Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (S.C. 1996, c. 19)

Act current to 2018-07-05 and last amended on 2018-06-21. Previous Versions

AMENDMENTS NOT IN FORCE

  • — 2017, c. 7, s. 1(1)

      • 1 (1) The definition adjudicator in subsection 2(1) of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is repealed.

  • — 2017, c. 7, s. 28

    • 28 Part V of the Act is replaced by the following :

      PART VAdministrative Monetary Penalties

      Violation

      • Commission of violation

        33 Every person who contravenes a provision designated by regulations made under paragraph 34(1)(a), or contravenes an order made under section 45.1 or 45.2 or reviewed under section 45.4, commits a violation and is liable to the penalty established in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the regulations.

      Powers of the Governor in Council and the Minister

      • Regulations
        • 34 (1) The Governor in Council may make regulations

          • (a) designating as a violation that may be proceeded with in accordance with this Act the contravention of any specified provision of this Act — except a provision of Part I — or the regulations;

          • (b) fixing a penalty, or a range of penalties, in respect of each violation;

          • (c) classifying each violation as a minor violation, a serious violation or a very serious violation; and

          • (d) respecting the circumstances under which, the criteria by which and the manner in which a penalty may be increased or reduced, including a reduction in the amount that is provided for in a compliance agreement.

        • Maximum penalty

          (2) The maximum penalty for a violation is $30,000.

      • Criteria for penalty

        35 Unless a penalty is fixed under paragraph 34(1)(b), the amount of a penalty shall, in each case, be determined taking into account

        • (a) the history of compliance with the provisions of this Act or the regulations by the person who committed the violation;

        • (b) the harm to public health or safety that resulted or could have resulted from the violation;

        • (c) whether the person made reasonable efforts to mitigate or reverse the violation’s effects;

        • (d) whether the person derived any competitive or economic benefit from the violation; and

        • (e) any other prescribed criteria.

      • Notices of violation

        36 The Minister may

        • (a) designate individuals, or classes of individuals, who are authorized to issue notices of violation; and

        • (b) establish, in respect of each violation, a short-form description to be used in notices of violation.

      Proceedings

      • Issuance of notice of violation
        • 37 (1) If a person who is designated under paragraph 36(a) believes on reasonable grounds that a person has committed a violation, the designated person may issue, and shall provide the person with, a notice of violation that

          • (a) sets out the person’s name;

          • (b) identifies the alleged violation;

          • (c) sets out the penalty for the violation that the person is liable to pay; and

          • (d) sets out the particulars concerning the time and manner of payment.

        • Summary of rights

          (2) A notice of violation shall clearly summarize, in plain language, the named person’s rights and obligations under this section and sections 38 to 43.7, including the right to have the acts or omissions that constitute the alleged violation or the amount of the penalty reviewed and the procedure for requesting that review.

      Penalties

      • Payment
        • 38 (1) If the person named in the notice pays, in the prescribed time and manner, the amount of the penalty,

          • (a) they are deemed to have committed the violation in respect of which the amount is paid;

          • (b) the Minister shall accept that amount as complete satisfaction of the penalty; and

          • (c) the proceedings commenced in respect of the violation under section 37 are ended.

        • Alternatives to payment

          (2) Instead of paying the penalty set out in a notice of violation, the person named in the notice may, in the prescribed time and manner,

          • (a) if the penalty is $5,000 or more, request to enter into a compliance agreement with the Minister that ensures the person’s compliance with the order or the provision to which the violation relates; or

          • (b) request a review by the Minister of the acts or omissions that constitute the alleged violation or the amount of the penalty.

        • Deeming

          (3) If the person named in the notice of violation does not pay the penalty in the prescribed time and manner and does not exercise any right referred to in subsection (2) in the prescribed time and manner, they are deemed to have committed the violation identified in the notice.

      Compliance Agreements

      • Compliance agreements
        • 39 (1) After considering a request under paragraph 38(2)(a), the Minister may enter into a compliance agreement, as described in that paragraph, with the person making the request on any terms and conditions that are satisfactory to the Minister. The terms and conditions may

          • (a) include a provision for the giving of reasonable security, in a form and in an amount satisfactory to the Minister, as a guarantee that the person will comply with the compliance agreement; and

          • (b) provide for the reduction, in whole or in part, of the penalty for the violation.

        • Deeming

          (2) A person who enters into a compliance agreement with the Minister is, on doing so, deemed to have committed the violation in respect of which the compliance agreement was entered into.

        • Notice of compliance

          (3) If the Minister is satisfied that a person who has entered into a compliance agreement has complied with it, the Minister shall cause a notice to that effect to be provided to the person, at which time

          • (a) the proceedings commenced in respect of the violation under section 37 are ended; and

          • (b) any security given by the person under the compliance agreement shall be returned to the person.

        • Notice of default

          (4) If the Minister is of the opinion that a person who has entered into a compliance agreement has not complied with it, the Minister shall cause a notice of default to be provided to the person to the effect that

          • (a) instead of the penalty set out in the notice of violation in respect of which the compliance agreement was entered into, the person is liable to pay, in the prescribed time and manner, twice the amount of that penalty, and, for greater certainty, subsection 34(2) does not apply in respect of that amount; or

          • (b) the security, if any, given by the person under the compliance agreement shall be forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada.

        • Effect of notice of default

          (5) Once provided with the notice of default, the person may not deduct from the amount set out in the notice any amount that they spent under the compliance agreement and

          • (a) the person is liable to pay the amount set out in the notice; or

          • (b) if the notice provides for the forfeiture of the security given under the compliance agreement, that security is forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada and the proceedings commenced in respect of the violation under section 37 are ended.

        • Effect of payment

          (6) If a person pays the amount set out in the notice of default in the prescribed time and manner,

          • (a) the Minister shall accept the amount as complete satisfaction of the amount owing; and

          • (b) the proceedings commenced in respect of the violation under section 37 are ended.

      • Refusal to enter into compliance agreement
        • 40 (1) If the Minister refuses to enter into a compliance agreement requested under paragraph 38(2)(a), the person who made the request is liable to pay the amount of the penalty in the prescribed time and manner.

        • Effect of payment

          (2) If a person pays the amount referred to in subsection (1),

          • (a) they are deemed to have committed the violation in respect of which the payment is made;

          • (b) the Minister shall accept the amount as complete satisfaction of the penalty; and

          • (c) the proceedings commenced in respect of the violation under section 37 are ended.

        • Deeming

          (3) If a person does not pay the amount referred to in subsection (1) in the prescribed time and manner, they are deemed to have committed the violation identified in the notice of violation.

      Review by the Minister

      • Review — facts
        • 41 (1) On completion of a review requested under paragraph 38(2)(b) with respect to the acts or omissions that constitute the alleged violation, the Minister shall determine whether the person who requested the review committed the violation. If the Minister determines that the person committed the violation but that the amount of the penalty was not established in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the regulations, the Minister shall correct the amount.

        • Violation not committed — effect

          (2) If the Minister determines under subsection (1) that the person who requested the review did not commit the violation, the proceedings commenced in respect of it under section 37 are ended.

        • Review — penalty

          (3) On completion of a review requested under paragraph 38(2)(b) with respect to the amount of the penalty, the Minister shall determine whether the amount of the penalty was established in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the regulations and, if not, the Minister shall correct the amount.

        • Notice of decision

          (4) The Minister shall cause a notice of any decision made under subsection (1) or (3) to be provided to the person who requested the review.

        • Payment

          (5) The person is liable to pay, in the prescribed time and manner, the amount of the penalty that is confirmed or corrected in the Minister’s decision made under subsection (1) or (3).

        • Effect of payment

          (6) If a person pays the amount referred to in subsection (5),

          • (a) the Minister shall accept the amount as complete satisfaction of the penalty; and

          • (b) the proceedings commenced in respect of the violation under section 37 are ended.

