Version of document from 2005-06-28 to 2007-06-30:

Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994

S.C. 1994, c. 22

Assented to 1994-06-23

An Act to implement a Convention for the protection of migratory birds in Canada and the United States

Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:

Short Title

Marginal note:Short title

 This Act may be cited as the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994.

Interpretation

Marginal note:Definitions
  •  (1) In this Act,

    Canadian vessel

    bâtiment canadien

    Canadian vessel means a vessel that

    • (a) is registered, listed or licensed under the Canada Shipping Act,

    • (b) is not registered, listed or licensed under the Canada Shipping Act or under the laws of another state but is owned by one or more persons each of whom is

      • (i) a Canadian citizen,

      • (ii) in the case of a vessel that is not required to be registered, listed or licensed under that Act, a person who is resident and domiciled in Canada, or

      • (iii) a corporation incorporated under the laws of Canada or a province, that has its principal place of business in Canada, or

    • (c) is not registered, listed or licensed under the Canada Shipping Act but is owned or operated by Her Majesty in right of Canada; (bâtiment canadien)

    Convention

    convention

    Convention means the Convention set out in the schedule, as amended from time to time; (convention)

    conveyance

    moyen de transport

    conveyance means a vehicle, aircraft, vessel or any other contrivance that is used to move persons or goods; (moyen de transport)

    deposit

    immersion ou rejet

    deposit means any discharging, spraying, releasing, spilling, leaking, seeping, pouring, emitting, emptying, throwing, dumping or placing; (immersion ou rejet)

    environment

    environnement

    environment means the components of the Earth and includes

    • (a) air, land and water,

    • (b) all layers of the atmosphere,

    • (c) all organic and inorganic matter and living organisms, and

    • (d) the interacting natural systems that include the components referred to in paragraphs (a) to (c); (environnement)

    fixed platform

    plate-forme fixe

    fixed platform means an artificial island or a marine installation or structure that is permanently attached to the seabed for the purpose of exploration or exploitation of resources or for other economic purposes; (plate-forme fixe)

    foreign national

    étranger

    foreign national has the same meaning as in subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act; (étranger)

    foreign vessel

    bâtiment étranger

    foreign vessel means a vessel that is not a Canadian vessel; (bâtiment étranger)

    master

    capitaine

    master means every person who has command or charge of a vessel, but does not include a licensed pilot within the meaning of section 2 of the Pilotage Act; (capitaine)

    migratory bird

    oiseau migrateur

    migratory bird means a migratory bird referred to in the Convention, and includes the sperm, eggs, embryos, tissue cultures and parts of the bird; (oiseau migrateur)

    Minister

    ministre

    Minister means the Minister of the Environment or, in respect of any matter related to the Northern Pipeline referred to in the Northern Pipeline Act, the member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada designated as the Minister for the purposes of that Act; (ministre)

    nest

    nid

    nest means the nest of a migratory bird and includes parts of the nest. (nid)

    operator

    exploitant

    operator, in respect of a vessel, means a person other than an owner who has, either by law or by contract, the possession and use of the vessel; (exploitant)

    owner

    propriétaire

    owner, in respect of a vessel, means an actual owner of the vessel if the vessel is not registered or listed, or a registered owner if it is registered or listed; (propriétaire)

    vessel

    bâtiment

    vessel means a boat, ship or craft designed, used or capable of being used solely or partly for navigation in, on, through or immediately above water, without regard to the method or lack of propulsion, but does not include a fixed platform. (bâtiment)

  • Marginal note:Possession

    (2) For the purposes of this Act,

    • (a) a person has anything in possession when the person has it in their personal possession or knowingly

      • (i) has it in the actual possession or custody of another person, or

      • (ii) has it in any place, whether or not that place belongs to or is occupied by the person, for their own use or benefit or for the use or benefit of another person; and

    • (b) where a person has anything in their possession or custody with the knowledge and consent of another person or other persons, it is in the possession and custody of each and all of them.

  • Marginal note:Aboriginal and treaty rights

    (3) For greater certainty, nothing in this Act shall be construed so as to abrogate or derogate from any existing aboriginal or treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 2;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 1

Application

Marginal note:Application

 This Act applies in Canada and in the exclusive economic zone of Canada.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 2.

Her Majesty

Marginal note:Binding on Her Majesty

 This Act is binding on Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province.

Purpose

Marginal note:Purpose

 The purpose of this Act is to implement the Convention by protecting and conserving migratory birds — as populations and individ­ual birds — and their nests.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 4;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 3

Prohibitions

Marginal note:Prohibition

 Except as authorized by the regulations, no person shall, without lawful excuse,

  • (a) be in possession of a migratory bird or nest; or

  • (b) buy, sell, exchange or give a migratory bird or nest or make it the subject of a commercial transaction.

Marginal note:Prohibition
  •  (1) No person or vessel shall deposit a substance that is harmful to migratory birds, or permit such a substance to be deposited, in waters or an area frequented by migratory birds or in a place from which the substance may enter such waters or such an area.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition

    (2) No person or vessel shall deposit a substance or permit a substance to be deposited in any place if the substance, in combination with one or more substances, results in a substance — in waters or an area frequented by migratory birds or in a place from which it may enter such waters or such an area — that is harmful to migratory birds.

  • Marginal note:Saving

    (3) Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply if

    • (a) the deposit is authorized under the Canada Shipping Act; or

    • (b) the substance is of a type and quantity, and the deposit is made under conditions, authorized under an Act of Parliament other than the Canada Shipping Act, or authorized by the Minister for scientific purposes.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 4.
Marginal note:Prohibition

 No person shall

  • (a) wilfully destroy or cause to be destroyed a document, a record or data that is required to be kept under this Act or the Canada Shipping Act, or wilfully alter or cause to be altered such a document, a record or data with intent to mislead;

  • (b) make or cause to be made a false entry, or omit to make or cause to be omitted to be made a required entry, in a document, a record or data that is required to be kept under this Act or the Canada Shipping Act;

  • (c) wilfully obstruct or hinder a person who is engaged in carrying out duties or functions under this Act or a person acting under their direction and control; or

  • (d) knowingly provide false or misleading information or knowingly make a false or misleading statement, either orally or in writing, to a person who is engaged in carrying out duties or functions under this Act or a person acting under their direction and control.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 4.
Marginal note:Prohibition
  •  (1) No Canadian employer shall dismiss, suspend, demote, discipline, harass or otherwise disadvantage an employee, or deny an employee a benefit of employment, because

    • (a) the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, disclosed to a federal minister, or any employee of the federal public administration, that the employer or another person had contravened or had intended to contravene a provision of this Act or the regulations;

    • (b) the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, refused or stated an intention to refuse to do anything that is a contravention of a provision of this Act or the regulations;

    • (c) the employee, acting in good faith and on the basis of reasonable belief, did or stated an intention to do anything that is required to be done to prevent a contravention of a provision of this Act or the regulations; or

    • (d) the employer believes that the employee will do anything referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

  • Definition of Canadian employer

    (2) In subsection (1), Canadian employer means an employer that is a Canadian citizen, a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or a corporation incorporated under the laws of Canada or a province that has its principal place of business in Canada.

