Income Tax Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.))

Act current to 2015-03-31 and last amended on 2015-01-02. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Taxpayer leaving Canada
  •  (1) Where the Minister suspects that a taxpayer has left or is about to leave Canada, the Minister may, before the day otherwise fixed for payment, by notice served personally or by registered letter addressed to the taxpayer’s latest known address, demand payment of the amount of all taxes, interest and penalties for which the taxpayer is liable or would be liable if the time for payment had arrived, and that amount shall be paid forthwith by the taxpayer notwithstanding any other provision of this Act.

  • Marginal note:Seizure in case of default of payment

    (2) If a taxpayer fails to pay, as required, any tax, interest or penalties demanded under this section, the Minister may direct that the goods and chattels, or movable property, of the taxpayer be seized and subsections 225(2) to (5) apply, with respect to the seizure, with any modifications that the circumstances require.

  • NOTE: Application provisions are not included in the consolidated text;
  • see relevant amending Acts. R.S., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.), s. 226;
  • 1994, c. 7, Sch. II, s. 185;
  • 2013, c. 34, s. 164.
Marginal note:Withholding taxes
  •  (1) No action lies against any person for deducting or withholding any sum of money in compliance or intended compliance with this Act.

  • Marginal note:Return filed with person withholding

    (2) Where a person (in this subsection referred to as the “payer”) is required by regulations made under subsection 153(1) to deduct or withhold from a payment to another person an amount on account of that other person’s tax for the year, that other person shall, from time to time as prescribed, file a return with the payer in prescribed form.

  • Marginal note:Failure to file return

    (3) Every person who fails to file a return as required by subsection (2) is liable to have the deduction or withholding under section 153 on account of the person’s tax made as though the person were a person who is neither married nor in a common-law partnership and is without dependants.

  • Marginal note:Trust for moneys deducted

    (4) Every person who deducts or withholds an amount under this Act is deemed, notwithstanding any security interest (as defined in subsection 224(1.3)) in the amount so deducted or withheld, to hold the amount separate and apart from the property of the person and from property held by any secured creditor (as defined in subsection 224(1.3)) of that person that but for the security interest would be property of the person, in trust for Her Majesty and for payment to Her Majesty in the manner and at the time provided under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Extension of trust

    (4.1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (except sections 81.1 and 81.2 of that Act), any other enactment of Canada, any enactment of a province or any other law, where at any time an amount deemed by subsection 227(4) to be held by a person in trust for Her Majesty is not paid to Her Majesty in the manner and at the time provided under this Act, property of the person and property held by any secured creditor (as defined in subsection 224(1.3)) of that person that but for a security interest (as defined in subsection 224(1.3)) would be property of the person, equal in value to the amount so deemed to be held in trust is deemed

    • (a) to be held, from the time the amount was deducted or withheld by the person, separate and apart from the property of the person, in trust for Her Majesty whether or not the property is subject to such a security interest, and

    • (b) to form no part of the estate or property of the person from the time the amount was so deducted or withheld, whether or not the property has in fact been kept separate and apart from the estate or property of the person and whether or not the property is subject to such a security interest

    and is property beneficially owned by Her Majesty notwithstanding any security interest in such property and in the proceeds thereof, and the proceeds of such property shall be paid to the Receiver General in priority to all such security interests.

  • Marginal note:Meaning of security interest

    (4.2) For the purposes of subsections 227(4) and 227(4.1), a security interest does not include a prescribed security interest.

  • Marginal note:Application to Crown

    (4.3) For greater certainty, subsections (4) to (4.2) apply to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province where Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province is a secured creditor (within the meaning assigned by subsection 224(1.3)) or holds a security interest (within the meaning assigned by that subsection).

  • Marginal note:Payments by trustees, etc.

