Trade-marks Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. T-13)

Act current to 2014-08-05 and last amended on 2014-06-19. Previous Versions

Trade-marks Act

R.S.C., 1985, c. T-13

An Act relating to trade-marks and unfair competition

SHORT TITLE

Marginal note:Short title

 This Act may be cited as the Trade-marks Act.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 1.

INTERPRETATION

Marginal note:Definitions

 In this Act,

“certification mark”

« marque de certification »

“certification mark” means a mark that is used for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services that are of a defined standard with respect to

  • (a) the character or quality of the wares or services,

  • (b) the working conditions under which the wares have been produced or the services performed,

  • (c) the class of persons by whom the wares have been produced or the services performed, or

  • (d) the area within which the wares have been produced or the services performed,

from wares or services that are not of that defined standard;

“confusing”

« créant de la confusion »

“confusing”, when applied as an adjective to a trade-mark or trade-name, means a trade-mark or trade-name the use of which would cause confusion in the manner and circumstances described in section 6;

“Convention”

« Convention »

“Convention” means the Convention of the Union of Paris made on March 20, 1883 and any amendments and revisions thereof made before or after July 1, 1954 to which Canada is party;

“country of origin”

« pays d’origine »

“country of origin” means

  • (a) the country of the Union in which the applicant for registration of a trade-mark had at the date of the application a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment, or

  • (b) if the applicant for registration of a trade-mark did not at the date of the application have in a country of the Union an establishment as described in paragraph (a), the country of the Union where he on that date had his domicile, or

  • (c) if the applicant for registration of a trade-mark did not at the date of the application have in a country of the Union an establishment as described in paragraph (a) or a domicile as described in paragraph (b), the country of the Union of which he was on that date a citizen or national;

“country of the Union”

« pays de l’Union »

“country of the Union” means

  • (a) any country that is a member of the Union for the Protection of Industrial Property constituted under the Convention, or

  • (b) any WTO Member;

“distinctive”

« distinctive »

“distinctive”, in relation to a trade-mark, means a trade-mark that actually distinguishes the wares or services in association with which it is used by its owner from the wares or services of others or is adapted so to distinguish them;

“distinguishing guise”

« signe distinctif »

“distinguishing guise” means

  • (a) a shaping of wares or their containers, or

  • (b) a mode of wrapping or packaging wares

the appearance of which is used by a person for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him from those manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by others;

“geographical indication”

« indication géographique »

“geographical indication” means, in respect of a wine or spirit, an indication that

  • (a) identifies the wine or spirit as originating in the territory of a WTO Member, or a region or locality of that territory, where a quality, reputation or other characteristic of the wine or spirit is essentially attributable to its geographical origin, and

  • (b) except in the case of an indication identifying a wine or spirit originating in Canada, is protected by the laws applicable to that WTO Member;

“owner”

« propriétaire »

“owner”, in relation to a certification mark, means the person by whom the defined standard has been established;

“package”

« paquet » ou « colis »

“package” includes any container or holder ordinarily associated with wares at the time of the transfer of the property in or possession of the wares in the course of trade;

“person”

« personne »

“person” includes any lawful trade union and any lawful association engaged in trade or business or the promotion thereof, and the administrative authority of any country, state, province, municipality or other organized administrative area;

“person interested”

« personne intéressée »

“person interested” includes any person who is affected or reasonably apprehends that he may be affected by any entry in the register, or by any act or omission or contemplated act or omission under or contrary to this Act, and includes the Attorney General of Canada;

“prescribed”

« prescrit »

“prescribed” means prescribed by or under the regulations;

“proposed trade-mark”

« marque de commerce projetée »

“proposed trade-mark” means a mark that is proposed to be used by a person for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him from those manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by others;

“protected geographical indication”

« indication géographique protégée »

“protected geographical indication” means a geographical indication that is on the list kept pursuant to subsection 11.12(1);

“register”

« registre »

“register” means the register kept under section 26;

“registered trade-mark”

« marque de commerce déposée »

“registered trade-mark” means a trade-mark that is on the register;

“registered user”

“registered user”[Repealed, 1993, c. 15, s. 57]

“Registrar”

« registraire »