        • Written evidence and submissions

          (7) The Minister shall consider only written evidence and written submissions in determining whether a person committed a violation or whether the amount of a penalty was established in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the regulations.

      Enforcement

      • Debts to Her Majesty
        • 42 (1) The following amounts constitute debts due to Her Majesty in right of Canada that may be recovered in the Federal Court :

          • (a) the amount of a penalty, from the time the notice of violation setting out the penalty is provided;

          • (b) every amount set out in a compliance agreement entered into with the Minister under subsection 39(1), from the time the compliance agreement is entered into;

          • (c) the amount set out in a notice of default referred to in subsection 39(4), from the time the notice is provided; and

          • (d) the amount of a penalty as set out in a decision of the Minister made under subsection 41(1) or (3), from the time the notice of that decision is provided.

        • Time limit

          (2) No proceedings to recover a debt referred to in subsection (1) may be commenced later than five years after the debt became payable.

        • Debt final

          (3) A debt referred to in subsection (1) is final and not subject to review or to be restrained, prohibited, removed, set aside or otherwise dealt with except to the extent and in the manner provided by sections 38 to 41.

      • Certificate of default
        • 43 (1) Any debt referred to in subsection 42(1) in respect of which there is a default of payment, or the part of any such debt that has not been paid, may be certified by the Minister.

        • Judgments

          (2) On production to the Federal Court, the certificate shall be registered in that Court and, when registered, has the same force and effect, and all proceedings may be taken on the certificate, as if it were a judgment obtained in that Court for a debt of the amount specified in it and all reasonable costs and charges associated with the registration of the certificate.

      Rules About Violations

      • Certain defences not available
        • 43.1 (1) A person named in a notice of violation does not have a defence by reason that the person

          • (a) exercised due diligence to prevent the violation; or

          • (b) reasonably and honestly believed in the existence of facts that, if true, would exonerate the person.

        • Common law principles

          (2) Every rule and principle of the common law that renders any circumstance a justification or excuse in relation to a charge for an offence under this Act applies in respect of a violation to the extent that it is not inconsistent with this Act.

      • Burden of proof

        43.2 In every case when the facts of a violation are reviewed by the Minister, he or she shall determine, on a balance of probabilities, whether the person named in the notice of violation committed the violation identified in the notice.

      • Violation by corporate officers, etc.

        43.3 If a person other than an individual commits a violation under this Act, any of the person’s directors, officers, agents or mandataries who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the violation is a party to and liable for the violation whether or not the person who actually committed the violation is proceeded against under this Act.

      • Vicarious liability — acts of employees and agents

        43.4 A person is liable for a violation that is committed by any employee, agent or mandatary of the person acting in the course of the employee’s employment or the scope of the agent or mandatary’s authority, whether or not the employee, agent or mandatary who actually committed the violation is identified or proceeded against under this Act.

      • Continuing violation

        43.5 A violation that is continued on more than one day constitutes a separate violation in respect of each day on which it is continued.

      Other Provisions

      • Evidence

        43.6 In any proceeding in respect of a violation or a prosecution for an offence, a notice of violation purporting to be issued under this Act is admissible in evidence without proof of the signature or official character of the person appearing to have signed the notice of violation.

      • Time limit

        43.7 Proceedings in respect of a violation shall not be commenced later than six months after the Minister becomes aware of the acts or omissions that constitute the alleged violation.

      • How act or omission may be proceeded with

        43.8 If an act or omission may be proceeded with either as a violation or as an offence, proceeding in one manner precludes proceeding in the other.

      • Certification by Minister

        43.9 A document appearing to have been issued by the Minister, certifying the day on which the acts or omissions that constitute the alleged violation became known to the Minister, is admissible in evidence without proof of the signature or official character of the person appearing to have signed the document and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, is proof that the Minister became aware of the acts or omissions on that day.

      • Publication of information

        43.91 The Minister may, for the purpose of encouraging compliance with the provisions of this Act and the regulations, publish information about any violation after proceedings in respect of it are ended.

  • — 2017, c. 7, s. 31

    • 31 The portion of section 45.1 of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following :

      • Provision of information

        45.1 The Minister may, by order, require a person who is authorized under this Act to conduct activities in relation to controlled substances or precursors, who imports designated devices or who conducts other activities referred to in section 46.4 to provide the Minister, in the time and manner that the Minister specifies, with any information respecting those activities that the Minister considers necessary

  • — 2017, c. 7, s. 32

    • 32 Section 45.2 of the Act is replaced by the following :

      • Measures

        45.2 The Minister may, by order, require a person who is authorized under this Act to conduct activities in relation to controlled substances or precursors or who conducts activities referred to in section 46.4 in relation to designated devices, to take measures, in the time and manner that the Minister specifies, to prevent non-compliance with the provisions of this Act or the regulations or, if the Minister has reasonable grounds to believe that there is such non-compliance, to remedy it.

  • — 2017, c. 7, s. 35

      • 35 (1) Subsection 46.3(1) of the Act is replaced by the following :

        • Importation of designated device
          • 46.3 (1) No person shall import into Canada a designated device unless they register the importation with the Minister and the person imports it in accordance with the regulations.

      • (2) Subsection 46.3(2) of the Act is amended by striking out “and” at the end of paragraph (e), by adding “and” at the end of paragraph (f) and by adding the following after paragraph (f):

        • (g) any other prescribed information.

  • — 2017, c. 7, s. 36

    • 36 The Act is amended by adding the following before section 47:

      • Designated device — prescribed activity

        46.4 No person shall conduct a prescribed activity in relation to a designated device except in accordance with the regulations.

  • — 2017, c. 7, ss. 40(12), (13)

      • 40 (12) Subsection 55(1) of the Act is amended by striking out “and” at the end of paragraph (z.01) and by adding the following after that paragraph :

        • (z.02) governing, controlling, limiting, authorizing the importation into Canada, exportation from Canada, sale, provision, possession of or other dealing in any designated device or any class of designated devices;

        • (z.03) respecting the issuance, suspension, cancellation, duration and terms and conditions of any licence or class of licences or of any permit for the importation into Canada, exportation from Canada, sale, provision or possession of any designated device or class of designated devices; and

      • (13) Subsection 55(1) of the Act is amended by striking out “and” at the end of paragraph (z.03) and by adding the following after that paragraph :

        • (z.04) prescribing exportation from Canada, sale, provision, or possession of any designated device or any class of designated devices as activities for the purpose of section 46.4;

        • (z.05) respecting the circumstances in which, the conditions subject to which and the persons or classes of persons by whom any designated device or class of designated devices may be exported from Canada, sold, provided or possessed, as well as the means by which and the persons or classes of persons by whom such activities may be authorized;

        • (z.06) respecting the registration of activities in relation to any designated device or any class of designated devices for the purpose of section 46.4; and

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 195

      • 195 (1) Subsection 4(5) of the Act is repealed.

      • (2) Subsection 4(8) of the Act is repealed.

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 195.1

    • 195.1 Section 4.1 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Definition of medical emergency
        • 4.1 (1) For the purposes of this section, medical emergency means a physiological event induced by the introduction of a psychoactive substance into the body of a person that results in a life-threatening situation and in respect of which there are reasonable grounds to believe that the person requires emergency medical or law enforcement assistance.

        • Exemption — medical emergency

          (2) No person who seeks emergency medical or law enforcement assistance because that person, or another person, is suffering from a medical emergency is to be charged or convicted of an offence under subsection 4(1) if the evidence in support of that offence was obtained or discovered as a result of that person having sought assist­ance or having remained at the scene.

        • Exemption — persons at the scene

          (3) The exemption under subsection (2) also applies to any person, including the person suffering from the medical emergency, who is at the scene on the arrival of the emergency medical or law enforcement assistance.

