shall be construed so as to abrogate or derogate from the protection provided for existing aboriginal or treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada by the recognition and affirmation of those rights in section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

  • Marginal note:Exclusive economic zone

    (3) The establishment of a marine conservation area within the exclusive economic zone of Canada does not constitute a claim to any rights, jurisdiction or duties beyond those set out in section 14 of the Oceans Act.

  • Marginal note:Application of Act to reserves

    (4) This Act applies to a reserve as if it were a marine conservation area.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 2;
  • 2005, c. 2, s. 6.

Her Majesty

Marginal note:Binding on Her Majesty

 This Act is binding on Her Majesty in right of Canada or of a province.

Marine Conservation Areas

Marginal note:Purpose
  •  (1) Marine conservation areas are established in accordance with this Act for the purpose of protecting and conserving representative marine areas for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people of Canada and the world.

  • Marginal note:Purpose of reserves

    (2) Reserves are established in accordance with this Act for the purpose referred to in subsection (1) where an area or a portion of an area proposed for a marine conservation area is subject to a claim in respect of aboriginal rights that has been accepted for negotiation by the Government of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Management and use

    (3) Marine conservation areas shall be managed and used in a sustainable manner that meets the needs of present and future generations without compromising the structure and function of the ecosystems, including the submerged lands and water column, with which they are associated.

  • Marginal note:Zones

    (4) Each marine conservation area shall be divided into zones, which must include at least one zone that fosters and encourages ecologically sustainable use of marine resources and at least one zone that fully protects special features or sensitive elements of ecosystems, and may include other types of zones.

Marginal note:Establishment or enlargement
  •  (1) Subject to section 7, for the purpose of establishing or enlarging a marine conservation area, consisting of submerged lands and waters within the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of Canada and any coastal lands or islands within Canada, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 1 by adding the name and a description of the area or by altering the description of the area.

  • Marginal note:Title to lands

    (2) An amendment to Schedule 1 under this section or subsection 6(2) may be made only if

    • (a) the Governor in Council is satisfied that Her Majesty in right of Canada has clear title to or an unencumbered right of ownership in the lands to be included in the marine conservation area, other than such lands situated within the exclusive economic zone of Canada;

    • (b) in a case where Her Majesty in right of a province had the administration and control of any of the lands to be included in the marine conservation area, the government of the province agreed to the use of those lands as a marine conservation area and transferred their administration and control to Her Majesty in right of Canada for that purpose; and

    • (c) the requirements of any applicable land claim agreement respecting the establishment of the marine conservation area have been fulfilled.

  • Marginal note:Judicial finding as to title

    (3) If a court of competent jurisdiction finds that Her Majesty in right of Canada does not have clear title to or an unencumbered right of ownership in lands within a marine conservation area, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 1 by removing the name and description of the area or by altering the description of the area.

  • Marginal note:No reduction of area

    (4) Except as provided by subsection (3), no amendment may be made by the Governor in Council to Schedule 1 for the purpose of removing any portion of a marine conservation area.

Marginal note:Establishment or enlargement of reserves
  •  (1) Subject to section 7, for the purpose of establishing or enlarging a reserve, consisting of submerged lands and waters within the internal waters or territorial sea of Canada and any coastal lands or islands within Canada, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 2 by adding the name and a description of the reserve or by altering the description of the reserve.

  • Marginal note:Reserve becoming marine conservation area

    (2) Where a claim described in subsection 4(2) is settled, the Governor in Council may, by order,

    • (a) amend Schedule 2 by removing the name and description of the reserve or by altering the description of the reserve; and

    • (b) if the settlement provides that the reserve or part of it is to become a marine conservation area or part of one, amend Schedule 1 by adding the name and a description of the area or by altering the description of the area.

  • Marginal note:Judicial finding as to title

    (3) If a court of competent jurisdiction finds that Her Majesty in right of Canada does not have clear title to or an unencumbered right of ownership in lands within a reserve, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 2 by removing the name and description of the reserve or by altering the description of the reserve.

  • Marginal note:No reduction of area

    (4) Except as provided by subsections (2) and (3), no amendment may be made by the Governor in Council to Schedule 2 for the purpose of removing any portion of a reserve.

 
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