“Registrar” means the Registrar of Trade-marks who is described in subsection 63(1);

“related companies”

« compagnies connexes »

“related companies” means companies that are members of a group of two or more companies one of which, directly or indirectly, owns or controls a majority of the issued voting stock of the others;

“representative for service”

« représentant pour signification »

“representative for service” means the person or firm named under paragraph 30(g), subsection 38(3), paragraph 41(1)(a) or subsection 42(1);

“trade-mark”

« marque de commerce »

“trade-mark” means

  • (a) a mark that is used by a person for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him from those manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by others,

  • (b) a certification mark,

  • (c) a distinguishing guise, or

  • (d) a proposed trade-mark;

“trade-name”

« nom commercial »

“trade-name” means the name under which any business is carried on, whether or not it is the name of a corporation, a partnership or an individual;

“use”

« emploi » ou « usage »

“use”, in relation to a trade-mark, means any use that by section 4 is deemed to be a use in association with wares or services;

“wares”

« marchandises »

“wares” includes printed publications;

“WTO Agreement”

« Accord sur l’OMC »

“WTO Agreement” has the meaning given to the word “Agreement” by subsection 2(1) of the World Trade Organization Agreement Implementation Act;

“WTO Member”

« membre de l’OMC »

“WTO Member” means a Member of the World Trade Organization established by Article I of the WTO Agreement.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 2;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 57;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 190;
  • 2014, c. 20, s. 369.
Marginal note:When deemed to be adopted

 A trade-mark is deemed to have been adopted by a person when that person or his predecessor in title commenced to use it in Canada or to make it known in Canada or, if that person or his predecessor had not previously so used it or made it known, when that person or his predecessor filed an application for its registration in Canada.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 3.
Marginal note:When deemed to be used
  •  (1) A trade-mark is deemed to be used in association with wares if, at the time of the transfer of the property in or possession of the wares, in the normal course of trade, it is marked on the wares themselves or on the packages in which they are distributed or it is in any other manner so associated with the wares that notice of the association is then given to the person to whom the property or possession is transferred.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) A trade-mark is deemed to be used in association with services if it is used or displayed in the performance or advertising of those services.

  • Marginal note:Use by export

    (3) A trade-mark that is marked in Canada on wares or on the packages in which they are contained is, when the wares are exported from Canada, deemed to be used in Canada in association with those wares.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 4.
Marginal note:When deemed to be made known

 A trade-mark is deemed to be made known in Canada by a person only if it is used by that person in a country of the Union, other than Canada, in association with wares or services, and

  • (a) the wares are distributed in association with it in Canada, or

  • (b) the wares or services are advertised in association with it in

    • (i) any printed publication circulated in Canada in the ordinary course of commerce among potential dealers in or users of the wares or services, or

    • (ii) radio broadcasts ordinarily received in Canada by potential dealers in or users of the wares or services,

and it has become well known in Canada by reason of the distribution or advertising.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 5.
Marginal note:When mark or name confusing
  •  (1) For the purposes of this Act, a trade-mark or trade-name is confusing with another trade-mark or trade-name if the use of the first mentioned trade-mark or trade-name would cause confusion with the last mentioned trade-mark or trade-name in the manner and circumstances described in this section.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) The use of a trade-mark causes confusion with another trade-mark if the use of both trade-marks in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with those trade-marks are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (3) The use of a trade-mark causes confusion with a trade-name if the use of both the trade-mark and trade-name in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with the trade-mark and those associated with the business carried on under the trade-name are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (4) The use of a trade-name causes confusion with a trade-mark if the use of both the trade-name and trade-mark in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with the business carried on under the trade-name and those associated with the trade-mark are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class.

  • Marginal note:What to be considered

    (5) In determining whether trade-marks or trade-names are confusing, the court or the Registrar, as the case may be, shall have regard to all the surrounding circumstances including

    • (a) the inherent distinctiveness of the trade-marks or trade-names and the extent to which they have become known;

    • (b) the length of time the trade-marks or trade-names have been in use;

    • (c) the nature of the wares, services or business;

    • (d) the nature of the trade; and

    • (e) the degree of resemblance between the trade-marks or trade-names in appearance or sound or in the ideas suggested by them.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 6.