  • Marginal note:Saving

    (3) Nothing in this section impairs any right of an employee either at law or under an employment contract or collective agreement.

  • Definitions of employee and employer

    (4) In this section, employee includes an independent contractor and employer has a corresponding meaning.

  • 2005, c. 23, ss. 4, 47(E).

Obligations

Marginal note:Obligation — owners, operators, etc.

 Every master, chief engineer, owner and operator of a vessel — and, if the owner or operator is a corporation, every director and officer of the corporation who is in a position to direct or influence its policies or activities relating to conduct prohibited by section 5.1 — shall take all reasonable care to ensure that the vessel and all persons on board the vessel comply with section 5.1.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 4.
Marginal note:Obligation — directors and officers

 Every director and officer of a corporation shall take all reasonable care to ensure that the corporation complies with this Act and the regulations.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 4.

Administration

Marginal note:Game officers
  •  (1) The Minister may designate any person or class of persons to act as game officers for the purposes of this Act and the regulations, and all members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police are game officers for the purposes of this Act and the regulations.

  • Marginal note:Designation of provincial government employees

    (2) The Minister may not designate a person or class of persons employed by the government of a province unless that government agrees.

  • Marginal note:Certificate of designation

    (3) Every game officer must be provided with a certificate of designation as a game officer in a form approved by the Minister and, on entering any place under this Act, the officer shall, on request, show the certificate to the person in charge or control of the place.

  • Marginal note:Powers of peace officers

    (4) For the purposes of this Act and the regulations, game officers have all the powers of a peace officer, but the Minister may specify limits on those powers when designating any person or class of persons.

  • Marginal note:Exemptions for law enforcement activities

    (5) For the purpose of investigations and other law enforcement activities under this Act, the Minister may, on any terms and conditions the Minister considers necessary, exempt game officers who are carrying out duties or functions under this Act, and persons acting under their direction and control, from the application of any provision of this Act or the regulations.

  • Marginal note:Arrest without warrant

    (6) A game officer may arrest a person without a warrant if they believe, on reasonable grounds, that the person has committed an offence under this Act or if they find the person committing or about to commit an offence under this Act.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 6;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 5
Marginal note:Inspections
  •  (1) For the purpose of verifying compliance with this Act and the regulations, a game officer may, subject to subsection (3), at any reasonable time, enter and inspect any place, including a vessel, in which they believe, on reasonable grounds, there is any thing to which this Act or the regulations apply or any document, record or data relating to the administration of this Act or the regulations, and the game officer may

    • (a) open or cause to be opened any container that the game officer believes, on reasonable grounds, contains any such thing or document;

    • (b) inspect the thing and take samples free of charge;

    • (c) require any person to produce the document for inspection or copying, in whole or in part;

    • (c.1) use or cause to be used any computer system or data processing system at the place to examine any data contained in or available to the system;

    • (c.2) reproduce or cause to be reproduced any record from the data in the form of a printout or other intelligible output;

    • (c.3) take a printout or other output for inspection or copying;

    • (c.4) use or cause to be used any copying equipment at the place to make copies of the record or document; and

    • (d) seize any thing by means of or in relation to which the game officer believes, on reasonable grounds, this Act or the regulations have been contravened or that the game officer believes, on reasonable grounds, will provide evidence of a contravention.

  • Marginal note:Duty of person in charge or control

    (1.1) Every person who is in charge or control of a place that is inspected under this section shall permit a game officer and every person acting under their direction and control to do anything referred to in paragraphs (1)(c.1) to (c.4).

  • Marginal note:Entry of vessels

    (1.2) Subject to subsection (3), for the purpose of verifying compliance with this Act and the regulations, a game officer who believes on reasonable grounds that a vessel has on board any thing to which this Act or the regulations apply or any document, record or data relating to the administration of this Act or the regulations may, in Canadian waters or the exclusive economic zone of Canada, board the vessel at any reasonable time and travel on it.

  • Marginal note:Accommodation

    (1.3) A game officer and every person acting under their direction and control who travels on a vessel shall be carried free of charge, and the master shall provide them with suitable accommodation and food free of charge.

  • Marginal note:Stopping and detaining conveyances

    (2) A game officer may, at any reasonable time, direct that a conveyance be stopped or be moved to a place where an inspection can be carried out and may, for a reasonable time, detain a conveyance.

  • Marginal note:Dwelling-place

    (3) The game officer may not enter a dwelling-place except with the consent of the person in charge or control of the dwelling-place or under the authority of a warrant.

  • Marginal note:Inspection warrant — dwelling place

    (4) On ex parte application, a justice, as defined in section 2 of the Criminal Code, may issue a warrant authorizing a game officer to enter a dwelling-place, subject to any conditions specified in the warrant, if the justice is satisfied by information on oath that

    • (a) the conditions for entry described in subsection (1) exist in relation to the dwelling-place;

    • (b) entry to the dwelling-place is necessary for the administration of this Act or the regulations;

    • (c) entry to the dwelling-place has been refused or there are reasonable grounds to believe that entry will be refused; and

    • (d) all reasonable attempts have been made to notify the owner or person in charge or control of the dwelling-place.

  • Marginal note:Inspection warrant — non-dwellings

    (5) On ex parte application, a justice, as defined in section 2 of the Criminal Code, may issue a warrant authorizing a game officer to enter a place other than a dwelling-place, subject to any conditions specified in the warrant, if the justice is satisfied by information on oath that

    • (a) the conditions for entry described in subsection (1) exist in relation to the place;

    • (b) entry to the place is necessary for the administration of this Act or the regulations;

    • (c) entry to the place has been refused, there are reasonable grounds to believe that entry will be refused, the game officer is not able to enter without the use of force or the place is abandoned; and

    • (d) all reasonable attempts have been made to notify the owner, operator or person in charge or control of the place.

  • Marginal note:Waiving notice

    (6) The justice may waive the requirement to give notice under paragraph (4)(d) or (5)(d) if the justice is satisfied that attempts to give the notice would be unsuccessful because the owner, operator or person in charge or control is absent from the justice’s jurisdiction, or that it is not in the public interest to give the notice.

  • Marginal note:Person under direction and control

    (7) A person who is acting under a game officer’s direction and control may accompany a game officer who is inspecting a place under this section, may enter the place and may exercise any of the powers referred to in paragraphs (1)(b) to (c.4).

  • Marginal note:Use of force

    (8) A game officer may not use force in executing a warrant under this section unless the warrant specifically authorizes the use of force.

  • Marginal note:Exclusive economic zone

    (9) Every power that may be exercised in Canada under this section may be exercised in the exclusive economic zone of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Consent

    (10) The consent of the Minister is required for the exercise of any power under this section in the exclusive economic zone of Canada in relation to a foreign vessel. However, for greater certainty, the consent of the Attorney General of Canada is not required.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 7;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 6
Marginal note:Search and seizure without warrant

 For the purpose of ensuring compliance with this Act and the regulations, a game officer may exercise the powers of search and seizure provided in section 487 of the Criminal Code without a search warrant if the conditions for obtaining a warrant exist but, by reason of exigent circumstances, it would not be feasible to obtain it.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 8;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 7
Marginal note:Powers of direction and detention of vessels
  •  (1) A game officer may direct a vessel to any place in Canadian waters or the exclusive economic zone of Canada or make a detention order in relation to a vessel or do both, if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the vessel or a person on board the vessel has committed, is committing or is about to commit an offence under section 5.1 in Canadian waters and that the vessel was, is being or is about to be used in connection with the commission of the offence.

  • Marginal note:Powers of direction and detention of vessels

    (2) A game officer may direct a vessel to any place in Canadian waters or the exclusive economic zone of Canada or make a detention order in relation to a vessel or do both, if they have reasonable grounds to believe that

    • (a) the vessel or a person on board the vessel has committed, is committing or is about to commit an offence under section 5.1 in the exclusive economic zone of Canada and the vessel was, is being or is about to be used in connection with the commission of the offence; and

    • (b) commission of the offence will cause major damage to the environment, or an actual threat of major damage to the environment, in Canada or in the exclusive economic zone of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Major damage

    (3) For greater certainty, the deposit of a substance in contravention of section 5.1 that, together with other deposits made in contravention of that section by one or more persons or vessels, has a cumulative or aggregate effect may cause major damage to the environment.

  • Marginal note:Order in writing

    (4) A detention order shall be in writing and be addressed to every person at the place identified in the order who is empowered to give a clearance to the vessel.

  • Marginal note:Service of order

    (5) Notice of the detention order shall be served by delivering a copy of the notice personally to the master or, if service cannot reasonably be effected personally, by posting a copy of the notice on a conspicuous part of the vessel.

  • Marginal note:Duty of operator of vessel

    (6) Once notice of the detention order is served, no master, owner or operator of the vessel shall order the vessel to contravene the order.

  • Marginal note:Duty of persons empowered to give clearance

    (7) Subject to subsection (8), no person who has received notice of the detention order shall give clearance to the vessel to which the order relates.

  • Marginal note:When clearance may be given

    (8) A person who has received notice of the detention order may give clearance to the vessel to which the order relates if

    • (a) neither the vessel nor any person is charged with the offence that gave rise to the making of the order within 30 days after the day on which the order is made;

    • (b) within 30 days after the day on which the order is made, the vessel or a person is charged with the offence and every accused has appeared in Canada to answer to the charge;

    • (c) Her Majesty in right of Canada is given security, in a form determined by the Attorney General of Canada, for payment of the maximum fine that might be imposed as a result of a conviction of every accused and costs that might be incurred in proceedings in connection with the charge or charges, or payment of any lesser amount that is approved by the Attorney General of Canada;

    • (d) all proceedings in respect of the offence that gave rise to the making of the order are discontinued; or

    • (e) the order is rescinded by a game officer.

  • Marginal note:Consent of Attorney General of Canada

    (9) The powers to direct and detain a vessel may not be exercised in the exclusive economic zone of Canada in relation to a foreign vessel without the consent of the Attorney General of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Foreign state to be notified

    (10) If a vessel to which a detention order relates is registered in a foreign state, that state is to be notified that the order was made.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 7.
Marginal note:Right of passage

 A person who is engaged in carrying out duties or functions under this Act and any person acting under their direction and control may enter on and pass through or over private property without being liable for doing so and without any person having the right to object to that use of the property.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 7.
Marginal note:Assistance

 An owner, operator or person in charge or control of a place entered by a game officer under this Act, and every person found in the place, shall

  • (a) give the game officer and every person under their direction and control all reasonable assistance to enable the game officer to carry out their duties and functions under this Act; and

  • (b) provide the game officer and every person under their direction and control with any information relating to the administration of this Act and the regulations that the game officer may reasonably require.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 7.
Marginal note:Custody of things seized
  •  (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), where a game officer seizes a thing under this Act or under a warrant issued under the Criminal Code,

    • (a) sections 489.1 and 490 of the Criminal Code apply; and

    • (b) the game officer, or any person that the officer may designate, shall retain custody of the thing subject to any order made under section 490 of the Criminal Code.

  • Marginal note:Forfeiture where ownership not ascertainable

    (2) Where the lawful ownership of or entitlement to the seized thing cannot be ascertained within thirty days after its seizure, the thing, or any proceeds of its disposition, are forfeited to

    • (a) Her Majesty in right of Canada, if the thing was seized by a game officer employed in the federal public administration; or

    • (b) Her Majesty in right of a province, if the thing was seized by a game officer employed by the government of that province.

  • Marginal note:Perishable things

    (3) Where the seized thing is perishable, the game officer may dispose of it or destroy it, and any proceeds of its disposition must be

    • (a) paid to the lawful owner or person lawfully entitled to possession of the thing, unless proceedings under this Act are instituted within ninety days after its seizure; or

    • (b) retained by the game officer pending the outcome of the proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Abandonment

    (4) The lawful owner of the seized thing may abandon it to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 9;
  • 2003, c. 22, s. 224(E)
Marginal note:Disposition by Minister

 Any thing that has been forfeited or abandoned under this Act must be dealt with and disposed of as the Minister may direct.

Marginal note:Liability for costs

 The lawful owner and any person lawfully entitled to possession of any thing seized, abandoned or forfeited under this Act are jointly and severally liable for all the costs of inspection, seizure, abandonment, forfeiture or disposition incurred by Her Majesty that exceed any proceeds of the disposition of the thing that have been forfeited to Her Majesty under this Act.

Marginal note:Delegation by Minister

 The Minister may delegate to any minister of the Crown in right of Canada or of a province or to any person who is employed by the Government of Canada, the government of a province or any other government in Canada any power conferred on the Minister under this Act relating to its enforcement or the issuance, renewal, revocation and suspension of permits. The minister or other person to whom the power is delegated may then exercise the power subject to any terms and conditions that the Minister specifies.

  • 2002, c. 29, s. 138.

Regulations

Marginal note:Regulations
  •  (1) The Governor in Council may make any regulations that the Governor in Council considers necessary to carry out the purposes and provisions of this Act and the Convention, including regulations

    • (a) providing for the periods during which, and the areas in which,

      • (i) migratory birds may be killed, captured or taken,

      • (ii) nests may be damaged, destroyed, removed or disturbed, or

      • (iii) migratory birds or nests may be bought, sold, exchanged, given or made the subject of a commercial transaction;

    • (b) for limiting the number of migratory birds that a person may kill, capture or take in any period when doing so is permitted by the regulations, and providing for the manner in which those birds may then be killed, captured or taken and the equipment that may be used;

    • (c) respecting the possession of migratory birds and nests that have been killed, captured, taken or removed in accordance with the regulations;

    • (d) for granting permits to kill, capture, take, buy, sell, exchange, give or possess migratory birds, or to make migratory birds the subject of a commercial transaction;

    • (e) for granting permits to remove or eliminate migratory birds or nests where it is necessary to do so to avoid injury to agricultural interests or in any other circumstances set out in the regulations;

    • (f) respecting the issuance, renewal, revocation and suspension of permits;

    • (g) for regulating the shipment or transportation of migratory birds from one province to another province or country and providing for the imposition of conditions governing international traffic in migratory birds;

    • (h) for prohibiting the killing, capturing, injuring, taking or disturbing of migratory birds or the damaging, destroying, removing or disturbing of nests;

    • (h.1) respecting the conditions and circumstances under which migratory birds may be killed, captured, injured, taken or disturbed, or nests may be damaged, destroyed, removed or disturbed;

    • (i) prescribing protection areas for migratory birds and nests, and for the control and management of those areas;

    • (i.1) respecting documents, records and data that any person or vessel or class of persons or vessels is required to keep or provide under this Act;

    • (i.2) excluding from the application of any provision of this Act or the regulations a military vessel, a naval auxiliary vessel or a vessel that is owned or operated by a state while it is being used only on government non-commercial service;

    • (j) for charging fees for permits, leases, stamps or other authorizing documents required to carry on any activity under this Act or the regulations, and for determining the amount of the fees and the terms and conditions under which they are to be paid;

    • (j.1) defining, for the purposes of this Act, any word or expression that is used in this Act and is not defined; and

    • (k) authorizing the Minister to vary or suspend the application of any regulation made under this Act if the Minister considers it necessary to do so for the conservation of migratory birds.

  • Marginal note:Amendments to Convention

    (2) The Minister shall, by order, amend the schedule to incorporate any amendment to the Convention as soon as is practicable after the amendment takes effect, and table any amendment in both Houses of Parliament within fifteen sitting days after the order is made.

  • Marginal note:Debate in House of Commons

    (3) Any amendment tabled in both Houses of Parliament pursuant to subsection (2) shall be debated in the House of Commons within twenty sitting days after being tabled in both Houses.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 12;
  • 2001, c. 34, s. 53(E);
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 8.

Offences and Punishment

Marginal note:Contravention of Act or regulations
  •  (1) A person or vessel commits an offence if the person or vessel contravenes

    • (a) a provision of this Act or the regulations;

    • (b) an obligation or prohibition arising from this Act or the regulations;

    • (c) an order or direction made under this Act; or

    • (d) an order, direction or decision of a court made under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Penalties

    (1.1) Every person or vessel that commits an offence is liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than three years, or to both; and

    • (b) on summary conviction, to a fine of not more than $300,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both.

  • Marginal note:Vessel of 5,000 tonnes deadweight or over

    (1.11) In the case of an offence under section 5.1 that is committed by a vessel of 5,000 tonnes deadweight or over,

    • (a) the fine imposed under paragraph (1.1)(a) shall not be less than $500,000; and

    • (b) the fine imposed under paragraph (1.1)(b) shall not be less than $100,000.

  • Marginal note:Parties to offence

    (1.2) If a corporation commits an offence under this Act, any director, officer, agent or mandatary of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the offence is a party to the offence, and is liable on conviction to the penalty provided for by this Act, whether or not the corporation is prosecuted for the offence.

  • Marginal note:Proof of offence — corporation

    (1.3) In a prosecution of a corporation for an offence under this Act, other than an offence under paragraph 5.2(a), (c) or (d) or section 5.4 or 5.5, it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that it was committed by an employee, agent or mandatary of the accused, whether or not the employee, agent or mandatary is identified or prosecuted for the offence.

  • Marginal note:Proof of offence — vessel

    (1.4) In a prosecution of a vessel for an offence under this Act, other than an offence under paragraph 5.2(a), (c) or (d), it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that it was committed by a person on board the vessel, whether or not the person is identified or prosecuted for the offence.

  • Marginal note:Directions or orders

    (1.5) For the purpose of prosecuting a vessel for contravening a direction or order given under this Act, a direction or order given to the master or a crew member is deemed to have been given to the vessel.

  • Marginal note:Proof of offence

    (1.6) In a prosecution of a master or chief engineer of a vessel for an offence under this Act, other than an offence under paragraph 5.2(a), (c) or (d) or section 5.3, 5.4 or 5.5, it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that it was committed by a person on board the vessel, whether or not the person is identified or prosecuted for the offence.

  • Marginal note:Proof of offence

    (1.7) In a prosecution of an offence under section 5.4, it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that a substance was deposited by the vessel contrary to section 5.1.

  • Marginal note:Due diligence

    (1.8) A person or vessel that establishes that they exercised due diligence to prevent the commission of an offence under this Act, other than an offence under paragraph 5.2(a), (c) or (d) or section 5.3, shall not be found guilty of the offence.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent offences

    (2) If a person or vessel is convicted of an offence under this Act a second or subsequent time, the amount of the fine for the subsequent offence may be double the amount set out in subsection (1.1).

  • Marginal note:Continuing offence

    (3) A person or vessel that commits or continues an offence on more than one day is liable to be convicted for a separate offence for each day on which the offence is committed or continued.

  • Marginal note:Fines cumulative

    (4) Any fine imposed for an offence involving more than one migratory bird or nest may be calculated in respect of each one as though it had been the subject of a separate information and the fine then imposed is the total of that calculation.

  • Marginal note:Sentencing considerations

    (4.1) A court that imposes a sentence shall take the following factors into account, in addition to any other principles that it is required to consider:

    • (a) the harm or risk of harm caused by the commission of the offence;

    • (b) whether the offender was found to have committed the offence intentionally, recklessly or inadvertently;

    • (c) whether the offender was found to have been negligent or incompetent or to have shown a lack of concern with respect to the commission of the offence;

    • (d) any property, benefit or advantage received or receivable by the offender to which, but for the commission of the offence, the offender would not have been entitled;

    • (e) any evidence from which the court may reasonably conclude that the offender has a history of non-compliance with this Act or the regulations; and

    • (f) all available sanctions that are reasonable in the circumstances, with particular attention to the circumstances of aboriginal offenders.

  • Marginal note:Additional fine

    (5) If a person or vessel is convicted of an offence and the court is satisfied that, as a result of the commission of the offence, a monetary benefit accrued to the person or to an owner or operator of the vessel, or another person incurred a monetary loss,

    • (a) the court may order the offender to pay an additional fine in an amount equal to the court’s estimate of the amount of the monetary benefit or loss; and

    • (b) the additional fine may exceed the maximum amount of any fine that may otherwise be imposed under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Application of fines

    (6) All fines received by the Receiver General in respect of the commission of an offence under this Act shall be received for the special purpose of protecting and conserving migratory birds or the environment and credited to the Environmental Damages Fund, an account in the accounts of Canada.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 13;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 9
Marginal note:Forfeiture
  •  (1) If a person or vessel is convicted of an offence, the convicting court may, in addition to any punishment imposed, order that any seized thing by means of or in relation to which the offence was committed, or any proceeds of its disposition, be forfeited to Her Majesty.