        • Exemption — evidence

          (4) No person who seeks emergency medical or law enforcement assistance because that person, or another person, is suffering from a medical emergency, or who is at the scene on the arrival of the assistance, is to be charged with an offence concerning a violation of any condition of a pre-trial release or probation order relating to an offence under subsection 4(1) if the evidence in support of that offence was obtained or discovered as a result of that person having sought assistance or having remained at the scene.

        • Deeming

          (5) Any condition of a person’s pre-trial release, probation order, conditional sentence or parole relating to an offence under subsection 4(1) that may be violated as a result of the person seeking emergency medical or law enforcement assistance for their, or another person’s, medical emergency, or as a result of having been at the scene on the arrival of the assistance, is deemed not to be violated.

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 196

    • 2012, c. 1, s. 39(1)
      • 196 (1) The portion of paragraph 5(3)(a) of the Act before subparagraph (i) is replaced by the following:

        • (a) if the subject matter of the offence is a substance included in Schedule I or II, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life, and

      • 2012, c. 1, s. 39(1)

        (2) Paragraph 5(3)(a.1) of the Act is repealed.

      • 2012, c. 1, s. 39(2)

        (3) Subsection 5(6) of the Act is repealed.

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 197

    • 2012, c. 1, s. 41(1)
      • 197 (1) The portion of paragraph 7(2)(a.1) of the Act before subparagraph (i) is replaced by the following:

        • (a.1) if the subject matter of the offence is a substance included in Schedule II, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life, and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment

      • 2012, c. 1, s. 41(1)

        (2) Paragraph 7(2)(b) of the Act is repealed.

      • 2012, c. 1, s. 41(2)

        (3) The portion of subsection 7(3) of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:

        • Factors

          (3) The following factors must be taken into account in applying paragraphs (2)(a) and (a.1):

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 198

    • 198 Paragraph 10(2)(b) of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • (b) was previously convicted of a designated substance offence, as defined in subsection 2(1) of this Act, or a designated offence, as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Cannabis Act.

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 199

      • 199 (1) Subject to subsection (2), subsection 34(2) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • Maximum penalty

          (2) The maximum penalty for a violation is $1,000,000.

      • (2) Subsection (1) applies only if Bill C-37, introduced in the 1st session of the 42nd Parliament and entitled An Act to amend the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and to make related amendments to other Acts receives royal assent. If that Act receives royal assent, then subsection (1) comes into force on the first day on which both section 28 of that Act and this subsection are in force.

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 203

    • 203 Section 60 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Power to amend schedules

        60 The Governor in Council may, by order, amend any of Schedules I to VI by adding to them or deleting from them any item or portion of an item, if the Governor in Council considers the amendment to be necessary in the public interest.

  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 204

      • 204 (1) Item 1 of Schedule II to the Act is repealed.

      • (2) The portion of item 2 of Schedule II to the Act before subitem (1) is replaced by the following:

        • 2 
          Synthetic cannabinoid receptor type 1 agonists, their salts, derivatives, isomers, and salts of derivatives and isomers — with the exception of any substance that is identical to any phytocannabinoid and with the exception of ((3S)-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)-1-naphthalenyl-methanone (WIN 55,212-3) and its salts — including those that fall within the following core chemical structure classes:
  • — 2018, c. 16, s. 205

    • 205 Schedules VII and VIII to the Act are repealed.

  • — 2018, c. 16, ss. 206(1), (6)

    • Bill C-37
      • 206 (1) Subsections (2) to (6) apply if Bill C-37, introduced in the 1st session of the 42nd Parliament and entitled An Act to amend the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and to make related amendments to other Acts (in this section referred to as the “other Act”), receives royal assent.

      • (6) On the first day on which both section 203 of this Act and section 45 of the other Act are in force, section 60 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is replaced by the following:

        • Power to amend schedules

          60 The Governor in Council may, by order, amend any of Schedules I to IV, VI and IX by adding to them or deleting from them any item or portion of an item, if the Governor in Council considers the amendment to be necessary in the public interest.

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