UNFAIR COMPETITION AND PROHIBITED MARKS

Marginal note:Prohibitions

 No person shall

  • (a) make a false or misleading statement tending to discredit the business, wares or services of a competitor;

  • (b) direct public attention to his wares, services or business in such a way as to cause or be likely to cause confusion in Canada, at the time he commenced so to direct attention to them, between his wares, services or business and the wares, services or business of another;

  • (c) pass off other wares or services as and for those ordered or requested;

  • (d) make use, in association with wares or services, of any description that is false in a material respect and likely to mislead the public as to

    • (i) the character, quality, quantity or composition,

    • (ii) the geographical origin, or

    • (iii) the mode of the manufacture, production or performance

    of the wares or services; or

  • (e) do any other act or adopt any other business practice contrary to honest industrial or commercial usage in Canada.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 7.
Marginal note:Warranty of lawful use

 Every person who in the course of trade transfers the property in or the possession of any wares bearing, or in packages bearing, any trade-mark or trade-name shall, unless before the transfer he otherwise expressly states in writing, be deemed to warrant, to the person to whom the property or possession is transferred, that the trade-mark or trade-name has been and may be lawfully used in connection with the wares.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 8.
Marginal note:Prohibited marks
  •  (1) No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any mark consisting of, or so nearly resembling as to be likely to be mistaken for,

    • (a) the Royal Arms, Crest or Standard;

    • (b) the arms or crest of any member of the Royal Family;

    • (c) the standard, arms or crest of His Excellency the Governor General;

    • (d) any word or symbol likely to lead to the belief that the wares or services in association with which it is used have received, or are produced, sold or performed under, royal, vice-regal or governmental patronage, approval or authority;

    • (e) the arms, crest or flag adopted and used at any time by Canada or by any province or municipal corporation in Canada in respect of which the Registrar has, at the request of the Government of Canada or of the province or municipal corporation concerned, given public notice of its adoption and use;

    • (f) the emblem of the Red Cross on a white ground, formed by reversing the federal colours of Switzerland and retained by the Geneva Convention for the Protection of War Victims of 1949 as the emblem and distinctive sign of the Medical Service of armed forces and used by the Canadian Red Cross Society, or the expression “Red Cross” or “Geneva Cross”;

    • (g) the emblem of the Red Crescent on a white ground adopted for the same purpose as specified in paragraph (f) by a number of Moslem countries;

    • (g.1) the third Protocol emblem — commonly known as the “Red Crystal” — referred to in Article 2, paragraph 2 of Schedule VII to the Geneva Conventions Act and composed of a red frame in the shape of a square on edge on a white ground, adopted for the same purpose as specified in paragraph (f);

    • (h) the equivalent sign of the Red Lion and Sun used by Iran for the same purpose as specified in paragraph (f);

    • (h.1) the international distinctive sign of civil defence (equilateral blue triangle on an orange ground) referred to in Article 66, paragraph 4 of Schedule V to the Geneva Conventions Act;

    • (i) any territorial or civic flag or any national, territorial or civic arms, crest or emblem, of a country of the Union, if the flag, arms, crest or emblem is on a list communicated under article 6ter of the Convention or pursuant to the obligations under the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set out in Annex 1C to the WTO Agreement stemming from that article, and the Registrar gives public notice of the communication;

    • (i.1) any official sign or hallmark indicating control or warranty adopted by a country of the Union, if the sign or hallmark is on a list communicated under article 6ter of the Convention or pursuant to the obligations under the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set out in Annex 1C to the WTO Agreement stemming from that article, and the Registrar gives public notice of the communication;

    • (i.2) any national flag of a country of the Union;

    • (i.3) any armorial bearing, flag or other emblem, or any abbreviation of the name, of an international intergovernmental organization, if the armorial bearing, flag, emblem or abbreviation is on a list communicated under article 6ter of the Convention or pursuant to the obligations under the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set out in Annex 1C to the WTO Agreement stemming from that article, and the Registrar gives public notice of the communication;

    • (j) any scandalous, obscene or immoral word or device;

    • (k) any matter that may falsely suggest a connection with any living individual;

    • (l) the portrait or signature of any individual who is living or has died within the preceding thirty years;

    • (m) the words “United Nations” or the official seal or emblem of the United Nations;

    • (n) any badge, crest, emblem or mark

      • (i) adopted or used by any of Her Majesty’s Forces as defined in the National Defence Act,

      • (ii) of any university, or

      • (iii) adopted and used by any public authority, in Canada as an official mark for wares or services,

      in respect of which the Registrar has, at the request of Her Majesty or of the university or public authority, as the case may be, given public notice of its adoption and use;

    • (n.1) any armorial bearings granted, recorded or approved for use by a recipient pursuant to the prerogative powers of Her Majesty as exercised by the Governor General in respect of the granting of armorial bearings, if the Registrar has, at the request of the Governor General, given public notice of the grant, recording or approval; or

    • (o) the name “Royal Canadian Mounted Police” or “R.C.M.P.” or any other combination of letters relating to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, or any pictorial representation of a uniformed member thereof.

  • Marginal note:Excepted uses

    (2) Nothing in this section prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of any mark

    • (a) described in subsection (1) with the consent of Her Majesty or such other person, society, authority or organization as may be considered to have been intended to be protected by this section; or

    • (b) consisting of, or so nearly resembling as to be likely to be mistaken for

      • (i) an official sign or hallmark mentioned in paragraph (1)(i.1), except in respect of wares that are the same or similar to the wares in respect of which the official sign or hallmark has been adopted, or

      • (ii) an armorial bearing, flag, emblem or abbreviation mentioned in paragraph (1)(i.3), unless the use of the mark is likely to mislead the public as to a connection between the user and the organization.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 9;
  • 1990, c. 14, s. 8;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 58;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 191;
  • 1999, c. 31, s. 209(F);
  • 2007, c. 26, s. 6.
Marginal note:Further prohibitions

 Where any mark has by ordinary and bona fide commercial usage become recognized in Canada as designating the kind, quality, quantity, destination, value, place of origin or date of production of any wares or services, no person shall adopt it as a trade-mark in association with such wares or services or others of the same general class or use it in a way likely to mislead, nor shall any person so adopt or so use any mark so nearly resembling that mark as to be likely to be mistaken therefor.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 10.
Marginal note:Further prohibitions

 Where a denomination must, under the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act, be used to designate a plant variety, no person shall adopt it as a trade-mark in association with the plant variety or another plant variety of the same species or use it in a way likely to mislead, nor shall any person so adopt or so use any mark so nearly resembling that denomination as to be likely to be mistaken therefor.

  • 1990, c. 20, s. 79.
Marginal note:Further prohibitions

 No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any mark adopted contrary to section 9 or 10 of this Act or section 13 or 14 of the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 11.
Marginal note:Further prohibitions

 No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any denomination adopted contrary to section 10.1.

  • 1990, c. 20, s. 80.
Marginal note:Definitions

 In sections 11.12 to 11.2,

“Minister”

« ministre »

“Minister” means the member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada designated as the Minister for the purposes of sections 11.12 to 11.2;

“responsible authority”

« autorité compétente »

“responsible authority” means, in relation to a wine or spirit, the person, firm or other entity that, in the opinion of the Minister, is, by reason of state or commercial interest, sufficiently connected with and knowledgeable of that wine or spirit to be a party to any proceedings in respect of an objection filed under subsection 11.13(1).

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.
Marginal note:List
  •  (1) There shall be kept under the supervision of the Registrar a list of geographical indications.

  • Marginal note:Statement of Minister

    (2) Where a statement by the Minister, setting out in respect of an indication the information mentioned in subsection (3), is published in the Canada Gazette and

    • (a) a statement of objection has not been filed and served on the responsible authority in accordance with subsection 11.13(1) and the time for the filing of the statement of objection has expired, or

    • (b) a statement of objection has been so filed and served, but it has been withdrawn or deemed under subsection 11.13(6) to have been withdrawn or it has been rejected pursuant to subsection 11.13(7) or, if an appeal is taken, it is rejected pursuant to the final judgment given in the appeal,

    the Registrar shall enter the indication on the list of geographical indications kept pursuant to subsection (1).