  • Marginal note:Return where no forfeiture ordered

    (2) Where the convicting court does not order forfeiture, the seized thing, or the proceeds of its disposition, must be returned to its lawful owner or the person lawfully entitled to possession of it.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 14;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 10(E)
Marginal note:Retention or sale

 If a fine is imposed on a person or vessel convicted of an offence, any seized thing, or any proceeds of its disposition, may be retained until the fine is paid, or the thing may be sold in satisfaction of the fine and the proceeds applied, in whole or in part, in payment of the fine.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 15;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 11(E)
Marginal note:Court order
  •  (1) If a person or vessel is convicted of an offence, the court may, in addition to any punishment imposed and having regard to the nature of the offence and the circumstances surrounding its commission, make an order containing one or more of the following prohibitions, directions or requirements:

    • (a) prohibiting the offender from doing any act or engaging in any activity that could, in the opinion of the court, result in the continuation or repetition of the offence;

    • (b) directing the offender to take any action the court considers appropriate to remedy or avoid any harm to any migratory bird or nest that resulted or may result from the commission of the offence;

    • (b.1) directing the offender to have an environmental audit conducted by a person of a class specified by the court at the times specified by the court, and directing the offender to remedy any deficiencies revealed by the audit;

    • (c) directing the offender to publish, in a manner the court considers appropriate, the facts relating to the commission of the offence;

    • (d) directing the offender to pay the Minister or the government of a province compensation, in whole or in part, for the cost of any remedial or preventive action taken by or on behalf of the Minister or that government as a result of the commission of the offence;

    • (d.1) directing the offender to pay, in a manner specified by the court, an amount to enable research to be conducted into the protection of the migratory bird populations in respect of which the offence was committed;

    • (d.2) directing the offender to pay, in a manner specified by the court, an amount to an educational institution for scholarships for students enrolled in environmental studies;

    • (e) directing the offender to perform community service in accordance with any reasonable conditions specified in the order;

    • (f) directing the offender to submit to the Minister, on application to the court by the Minister within three years after the conviction, any information about the offender’s activities that the court considers appropriate in the circumstances;

    • (g) directing the offender to post a bond or pay into court an amount of money that the court considers appropriate to ensure compliance with any prohibition, direction or requirement under this section; and

    • (h) requiring the offender to comply with any other conditions that the court considers appropriate to secure the offender’s good conduct and to prevent the offender from repeating the offence or committing other offences.

  • Marginal note:Compensation for loss of property

    (2) The court may also, at the time sentence is imposed and on the application of a person who incurred a monetary loss as a result of the commission of the offence — other than an owner or operator of a vessel that committed the offence — order the offender to pay that person compensation for the loss.

  • Marginal note:Enforcement

    (3) If the amount that is ordered to be paid is not paid immediately, the applicant may, by filing the order, enter the amount as a judgment in the superior court of the province in which the trial was held, and the judgment is enforceable against the offender as if it were a judgment rendered against them in that court in civil proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Variation of sanctions

    (4) A court that has made an order under subsection (1) in relation to an offender may, on application by the offender or the Attorney General of Canada, require the offender to appear before it and, after hearing the offender and the Attorney General, vary the order in any of the following ways that, in the court’s opinion, is appropriate because of a change in the offender’s circumstances since the order was made:

    • (a) by making changes in the order or the conditions specified in it or extending the period during which it is to remain in force for a period of not more than one year; or

    • (b) by decreasing the period during which the order is to remain in force or relieving the offender of compliance with any condition that is specified in it, either absolutely or partially, or for a specific period.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (5) Before making an order under subsection (4), the court may direct that notice be given to any person that it considers to be interested and it may hear that person.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent applications with leave

    (6) If the court hears an application under subsection (4) in respect of an offender, no other application may be made under that subsection with respect to the offender except with leave of the court.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 16;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 12
Marginal note:Suspended sentence
  •  (1) If a person or vessel is convicted of an offence and the court suspends the passing of sentence under paragraph 731(1)(a) of the Criminal Code, the court may, in addition to any probation order made under that paragraph, make an order under section 16.

  • Marginal note:Imposition of sentence

    (2) If the person or vessel does not comply with the order or is convicted of another offence within three years after the order was made, the court may, on the application of the prosecution, impose any sentence that could have been imposed if the passing of sentence had not been suspended.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 17;
  • 1995, c. 22, s. 18;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 13(E).
Marginal note:Civil remedies not affected
  •  (1) No civil remedy for any conduct is suspended or affected by reason only that the conduct is an offence under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Remedies not repealed, etc.

    (2) Nothing in this Act repeals, removes or reduces any remedy available under a law in force in Canada.

  • Marginal note:Damages caused by vessel

    (3) A court shall not order an offender to pay compensation to the Minister or a government under paragraph 16(1)(d) or to a person under subsection 16(2) in connection with damage caused by a vessel if the Minister, government or person may make a claim for compensation for the damage under the Marine Liability Act or the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 14.
Marginal note:Limitation period
  •  (1) Proceedings by way of summary conviction in respect of an offence may be commenced at any time within, but not later than, two years after the day on which the subject-matter of the proceedings became known to the Minister.

  • Marginal note:Minister’s certificate

    (2) A document appearing to have been issued by the Minister, certifying the day on which the subject-matter of any proceedings became known to the Minister, is admissible in evidence without proof of the signature or official character of the person appearing to have signed the document and is proof of the matter asserted in it.

  • Marginal note:References to the Minister

    (3) For the purposes of this section, a reference to the Minister includes the provincial minister responsible for the protection of wildlife in the province where the offence is alleged to have been committed.

Marginal note:Documents, records and data

 In a proceeding under this Act, a document, a record or data that is required to be kept under this Act or the Canada Shipping Act is admissible in evidence and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, is proof of the statements contained in it.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 15.
Marginal note:Analyst’s certificate
  •  (1) In a proceeding under this Act, a certificate that appears to be signed by an analyst, that states that an article, sample or substance has been analysed or examined by the analyst and that contains the results of the analysis or examination, is admissible in evidence and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, is proof of the statements contained in it without proof of the signature or official character of the person appearing to have signed it.

  • Marginal note:Requiring attendance of analyst

    (2) The party against whom a certificate is produced may, with leave of the court, require the analyst’s attendance for the purposes of cross-examination.

  • Marginal note:Notice of intention to produce certificate

    (3) No certificate may be admitted in evidence unless, before the trial, the party that intends to produce it gives reasonable notice of that intention, together with a copy of the certificate, to the party against whom it is intended to be produced.

  • Marginal note:Proof of service

    (4) Service of a certificate may be proved by oral evidence given under oath by the person who claims to have served it, or by that person’s affidavit or solemn declaration.

  • Marginal note:Attendance for examination

    (5) Despite subsection (4), the court may require the person who appears to have signed the affidavit or solemn declaration to appear before it for examination or cross-examination in respect of the issue of proof of service.

  • Definition of analyst

    (6) For the purposes of this section, analyst means a person who is recognized by a laboratory or research centre as having the authority to perform the analysis or examination that is the subject of the certificate.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 15.

Application of Criminal Law

Marginal note:Offences deemed committed in Canada
  •  (1) An act or omission that is an offence under this Act — or that is committed by or against a person who is engaged in carrying out duties or functions, or exercising a power, under this Act or a person acting under their direction and control and that would be an offence under the Criminal Code if it were committed in Canada — is deemed to be committed in Canada if it is committed in the exclusive economic zone of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Offences deemed committed in Canada

    (2) An act or omission that would be an offence under this Act if it were committed in Canada — or that is committed by or against a person who is engaged in carrying out duties or functions, or exercising a power, under this Act or a person acting under their direction and control and that would be an offence under the Criminal Code if it were committed in Canada — is deemed to be committed in Canada if it is committed at any place on the seas, other than a place that is in the territorial sea or internal waters of a state other than Canada, in the course of hot pursuit of a vessel that commenced while the vessel was in Canadian waters or in the exclusive economic zone of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Exercising powers of arrest, entry, etc.

