International Boundary Waters Treaty Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. I-17)

Act current to 2016-06-21 and last amended on 2014-07-01. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Offence
  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who contravenes any provision of the Act or the regulations, other than a provision the contravention of which is an offence under subsection 24(1).

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $200,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $25,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue corporations

    (4) Every corporation that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 29 to be a small revenue corporation is liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

  • 2001, c. 40, s. 1;
  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Due diligence

 A person is not to be convicted of an offence under paragraph 24(1)(a), (b) or (d) or subsection 25(1) if they establish that they exercised due diligence to prevent the commission of the offence.

  • 2001, c. 40, s. 1;
  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Continuing offence

 If an offence under this Act is committed or continued on more than one day, it constitutes a separate offence for each day on which it is committed or continued.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Deeming — second and subsequent offence
  •  (1) For the purposes of sections 24 and 25, a conviction for a particular offence under this Act is deemed to be a conviction for a second or subsequent offence if the court is satisfied that the offender has been previously convicted — under any Act of Parliament, or any Act of the legislature of a province, that relates to water resource management — of a substantially similar offence.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2) Subsection (1) applies only to previous convictions on indictment, to previous convictions on summary conviction, and to previous convictions under any similar procedure under any Act of the legislature of a province.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Determination of small revenue corporation status

 For the purposes of sections 24 and 25, a court may determine a corporation to be a small revenue corporation if the court is satisfied that the corporation’s gross revenues for the 12 months immediately before the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — or, if it arose on more than one day, for the 12 months immediately before the first day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — were not more than $5,000,000.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Relief from minimum fine

 The court may impose a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in any of subsections 24(2) to (4) if it is satisfied, on the basis of evidence submitted to the court, that the minimum fine would cause undue financial hardship. The court shall provide reasons if it imposes a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in the subsection.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Additional fine

 If a person is convicted of an offence under this Act and the court is satisfied that, as a result of the commission of the offence, the person acquired any property, benefit or advantage, the court shall order the person to pay an additional fine in an amount equal to the court’s estimation of the value of that property, benefit or advantage. The additional fine may exceed the maximum amount of any fine that may otherwise be imposed under this Act.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Notice to shareholders

 If a corporation that has shareholders has been convicted of an offence under this Act, the court shall make an order directing the corporation to notify its shareholders, in the manner and within the time directed by the court, of the facts relating to the commission of the offence and of the details of the punishment imposed.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Liability of directors, officers, etc., of corporation

 If a corporation commits an offence under this Act, any director, officer, agent or mandatary of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced or participated in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence and is liable on conviction to the penalty provided for by this Act for an individual in respect of the offence committed by the corporation, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Offences by employees, agents or mandataries

 In any prosecution for an offence under this Act, it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that it was committed by the accused’s employee acting within the scope of their employment or the accused’s agent or mandatary acting within the scope of their authority, whether or not the employee, agent or mandatary is identified or has been prosecuted for the offence, unless the accused establishes that the accused exercised due diligence to prevent the commission of the offence.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Fundamental purpose of sentencing

 The fundamental purpose of sentencing for offences under this Act is to contribute to respect for this Act through the imposition of just sanctions that have as their objectives

  • (a) to deter the offender and other persons from committing offences under this Act;

  • (b) to denounce unlawful conduct that causes damage or risk of damage to water resources; and

  • (c) to restore the environment harmed by the offence.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
Marginal note:Sentencing principles
  •  (1) In addition to the principles and factors that the court is otherwise required to consider, including those set out in sections 718.1 to 718.21 of the Criminal Code, the court shall consider the following principles when sentencing a person who is convicted of an offence under this Act:

    • (a) the amount of the fine should be increased to account for every aggravating factor associated with the offence, including the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2); and

    • (b) the amount of the fine should reflect the gravity of each aggravating factor associated with the offence.

  • Marginal note:Aggravating factors

    (2) The aggravating factors are the following:

    • (a) the offence caused damage or risk of damage to the environment;

    • (b) the offence caused damage or risk of damage to any unique, particularly important or vulnerable environment;

    • (c) the damage caused by the offence is extensive, persistent or irreparable;

    • (d) other than in the case of a contravention of subsection 23(1), the offender committed the offence intentionally or recklessly;

    • (e) the offender failed to take reasonable steps to prevent the commission of the offence despite having the financial means to do so;

    • (f) by committing the offence or failing to take action to prevent its commission, the offender increased revenue or decreased costs or intended to increase revenue or decrease costs;

    • (g) the offender committed the offence despite having been warned in writing by an inspector of the circumstances that subsequently became the subject of the offence;

    • (h) the offender has a history of non-compliance with federal or provincial legislation that relates to water resource management; and

    • (i) after the commission of the offence, the offender

      • (i) attempted to conceal its commission,

      • (ii) failed to take prompt action to prevent, mitigate or remediate its effects, or

      • (iii) failed to take prompt action to reduce the risk of committing similar offences in the future.

  • Marginal note:Absence of aggravating factor

    (3) The absence of an aggravating factor set out in subsection (2) is not a mitigating factor.

  • Meaning of damage

    (4) For the purposes of paragraphs (2)(a) to (c), damage includes loss of use value and non-use value.

  • Marginal note:Reasons

    (5) If the court is satisfied of the existence of one or more of the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2) but decides not to increase the amount of the fine because of the factor, the court shall give reasons for that decision.

  • 2013, c. 12, s. 10.
 
Date modified: