Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 (S.C. 1994, c. 22)

Act current to 2017-08-27 and last amended on 2017-07-12. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Proof of offence — master or chief engineer

 In a prosecution of a master or chief engineer of a vessel for an offence under this Act, other than an offence of contravening paragraph 5.2(a), knowingly contravening paragraph 5.2(b) or contravening paragraph 5.2(c) or (d) or section 5.4 or 5.5, it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that it was committed by a person on board the vessel, whether or not the person is identified or prosecuted for the offence.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102.
Marginal note:Proof of offence — section 5.4

 In a prosecution of an offence under section 5.4, it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that a substance was deposited by the vessel contrary to section 5.1.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102.
Marginal note:Due diligence

 A person or vessel that establishes that they exercised due diligence to prevent the commission of an offence under this Act, other than an offence of contravening paragraph 5.2(a), (c) or (d), knowingly contravening paragraph 5.2(b) or contravening section 5.3, shall not be found guilty of the offence.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102.
Marginal note:Continuing offence

 A person or vessel that commits or continues an offence under this Act on more than one day is liable to be convicted for a separate offence for each day on which the offence is committed or continued.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102.
Marginal note:Offences involving more than one bird or nest

 If an offence under this Act involves more than one migratory bird or nest, the fine to be imposed in respect of that offence may, despite sections 13, 13.01, 13.03 and 13.04, be the total of the fines that would have been imposed if each of the migratory birds or nests had been the subject of a separate information.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102.
Marginal note:Application of fines
  •  (1) All fines received by the Receiver General in respect of the commission of an offence under this Act, other than fines collected under the Contraventions Act, are to be credited to the Environmental Damages Fund, an account in the accounts of Canada, and used for purposes related to protecting, conserving or restoring the environment or for administering that Fund.

  • Marginal note:Recommendations of court

    (2) The court imposing the fine may recommend to the Minister that all or a portion of the fine credited to the Environmental Damages Fund be paid to a person or an organization specified by the court for a purpose referred to in subsection (1).

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102.
Marginal note:Forfeiture
  •  (1) If a person or vessel is convicted of an offence, the convicting court may, in addition to any punishment imposed, order that any seized thing by means of or in relation to which the offence was committed, or any proceeds of its disposition, be forfeited to Her Majesty.

  • Marginal note:Return where no forfeiture ordered

    (2) Where the convicting court does not order forfeiture, the seized thing, or the proceeds of its disposition, must be returned to its lawful owner or the person lawfully entitled to possession of it.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 14;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 10(E)
Marginal note:Retention or sale

 If a fine is imposed on a person or vessel convicted of an offence, any seized thing, or any proceeds of its disposition, may be retained until the fine is paid, or the thing may be sold in satisfaction of the fine and the proceeds applied, in whole or in part, in payment of the fine.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 15;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 11(E)
Marginal note:Court order
  •  (1) If a person or vessel is convicted of an offence, the court may, in addition to any punishment imposed and having regard to the nature of the offence and the circumstances surrounding its commission, make an order containing one or more of the following prohibitions, directions or requirements:

    • (a) prohibiting the offender from doing any act or engaging in any activity that could, in the opinion of the court, result in the continuation or repetition of the offence;

    • (b) directing the offender to take any action the court considers appropriate to remedy or avoid any harm to any migratory bird or nest that resulted or may result from the commission of the offence;

    • (b.1) directing the offender to have an environmental audit conducted by a person of a class specified by the court at the times specified by the court, and directing the offender to remedy any deficiencies revealed by the audit;

    • (b.2) directing the offender to carry out environmental effects monitoring in the manner established by the Minister, or directing the offender to pay, in the manner specified by the court, an amount for the purpose of environmental effects monitoring;

    • (b.3) directing the offender to implement an environmental management system that meets a recognized Canadian or international standard specified by the court;

    • (b.4) directing the offender to pay to Her Majesty in right of Canada an amount of money that the court considers appropriate for the purpose of promoting the proper management, conservation or protection of migratory birds or their habitat;

    • (b.5) directing the person to pay, in the manner prescribed by the court, an amount to environmental or other groups to assist in their work in or for a community near the place where the offence was committed;

    • (c) directing the offender to publish, in the manner directed by the court, the facts relating to the commission of the offence and the details of the punishment imposed, including any orders made under this subsection;

    • (c.1) directing the offender to notify, at the offender’s own cost and in the manner directed by the court, any person aggrieved or affected by the offender’s conduct of the facts relating to the commission of the offence and of the details of the punishment imposed, including any orders made under this subsection;

    • (d) directing the offender to compensate any person, monetarily or otherwise, in whole or in part, for the cost of any remedial or preventive action taken, caused to be taken or to be taken as a result of the act or omission that constituted the offence, including costs of assessing appropriate remedial or preventive action;

    • (d.1) directing the offender to pay, in a manner specified by the court, an amount to enable research to be conducted into the protection of the migratory bird populations in respect of which the offence was committed;

    • (d.2) directing the offender to pay, in the manner prescribed by the court, an amount to an educational institution including for scholarships for students enrolled in studies related to the environment;

    • (e) directing the offender to perform community service in accordance with any reasonable conditions specified in the order;

    • (f) directing the offender to submit to the Minister, on application to the court by the Minister within three years after the conviction, any information about the offender’s activities that the court considers appropriate in the circumstances;

    • (g) directing the offender to post a bond, provide surety or pay into court an amount of money that the court considers appropriate to ensure compliance with any prohibition, direction or requirement under this section;

    • (h) requiring the offender to comply with any other conditions that the court considers appropriate in the circumstances for securing the offender’s good conduct and for deterring the offender and any other person from committing offences under this Act;

    • (i) requiring the offender to surrender to the Minister any permit issued under this Act to the offender; and

    • (j) prohibiting the offender from applying for any new permit under this Act during any period that the court considers appropriate.

  • Marginal note:Coming into force and duration of order

    (1.1) An order made under subsection (1) comes into force on the day on which it is made or on any other day that the court may determine and shall not continue in force for more than three years after that day unless the court provides otherwise in the order.

  • Marginal note:Publication

    (1.2) If an offender fails to comply with an order made under paragraph (1)(c), the Minister may, in the manner that the court directed the offender to do so, publish the facts relating to the commission of the offence and the details of the punishment imposed and recover the costs of publication from the offender.

  • Marginal note:Debt due to Her Majesty

    (1.3) If the court makes an order under paragraph (1)(b.4) or (d) directing an offender to pay an amount to Her Majesty in right of Canada, or if the Minister incurs publication costs under subsection (1.2), the amount or the costs, as the case may be, constitute a debt due to Her Majesty in right of Canada and may be recovered in any court of competent jurisdiction.

  • Marginal note:Enforcement

    (1.4) If the court makes an order under paragraph (1)(d) directing an offender to pay an amount to a person, other than to Her Majesty in right of Canada, and the amount is not paid without delay, the person may, by filing the order, enter as a judgment, in the superior court of the province in which the trial was held, the amount ordered to be paid, and that judgment is enforceable against the offender in the same manner as if it were a judgment rendered against the offender in that court in civil proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Cancellation or suspension of permits

    (1.5) If the court makes an order under paragraph (1)(i), any permit to which the order relates is cancelled unless the court makes an order suspending it for any period that the court considers appropriate.

  • Marginal note:Compensation for loss of property

    (2) The court may also, at the time sentence is imposed and on the application of a person who suffered loss of or damage to property as a result of the commission of the offence — other than an owner or operator of a vessel that committed the offence — order the offender to pay that person compensation for the loss.

  • Marginal note:Enforcement

    (3) If the amount that is ordered to be paid under paragraph (1)(d) or subsection (2) is not paid immediately, the person to whom the amount was ordered to be paid may, by filing the order, enter the amount as a judgment in the superior court of the province in which the trial was held, and the judgment is enforceable against the offender as if it were a judgment rendered against them in that court in civil proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Variation of sanctions

    (4) A court that has made an order under subsection (1) in relation to an offender may, on application by the offender or the Attorney General of Canada, require the offender to appear before it and, after hearing the offender and the Attorney General, vary the order in any of the following ways that, in the court’s opinion, is appropriate because of a change in the offender’s circumstances since the order was made:

    • (a) by making changes in the order or the conditions specified in it or extending the period during which it is to remain in force for a period of not more than one year; or

    • (b) by decreasing the period during which the order is to remain in force or relieving the offender of compliance with any condition that is specified in it, either absolutely or partially, or for a specific period.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (5) Before making an order under subsection (4), the court may direct that notice be given to any person that it considers to be interested and it may hear that person.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent applications with leave

    (6) If the court hears an application under subsection (4) in respect of an offender, no other application may be made under that subsection with respect to the offender except with leave of the court.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 16;
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 12;
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 103.
 
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