    (3) Every power — including arrest, entry, search and seizure — that may be exercised in Canada in respect of an offence under this Act or under the Criminal Code may, in respect of an offence referred to in subsection (1), be exercised in the exclusive economic zone of Canada and, in respect of an offence referred to in subsection (2), be exercised at any place on the seas other than a place that is in the territorial sea or internal waters of a state other than Canada.

  • Marginal note:Consent of Attorney General of Canada

    (4) The powers referred to in subsection (3) may not be exercised in relation to a foreign vessel, or to a foreign national on board a foreign vessel, without the consent of the Attorney General of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Jurisdiction of justice or judge

    (5) A justice, as defined in section 2 of the Criminal Code, or a judge in any territorial division in Canada has jurisdiction to authorize an arrest, entry, search or seizure in connection with an offence referred to in subsection (1) or (2) as if the offence had been committed in that territorial division.

  • Marginal note:Consent of Attorney General of Canada

    (6) A proceeding that is commenced in respect of an offence referred to in subsection (1) or (2) shall not be continued if the accused is a foreign vessel, or if the accused is a foreign national and the offence was committed while the accused was on board a foreign vessel, unless the Attorney General of Canada consents to the continuation no later than eight days after the proceeding is commenced.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 15.
Marginal note:Jurisdiction of courts

 A proceeding in respect of an offence referred to in subsection 18.3(1) or (2) may be commenced in any territorial division in Canada whether or not the accused is in Canada, and the accused may be tried and punished for that offence as if the offence had been committed in that territorial division.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 15.
Marginal note:Proceedings against vessels
  •  (1) The provisions of this Act and the Criminal Code relating to indictable or summary conviction offences that apply to persons apply also to vessels, with any modifications that the circumstances require.

  • Marginal note:Service on vessel

    (2) If a vessel is charged with an offence under this Act, the summons may be served on the vessel by leaving it with the master or any officer of the vessel or by posting it on a conspicuous part of the vessel.

  • Marginal note:Appearance at trial

    (3) The vessel shall appear by counsel or a representative. If the vessel does not appear, a court may, on proof of service of the summons, proceed to hold the trial in the absence of the vessel.

  • Marginal note:Proceedings on indictment

    (4) For greater certainty, subsection (3) applies to a trial on an indictment.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 15.

Ticketable Offences

Marginal note:Procedure
  •  (1) In addition to the procedures set out in the Criminal Code for commencing a proceeding, proceedings in respect of any offence prescribed by the regulations may be commenced by a game officer

    • (a) completing a ticket that consists of a summons portion and an information portion;

    • (b) delivering the summons portion to the accused or mailing it to the accused at the accused’s latest known address; and

    • (c) filing the information portion with a court of competent jurisdiction before the summons portion has been delivered or mailed or as soon as is practicable afterward.

  • Marginal note:Content of ticket

    (2) The summons and information portions of the ticket must

    • (a) set out a description of the offence and the time and place of its alleged commission;

    • (b) include a statement, signed by the game officer who completes the ticket, that the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the accused committed the offence;

    • (c) set out the amount of the fine prescribed for the offence by the regulations and the manner in which and period within which it may be paid;

    • (d) include a statement that if the accused pays the fine within the period set out in the ticket, a conviction will be entered and recorded against the accused; and

    • (e) include a statement that if the accused wishes to plead not guilty or for any other reason fails to pay the fine within the period set out in the ticket, the accused must appear in the court on the day and at the time set out in the ticket.

  • Marginal note:Notice of forfeiture

    (3) Where a thing is seized under this Act and proceedings relating to it are commenced by way of the ticketing procedure, the game officer who completes the ticket shall give written notice to the accused that, if the accused pays the prescribed fine within the period set out in the ticket, the thing, or any proceeds of its disposition, will be immediately forfeited to Her Majesty.

  • Marginal note:Consequences of payment

    (4) Where an accused to whom the summons portion of a ticket is delivered or mailed pays the prescribed fine within the period set out in the ticket,

    • (a) the payment constitutes a plea of guilty to the offence and a conviction must be entered against the accused and no further action may be taken against the accused in respect of that offence; and

    • (b) notwithstanding section 9, any thing seized from the accused under this Act in relation to the offence, or any proceeds of its disposition, are forfeited to

      • (i) Her Majesty in right of Canada, if the thing was seized by a game officer employed in the federal public administration, or

      • (ii) Her Majesty in right of a province, if the thing was seized by a game officer employed by the government of that province.

  • Marginal note:Regulations

    (5) The Governor in Council may make regulations prescribing

    • (a) offences in respect of which this section applies and the manner in which the offences are to be described in tickets; and

    • (b) the amount of the fine for a prescribed offence, but the amount may not exceed $1,000.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 19;
  • 2003, c. 22, s. 224(E)

Disclosure of Information

Marginal note:Purposes for which information may be disclosed
  •  (1) Subject to the Privacy Act, information obtained in the administration or enforcement of this Act may be disclosed

    • (a) as necessary for the purposes of the administration or enforcement of this Act;

    • (b) in order to notify another Party to the Convention of an environmental emergency that has been discovered or a potential environmental risk;

    • (c) in order to notify the public of an environmental emergency that has been discovered, or a potential environmental risk, that may affect public health or public safety; or

    • (d) under an agreement or arrangement between the Government of Canada or any of its institutions and any other government in Canada, the government of a foreign state or an international organization or any of their institutions, or between the Minister and any other federal minister, if the purpose of the agreement or arrangement is

      • (i) the administration or enforcement of a law,

      • (ii) the fulfilment of the obligations of a Party under the Convention, or

      • (iii) research or statistical analysis in relation to the protection and conservation of migratory birds.

  • Marginal note:Protection from civil proceeding or prosecution

    (2) Despite any other Act of Parliament, no civil or criminal proceedings lie against a federal minister or any person who acts on behalf or under the direction of a federal minister, the Government of Canada or any of its institutions, and no proceedings lie against the Crown or any institution of the Government of Canada, for the disclosure in good faith of any information under this Act or for any consequences that flow from that disclosure.

  • 2005, c. 23, s. 16.