    (5) Where a specified person in relation to a particular person (in this subsection referred to as the “payer”) has any direct or indirect influence over the disbursements, property, business or estate of the payer and the specified person, alone or together with another person, authorizes or otherwise causes a payment referred to in subsection 135(3), 135.1(7) or 153(1), or on or in respect of which tax is payable under Part XII.5 or XIII, to be made by or on behalf of the payer, the specified person

    • (a) is, for the purposes of subsections 135(3) and 153(1), section 215 and this section, deemed to be a person who made the payment;

    • (a.1) is, for the purposes of subsections 135.1(7) and 211.8(2), deemed to be a person who redeemed, acquired or cancelled a share and made the payment as a consequence of the redemption, acquisition or cancellation;

    • (b) is jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable with the payer to pay to the Receiver General

      • (i) all amounts payable by the payer because of any of subsections 135(3), 135.1(7), 153(1) and 211.8(2) and section 215 in respect of the payment, and

      • (ii) all amounts payable under this Act by the payer because of any failure to comply with any of those provisions in respect of the payment; and

    • (c) is entitled to deduct or withhold from any amount paid or credited by the specified person to the payer or otherwise recover from the payer any amount paid under this subsection by the specified person in respect of the payment.

  • Definition of “specified person”

    (5.1) In subsection 227(5), a “specified person” in relation to a particular person means a person who is, in relation to the particular person or the disbursements, property, business or estate of the particular person,

    • (a) a trustee;

    • (b) a liquidator;

    • (c) a receiver;

    • (d) an interim receiver;

    • (e) a receiver-manager;

    • (f) a trustee in bankruptcy or other person appointed under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act;

    • (g) an assignee;

    • (h) a secured creditor (as defined in subsection 224(1.3));

    • (i) an executor, a liquidator of a succession or an administrator;

    • (j) any person acting in a capacity similar to that of a person referred to in any of paragraphs 227(5.1)(a) to 227(5.1)(i);

    • (k) a person appointed (otherwise than as an employee of the creditor) at the request of, or on the advice of, a secured creditor in relation to the particular person to monitor, or provide advice in respect of, the disbursements, property, business or estate of the particular person under circumstances such that it is reasonable to conclude that the person is appointed to protect or advance the interests of the creditor; or

    • (l) an agent of a specified person referred to in any of paragraphs 227(5.1)(a) to 227(5.1)(k).

  • “Person” includes partnership

    (5.2) For the purposes of this section, references in subsections 227(5) and 227(5.1) to persons include partnerships.

  • Marginal note:Excess withheld, returned or applied

    (6) Where a person on whose behalf an amount has been paid under Part XII.5 or XIII to the Receiver General was not liable to pay tax under that Part or where the amount so paid is in excess of the amount that the person was liable to pay, the Minister shall, on written application made no later than 2 years after the end of the calendar year in which the amount was paid, pay to the person the amount so paid or such part of it as the person was not liable to pay, unless the person is or is about to become liable to make a payment to Her Majesty in right of Canada, in which case the Minister may apply the amount otherwise payable under this subsection to that liability and notify the person of that action.

  • Marginal note:Repayment of non-resident shareholder loan

    (6.1) Where, in respect of a loan from or indebtedness to a corporation or partnership, a person on whose behalf an amount was paid to the Receiver General under Part XIII because of subsection 15(2) and paragraph 214(3)(a) repays the loan or indebtedness or a portion of it and it is established by subsequent events or otherwise that the repayment was not made as part of a series of loans or other transactions and repayments, the Minister shall, on written application made no later than 2 years after the end of the calendar year in which the repayment is made, pay to the person an amount equal to the lesser of

    • (a) the amount so paid to the Receiver General in respect of the loan or indebtedness or portion of it, as the case may be, and

    • (b) the amount that would be payable to the Receiver General under Part XIII if a dividend described in paragraph 212(2)(a) equal in amount to the amount of the loan or indebtedness repaid were paid by the corporation or partnership to the person at the time of the repayment,

    unless the person is or is about to become liable to make a payment to Her Majesty in right of Canada, in which case the Minister may apply the amount otherwise payable under this subsection to that liability and notify the person of that action.

  • Marginal note:Foreign affiliate dumping — late-filed form

    (6.2) If, in respect of an investment described in subsection 212.3(10), a corporation is deemed by subparagraph 212.3(7)(d)(ii) to pay a dividend and the corporation subsequently complies with the requirements of subparagraph 212.3(7)(d)(i) in respect of the investment,

    • (a) subject to paragraph (b), the Minister shall, on written application made on a particular day that is, or is no more than two years after, the day on which the form described in subparagraph 212.3(7)(d)(i) is filed, pay to the corporation an amount equal to the lesser of

      • (i) the total of all amounts, if any, paid to the Receiver General, on or prior to the particular day, on behalf of a person and in respect of the liability of the person to pay an amount under Part XIII in respect of the dividend, and

      • (ii) the amount that the person was liable to pay in respect of the dividend under Part XIII;

    • (b) where the corporation or the person is or is about to become liable to make a payment to Her Majesty in right of Canada, the Minister may apply the amount otherwise payable under paragraph (a) to that liability and notify the corporation, and, if applicable, the person, of that action; and

    • (c) for the purposes of this Part (other than subparagraph (a)(i)), if the amount described in subparagraph (a)(ii) exceeds the amount described in subparagraph (a)(i), the corporation is deemed to pay that excess to the Receiver General on the day on which the form described in subparagraph 212.3(7)(d)(i) is filed.

  • Marginal note:Application for assessment

    (7) Where, on application under subsection 227(6) by or on behalf of a person to the Minister in respect of an amount paid under Part XII.5 or XIII to the Receiver General, the Minister is not satisfied

    • (a) that the person was not liable to pay any tax under that Part, or

    • (b) that the amount paid was in excess of the tax that the person was liable to pay,

    the Minister shall assess any amount payable under that Part by the person and send a notice of assessment to the person, and sections 150 to 163, subsections 164(1) and 164(1.4) to 164(7), sections 164.1 to 167 and Division J of Part I apply with any modifications that the circumstances require.

  • Marginal note:Application for determination

    (7.1) Where, on application under subsection 227(6.1) by or on behalf of a person to the Minister in respect of an amount paid under Part XIII to the Receiver General, the Minister is not satisfied that the person is entitled to the amount claimed, the Minister shall, at the person’s request, determine, with all due dispatch, the amount, if any, payable under subsection 227(6.1) to the person and shall send a notice of determination to the person, and sections 150 to 163, subsections 164(1) and 164(1.4) to 164(7), sections 164.1 to 167 and Division J of Part I apply with such modifications as the circumstances require.

  • Marginal note:Penalty

    (8) Subject to subsection (9.5), every person who in a calendar year has failed to deduct or withhold any amount as required by subsection 153(1) or section 215 is liable to a penalty of

    • (a) 10% of the amount that should have been deducted or withheld; or

    • (b) where at the time of the failure a penalty under this subsection was payable by the person in respect of an amount that should have been deducted or withheld during the year and the failure was made knowingly or under circumstances amounting to gross negligence, 20% of that amount.

  • Marginal note:Joint and several, or solidary, liability

    (8.1) If a particular person has failed to deduct or withhold an amount as required under subsection 153(1) or section 215 in respect of an amount that has been paid to a non-resident person, the non-resident person is jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable with the particular person to pay any interest payable by the particular person pursuant to subsection (8.3) in respect thereof.

  • Marginal note:Retirement compensation arrangement deductions

    (8.2) Where a person has failed to deduct or withhold any amount as required under subsection 153(1) in respect of a contribution under a retirement compensation arrangement, that person is liable to pay to Her Majesty an amount equal to the amount of the contribution, and each payment on account of that amount is deemed to be, in the year in which the payment is made,

    • (a) for the purposes of paragraph 20(1)(r), a contribution by the person to the arrangement; and

    • (b) an amount on account of tax payable by the custodian under Part XI.3.

  • Marginal note:Interest on amounts not deducted or withheld

    (8.3) A person who fails to deduct or withhold any amount as required by subsection 135(3), 135.1(7), 153(1) or 211.8(2) or section 215 shall pay to the Receiver General interest on the amount at the prescribed rate, computed

    • (a) in the case of an amount required by subsection 153(1) to be deducted or withheld from a payment to another person, from the fifteenth day of the month immediately following the month in which the amount was required to be deducted or withheld, or from such earlier day as may be prescribed for the purposes of subsection 153(1), to,

      • (i) where that other person is not resident in Canada, the day of payment of the amount to the Receiver General, and

      • (ii) where that other person is resident in Canada, the earlier of the day of payment of the amount to the Receiver General and April 30 of the year immediately following the year in which the amount was required to be deducted or withheld;

    • (b) in the case of an amount required by subsection 135(3) or 135.1(7) or section 215 to be deducted or withheld, from the day on which the amount was required to be deducted or withheld to the day of payment of the amount to the Receiver General; and

    • (c) in the case of an amount required by subsection 211.8(2) to be withheld, from the day on or before which the amount was required to be remitted to the Receiver General to the day of the payment of the amount to the Receiver General.

  • Marginal note:Liability to pay amount not deducted or withheld

    (8.4) A person who fails to deduct or withhold any amount as required under subsection 135(3) or 135.1(7) in respect of a payment made to another person or under subsection 153(1) in respect of an amount paid to another person who is non-resident or who is resident in Canada solely because of paragraph 250(1)(a) is liable to pay as tax under this Act on behalf of the other person the whole of the amount that should have been so deducted or withheld and is entitled to deduct or withhold from any amount paid or credited by the person to the other person or otherwise to recover from the other person any amount paid by the person as tax under this Part on behalf of the other person.

  • Marginal note:No penalty — certain deemed payments

    (8.5) Subsection (8) does not apply to a corporation in respect of

    • (a) an amount of interest deemed by subsection 214(16) to have been paid as a dividend by the corporation unless, if the Act were read without reference to subsection 214(16), a penalty under subsection (8) would have applied in respect of the amount; and

    • (b) an amount deemed by subparagraph 212.3(7)(d)(ii) or subsection 247(12) to have been paid as a dividend by the corporation.

  • Marginal note:Penalty

    (9) Subject to subsection 227(9.5), every person who in a calendar year has failed to remit or pay as and when required by this Act or a regulation an amount deducted or withheld as required by this Act or a regulation or an amount of tax that the person is, by section 116 or by a regulation made under subsection 215(4), required to pay is liable to a penalty of

    • (a) subject to paragraph (b), if

      • (i) the Receiver General receives that amount on or before the day it was due, but that amount is not paid in the manner required, 3% of that amount,

      • (ii) the Receiver General receives that amount

        • (A) no more than three days after it was due, 3% of that amount,

        • (B) more than three days and no more than five days after it was due, 5% of that amount, or

        • (C) more than five days and no more than seven days after it was due, 7% of that amount, or

      • (iii) that amount is not paid or remitted on or before the seventh day after it was due, 10% of that amount; or

    • (b) where at the time of the failure a penalty under this subsection was payable by the person in respect of an amount that should have been remitted or paid during the year and the failure was made knowingly or under circumstances amounting to gross negligence, 20% of that amount.

  • Marginal note:Penalty

    (9.1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, any other enactment of Canada, any enactment of a province or any other law, the penalty for failure to remit an amount required to be remitted by a person on or before a prescribed date under subsection 153(1), subsection 21(1) of the Canada Pension Plan, subsection 53(1) of the Unemployment Insurance Act and subsection 82(1) of the Employment Insurance Act shall, unless the person who is required to remit the amount has, knowingly or under circumstances amounting to gross negligence, delayed in remitting the amount or has, knowingly or under circumstances amounting to gross negligence, remitted an amount less than the amount required, apply only to the amount by which the total of all so required to be remitted on or before that date exceeds $500.

  • Marginal note:Interest on amounts deducted or withheld but not remitted

    (9.2) Where a person has failed to remit as and when required by this Act or a regulation an amount deducted or withheld as required by this Act or a regulation, the person shall pay to the Receiver General interest on the amount at the prescribed rate computed from the day on which the person was so required to remit the amount to the day of remittance of the amount to the Receiver General.

  • Marginal note:Interest on certain tax not paid

    (9.3) Where a person fails to pay an amount of tax that, because of section 116, subsection 212(19) or a regulation made under subsection 215(4), the person is required to pay, as and when the person is required to pay it, the person shall pay to the Receiver General interest on the amount at the prescribed rate computed from the day on or before which the amount was required to be paid to the day of payment of the amount to the Receiver General.

  • Marginal note:Liability to pay amount not remitted

    (9.4) A person who has failed to remit as and when required by this Act or a regulation an amount deducted or withheld from a payment to another person as required by this Act or a regulation is liable to pay as tax under this Act on behalf of the other person the amount so deducted or withheld.

  • Marginal note:Payment from same establishment

    (9.5) In applying paragraphs 227(8)(b) and 227(9)(b) in respect of an amount required by paragraph 153(1)(a) to be deducted or withheld, each establishment of a person shall be deemed to be a separate person.

  • Marginal note:Assessment

    (10) The Minister may at any time assess any amount payable under

    • (a) subsection 227(8), 227(8.1), 227(8.2), 227(8.3) or 227(8.4) or 224(4) or 224(4.1) or section 227.1 or 235 by a person,

    • (b) subsection 237.1(7.4) or (7.5) or 237.3(8) by a person or partnership,

    • (c) subsection 227(10.2) by a person as a consequence of a failure of a non-resident person to deduct or withhold any amount, or

    • (d) Part XIII by a person resident in Canada,

    and, where the Minister sends a notice of assessment to that person or partnership, Divisions I and J of Part I apply with any modifications that the circumstances require.

  • Marginal note:Part XII.5

    (10.01) The Minister may at any time assess any amount payable under Part XII.5 by a person resident in Canada and, where the Minister sends a notice of assessment to that person, Divisions I and J of Part I apply with any modifications that the circumstances require.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (10.1) The Minister may at any time assess

    • (a) any amount payable under section 116 or subsection 227(9), 227(9.2), 227(9.3) or 227(9.4) by any person,

    • (a.1[Repealed, 1997, c. 25, s. 67(7)]

    • (b) any amount payable under subsection 227(10.2) by any person as a consequence of a failure by a non-resident person to remit any amount, and

    • (c) any amount payable under Part XII.5 or XIII by any non-resident person,

    and, where the Minister sends a notice of assessment to the person, sections 150 to 163, subsections 164(1) and 164(1.4) to 164(7), sections 164.1 to 167 and Division J of Part I apply with such modifications as the circumstances require.

  • Marginal note:Joint and several, or solidary, liability re contributions to RCA

    (10.2) If a non-resident person fails to deduct, withhold or remit an amount as required by subsection 153(1) in respect of a contribution under a retirement compensation arrangement that is paid on behalf of the employees or former employees of an employer with whom the non-resident person does not deal at arm’s length, the employer is jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable with the non-resident person to pay any amount payable under subsection (8), (8.2), (8.3), (9), (9.2) or (9.4) by the non-resident person in respect of the contribution.

  • (10.3) to (10.9) [Repealed, 1994, c. 7, Sch. VIII, s. 153]

  • Marginal note:Withholding tax

    (11) Provisions of this Act requiring a person to deduct or withhold an amount in respect of taxes from amounts payable to a taxpayer are applicable to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province.

  • Marginal note:Agreement not to deduct void

    (12) Where this Act requires an amount to be deducted or withheld, an agreement by the person on whom that obligation is imposed not to deduct or withhold is void.

  • Marginal note:Minister’s receipt discharges debtor

    (13) The receipt of the Minister for an amount deducted or withheld by any person as required by or under this Act is a good and sufficient discharge of the liability of any debtor to the debtor’s creditor with respect thereto to the extent of the amount referred to in the receipt.

  • Marginal note:Application of other Parts

    (14) Parts IV, IV.1, VI and VI.1 do not apply to any corporation for any period throughout which it is exempt from tax because of section 149.

  • Marginal note:Partnership included in “person”

    (15) In this section, a reference to a “person” with respect to any amount deducted or withheld or required to be deducted or withheld is deemed to include a partnership.

  • Marginal note:Municipal or provincial corporation excepted

    (16) A corporation that at any time in a taxation year would be a corporation described in any of paragraphs 149(1)(d) to (d.6) but for a provision of an appropriation Act is deemed not to be a private corporation for the purposes of Part IV with respect to that year.

  • NOTE: Application provisions are not included in the consolidated text;
  • see relevant amending Acts. R.S., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.), s. 227;
  • 1994, c. 7, Sch. II, s. 186, Sch. V, s. 90, Sch. VIII, ss. 132, 153, c. 21, s. 104;
  • 1996, c. 21, s. 57, c. 23, s. 176;
  • 1997, c. 25, s. 67;
  • 1998, c. 19, s. 226;
  • 2000, c. 12, s. 138;
  • 2001, c. 17, ss. 180, 229;
  • 2006, c. 4, s. 86;
  • 2008, c. 28, s. 33;
  • 2012, c. 19, s. 14, c. 31, s. 52;
  • 2013, c. 34, ss. 165(E), 351;
  • 2014, c. 39, s. 68.