Consequential Amendment

 [Amendment]

Repeal

 [Repeal]

SCHEDULE(Section 2)

Convention

Whereas many species of birds in the course of their annual migrations traverse certain parts of the Dominion of Canada and the United States; and

Whereas many of these species are of great value as a source of food or in destroying insects which are injurious to forests and forage plants on the public domain, as well as to agricultural crops, in both Canada and the United States, but are nevertheless in danger of extermination through lack of adequate protection during the nesting season or while on their way to and from their breeding grounds;

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British dominions beyond the seas, Emperor of India, and the United States of America, being desirous of saving from indiscriminate slaughter and of insuring the preservation of such migratory birds as are either useful to man or are harmless, have resolved to adopt some uniform system of protection which shall effectively accomplish such objects, and to the end of concluding a convention for this purpose have appointed as their respective plenipotentiaries:

His Britannic Majesty, the Right Honourable Sir Cecil Arthur Spring-Rice, G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., etc., His Majesty’s ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary at Washington; and

The President of the United States of America, Robert Lansing, Secretary of State of the United States;

Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers which were found to be in due and proper form, have agreed to and adopted the following articles: —

Article I

The High Contracting Powers declare that the migratory birds included in the terms of this Convention shall be as follows: —

  • 1 Migratory Game Birds: —

    • (a) Anatidae or waterfowl, including brant, wild ducks, geese, and swans;

    • (b) Gruidae or cranes, including little brown, sandhill, and whooping cranes;

    • (c) Rallidae or rails, including coots, gallinules and sora and other rails;

    • (d) Limicolae or shorebirds, including avocets, curlew, dowitchers, godwits, knots, oyster catchers, phalaropes, plovers, sandpipers, snipe, stilts, surf birds, turnstones, willet, woodcock, and yellowlegs;

    • (e) Columbidae or pigeons, including doves and wild pigeons.

  • 2 Migratory Insectivorous Birds: Bobolinks, catbirds, chickadees, cuckoos, flickers, flycatchers, grosbeaks, humming birds, kinglets, martins, meadowlarks, nighthawks or bull bats, nuthatches, orioles, robins, shrikes, swallows, swifts, tanagers, titmice, thrushes, vireos, warblers, waxwings, whippoorwills, woodpeckers, and wrens, and all other perching birds which feed entirely or chiefly on insects.

  • 3 Other Migratory Nongame Birds: Auks, auklets, bitterns, fulmars, gannets, grebes, guillemots, gulls, herons, jaegers, loons, murres, petrels, puffins, shearwaters, and terns.

Article II

The High Contracting Parties agree that, as an effective means of preserving migratory birds, there shall be established the following close seasons during which no hunting shall be done except for scientific or propagating purposes under permits issued by proper authorities.

  • 1 The close season on migratory game birds shall be between 10th March and 1st September, except that the close of the season on the limicolae or shorebirds in the Maritime Provinces of Canada and in those states of the United States bordering on the Atlantic ocean which are situated wholly or in part north of Chesapeake Bay shall be between 1st February and 15th August, and that Indians may take at any time scoters for food but not for sale. The season for hunting shall be further restricted to such period not exceeding three and one-half months as the High Contracting Powers may severally deem appropriate and define by law or regulation.

  • 2 The close season on migratory insectivorous birds shall continue throughout the year.

  • 3 The close season on other migratory nongame birds shall continue throughout the year, except that Eskimos and Indians may take at any season auks, auklets, guillemots, murres and puffins, and their eggs for food and their skins for clothing, but the birds and eggs so taken shall not be sold or offered for sale.

Article III

The High Contracting Powers agree that during the period of ten years next following the going into effect of this Convention, there shall be a continuous close season on the following migratory game birds, to wit:

Band-tailed pigeons, little brown, sandhill and whooping cranes, swans, curlew and all shorebirds (except the black-breasted and golden plover, Wilson or jack snipe, woodcock, and the greater and lesser yellowlegs); provided that during such ten years the close seasons on cranes, swans and curlew in the province of British Columbia shall be made by the proper authorities of that province within the general dates and limitations elsewhere prescribed in this Convention for the respective groups to which these birds belong.

Article IV

The High Contracting Powers agree that special protection shall be given the wood duck and the eider duck either (1) by a close season extending over a period of at least five years, or (2) by the establishment of refuges, or (3) by such other regulations as may be deemed appropriate.

Article V

The taking of nests or eggs of migratory game or insectivorous or nongame birds shall be prohibited, except for scientific or propagating purposes under such laws or regulations as the High Contracting Powers may severally deem appropriate.

Article VI

The High Contracting Powers agree that the shipment or export of migratory birds or their eggs from any state or province, during the continuance of the close season in such state or province, shall be prohibited except for scientific or propagating purposes, and the international traffic in any birds or eggs at such time captured, killed, taken, or shipped at any time contrary to the laws of the state or province in which the same were captured, killed, taken, or shipped shall be likewise prohibited. Every package containing migratory birds or any parts thereof or any eggs of migratory birds transported, or offered for transportation from the Dominion of Canada into the United States or from the United States into the Dominion of Canada, shall have the name and address of the shipper and an accurate statement of the contents clearly marked on the outside of such package.

Article VII

Permits to kill any of the above-named birds which, under extraordinary conditions, may become seriously injurious to the agricultural or other interests in any particular community, may be issued by the proper authorities of the High Contracting Powers under suitable regulations prescribed therefor by them respectively, but such permits shall lapse or may be cancelled, at any time when, in the opinion of said authorities, the particular exigency has passed, and no birds killed under this article shall be shipped, sold, or offered for sale.

Article VIII

The High Contracting Powers agree themselves to take, or propose to their respective appropriate law-making bodies, the necessary measures for insuring the execution of the present Convention.

Article IX

The present Convention shall be ratified by His Britannic Majesty and by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof. The ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington as soon as possible and the Convention shall take effect on the date of the exchange of the ratifications. It shall remain in force for fifteen years, and in the event of neither of the High Contracting Powers having given notification twelve months before the expiration of said period of fifteen years, of its intention of terminating its operation, the Convention shall continue to remain in force for one year and so on from year to year.

In faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention in duplicate and have hereunto affixed their seals.

Done at Washington this sixteenth day of August, 1916.

[Here follow the signatures of Cecil Spring-Rice and Robert Lansing.]

Protocol Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America Amending the 1916 Convention Between the United Kingdom and the United States of America for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and the United States

The Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America,

REAFFIRMING their commitment to achieving the purposes and objectives of the 1916 Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of America for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and the United States;

DESIRING to amend and update the Convention to enable effective actions to be taken to improve the conservation of migratory birds;

COMMITTED to the long-term conservation of shared species of migratory birds for their nutritional, social, cultural, spiritual, ecological, economic, and aesthetic values through a more comprehensive international framework that involves working together to cooperatively manage their populations, regulate their take, protect the lands and waters on which they depend, and share research and survey information;

AWARE that changes to the Convention are required to ensure conformity with the aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada;

ACKNOWLEDGING the intent of the United States to provide for the customary and traditional taking of certain species of migratory birds and their eggs for subsistence use by indigenous inhabitants of Alaska; and

AFFIRMING that it is not the intent of this Protocol to cause significant increases in the take of species of migratory birds relative to their continental population sizes;

HAVE AGREED as follows:

Article I

In order to update the listing of migratory birds included in the terms of this Convention in a manner consistent with their current taxonomic (Family and Subfamily) status, Article I of the Convention is deleted and replaced by the following:

The High Contracting Powers declare that the migratory birds included in the terms of this Convention shall be as follows:

  • 1 Migratory Game Birds:

    Anatidae, or waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans); Gruidae, or cranes (greater and lesser sandhill and whooping cranes); Rallidae, or rails (coots, gallinules and rails); Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae, and Scolopacidae, or shorebirds (including plovers and lapwings, oystercatchers, stilts and avocets, and sandpipers and allies); and Columbidae (doves and wild pigeons).

  • 2 Migratory Insectivorous Birds:

    Aegithalidae (long-tailed tits and bushtits); Alaudidae (larks); Apodidae (swifts); Bombycillidae (waxwings); Caprimulgidae (goatsuckers); Certhiidae (creepers); Cinclidae (dippers); Cuculidae (cuckoos); Emberizidae (including the emberizid sparrows, wood-warblers, tanagers, cardinals and grosbeaks and allies, bobolinks, meadowlarks, and orioles, but not including blackbirds); Fringillidae (including the finches and grosbeaks); Hirundinidae (swallows); Laniidae (shrikes); Mimidae (catbirds, mockingbirds, thrashers, and allies); Motacillidae (wagtails and pipits); Muscicapidae (including the kinglets, gnatcatchers, robins, and thrushes); Paridae (titmice); Picidae (woodpeckers and allies); Sittidae (nuthatches); Trochilidae (hummingbirds); Troglodytidae (wrens); Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers); and Vireonidae (vireos).

  • 3 Other Migratory Nongame Birds:

    Alcidae (auks, auklets, guillemots, murres, and puffins); Ardeidae (bitterns and herons); Hydrobatidae (storm petrels); Procellariidae (petrels and shearwaters); Sulidae (gannets); Podicipedidae (grebes); Laridae (gulls, jaegers, and terns); and Gaviidae (loons).

Article II

Article II of the Convention is deleted and replaced by the following:

The High Contracting Powers agree that, to ensure the long-term conservation of migratory birds, migratory bird populations shall be managed in accord with the following conservation principles:

To manage migratory birds internationally;

To ensure a variety of sustainable uses;

To sustain healthy migratory bird populations for harvesting needs;

To provide for and protect habitat necessary for the conservation of migratory birds; and

To restore depleted populations of migratory birds.

Means to pursue these principles may include, but are not limited to:

Monitoring, regulation, enforcement and compliance;

Co-operation and partnership;

Education and information;

Incentives for effective stewardship;

Protection of incubating birds;

Designation of harvest areas;

Management of migratory birds on a population basis;

Use of aboriginal and indigenous knowledge, institutions and practices; and

Development, sharing and use of best scientific information.

  • 1 Except as provided for below, there shall be established the following close seasons during which no hunting shall be done:

    • (a) The close season on migratory game birds shall be between March 10 and September 1, and the season for hunting shall be further restricted to such period not exceeding three and one-half months as the High Contracting Powers may severally deem appropriate and define by law or regulation; and

    • (b) The close season on migratory insectivorous birds and other migratory nongame birds shall continue throughout the year.

  • 2 Except as provided for below, migratory birds, their nests, or eggs shall not be sold or offered for sale.

  • 3 Subject to laws, decrees or regulations to be specified by the proper authorities, the taking of migratory birds may be allowed at any time of the year for scientific, educational, propagative, or other specific purposes consistent with the conservation principles of this Convention.

  • 4 Notwithstanding the close season provisions in paragraph 1 and the prohibition on the taking of eggs in Article V, and respecting aboriginal and indigenous knowledge and institutions:

    • (a) In the case of Canada, subject to existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, and the regulatory and conservation regimes defined in the relevant treaties, land claims agreements, self-government agreements, and co-management agreements with Aboriginal peoples of Canada:

      • (i) Migratory birds and their eggs may be harvested throughout the year by Aboriginal peoples of Canada having aboriginal or treaty rights, and down and inedible by-products may be sold, but the birds and eggs so taken shall be offered for barter, exchange, trade or sale only within or between Aboriginal communities as provided for in the relevant treaties, land claims agreements, self-government agreements, or co-management agreements made with Aboriginal peoples of Canada; and

      • (ii) Migratory game and non-game birds and their eggs may be taken throughout the year for food by qualified non-aboriginal residents in areas of northern Canada where the relevant treaties, land claims agreements, self-government agreements, or co-management agreements made with Aboriginal peoples of Canada recognize that the Aboriginal peoples may so permit. The dates of the fall season for the taking of migratory game birds by qualified residents of Yukon and the Northwest Territories may be varied by law or regulation by the proper authorities. The birds or eggs taken pursuant to this sub-paragraph (ii) shall not be sold or offered for sale.

    • (b) In the case of the United States:

      • (i) Migratory birds and their eggs may be harvested by the indigenous inhabitants of the State of Alaska. Seasons and other regulations implementing the non-wasteful taking of migratory birds and the collection of their eggs by indigenous inhabitants of the State of Alaska shall be consistent with the customary and traditional uses by such indigenous inhabitants for their own nutritional and other essential needs; and

      • (ii) Indigenous inhabitants of the State of Alaska shall be afforded an effective and meaningful role in the conservation of migratory birds including the development and implementation of regulations affecting the non-wasteful taking of migratory birds and the collection of their eggs, by participating on relevant management bodies.

  • 5 Murres may be taken by non-aboriginal residents of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador for food, subject to regulation, during the period from September 1 to March 10, but the murres so taken shall not be sold or offered for sale. The season for murre hunting shall be further restricted to such period not exceeding three and one-half months as the proper authorities may deem appropriate by law or regulation.

Article III

Article III of the Convention is deleted and replaced by the following:

The High Contracting Powers agree to meet regularly to review progress in implementing the Convention. The review shall address issues important to the conservation of migratory birds, including the status of migratory bird populations, the status of important migratory bird habitats, the effectiveness of management and regulatory systems and other issues deemed important by either High Contracting Power. The High Contracting Powers agree to work cooperatively to resolve identified problems in a manner consistent with the principles underlying this Convention and, if the need arises, to conclude special arrangements to conserve and protect species of concern.

Article IV

Article IV of the Convention is deleted and replaced by the following:

Each High Contracting Power shall use its authority to take appropriate measures to preserve and enhance the environment of migratory birds. In particular, it shall, within its constitutional authority:

  • (a) seek means to prevent damage to such birds and their environments, including damage resulting from pollution;

  • (b) endeavour to take such measures as may be necessary to control the importation of live animals and plants which it determines to be hazardous to the preservation of such birds;

  • (c) endeavour to take such measures as may be necessary to control the introduction of live animals and plants which could disturb the ecological balance of unique island environments; and

  • (d) pursue cooperative arrangements to conserve habitats essential to migratory bird populations.

Article V

Article V of the Convention is deleted and replaced by the following:

The taking of nests or eggs of migratory game or insectivorous or nongame birds shall be prohibited, except for scientific, educational, propagating or other specific purposes consistent with the principles of this Convention under such laws or regulations as the High Contracting Powers may severally deem appropriate, or as provided for under Article II, paragraph 4.

Article VI

This Protocol is subject to ratification. This Protocol shall enter into force on the date the Parties exchange instruments of ratification, shall continue to remain in force for the duration of the Convention and shall be considered an integral part of the Convention particularly for the purpose of its interpretation.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned representatives, being duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed the present Protocol.

DONE at Washington, this 14th day of December, 1995, in duplicate, in the English and French languages, both texts being equally authentic.

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA:FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
[Here follow the signatures of Sheila Copps and Bruce Babbitt.]
  • 1994, c. 22, Sch.;
  • SOR/2000-189.
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