  • Marginal note:Information

    (3) For the purposes of subsection (2), the statement by the Minister must set out the following information in respect of an indication:

    • (a) that the Minister proposes that the indication be entered on the list of geographical indications kept pursuant to subsection (1);

    • (b) that the indication identifies a wine or that the indication identifies a spirit;

    • (c) the territory, or the region or locality of a territory, in which the wine or spirit is identified as originating;

    • (d) the name of the responsible authority in relation to the wine or spirit and the address of the responsible authority’s principal office or place of business in Canada, if any, and if the responsible authority has no office or place of business in Canada, the name and address in Canada of a person or firm on whom service of any document or proceedings in respect of an objection may be given or served with the same effect as if they had been given to or served on the responsible authority itself; and

    • (e) the quality, reputation or other characteristic of the wine or spirit that, in the opinion of the Minister, qualifies that indication as a geographical indication.

  • Marginal note:Removal from list

    (4) The Registrar shall remove an indication from the list of geographical indications kept pursuant to subsection (1) on the publication in the Canada Gazette of a statement by the Minister that the indication is to be removed.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.
Marginal note:Statement of objection
  •  (1) Within three months after the publication in the Canada Gazette of a statement referred to in subsection 11.12(2), any person interested may, on payment of the prescribed fee, file with the Registrar, and serve on the responsible authority in the prescribed manner, a statement of objection.

  • Marginal note:Ground

    (2) A statement of objection may be based only on the ground that the indication is not a geographical indication.

  • Marginal note:Content

    (3) A statement of objection shall set out

    • (a) the ground of objection in sufficient detail to enable the responsible authority to reply thereto; and

    • (b) the address of the objector’s principal office or place of business in Canada, if any, and if the objector has no office or place of business in Canada, the address of the principal office or place of business abroad and the name and address in Canada of a person or firm on whom service of any document in respect of the objection may be made with the same effect as if it had been served on the objector.

  • Marginal note:Counter statement

    (4) Within three months after a statement of objection has been served on the responsible authority, the responsible authority may file a counter statement with the Registrar and serve a copy on the objector in the prescribed manner, and if the responsible authority does not so file and serve a counter statement, the indication shall not be entered on the list of geographical indications.

  • Marginal note:Evidence and hearing

    (5) Both the objector and the responsible authority shall be given an opportunity, in the manner prescribed, to submit evidence and to make representations to the Registrar unless

    • (a) the responsible authority does not file and serve a counter statement in accordance with subsection (4) or if, in the prescribed circumstances, the responsible authority does not submit evidence or a statement that the responsible authority does not wish to submit evidence; or

    • (b) the objection is withdrawn or deemed under subsection (6) to have been withdrawn.

  • Marginal note:Withdrawal of objection

    (6) The objection shall be deemed to have been withdrawn if, in the prescribed circumstances, the objector does not submit evidence or a statement that the objector does not wish to submit evidence.

  • Marginal note:Decision

    (7) After considering the evidence and representations of the objector and the responsible authority, the Registrar shall decide that the indication is not a geographical indication or reject the objection, and notify the parties of the decision and the reasons for the decision.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.
Marginal note:Prohibited adoption of indication for wines
  •  (1) No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

    • (a) a protected geographical indication identifying a wine in respect of a wine not originating in the territory indicated by the protected geographical indication; or

    • (b) a translation in any language of the geographical indication in respect of that wine.

  • Marginal note:Prohibited use

    (2) No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

    • (a) a protected geographical indication identifying a wine in respect of a wine not originating in the territory indicated by the protected geographical indication or adopted contrary to subsection (1); or

    • (b) a translation in any language of the geographical indication in respect of that wine.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.
Marginal note:Prohibited adoption of indication for spirits
  •  (1) No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

    • (a) a protected geographical indication identifying a spirit in respect of a spirit not originating in the territory indicated by the protected geographical indication; or

    • (b) a translation in any language of the geographical indication in respect of that spirit.

  • Marginal note:Prohibited use

    (2) No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise,

    • (a) a protected geographical indication identifying a spirit in respect of a spirit not originating in the territory indicated by the protected geographical indication or adopted contrary to subsection (1); or

    • (b) a translation in any language of the geographical indication in respect of that spirit.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.
Marginal note:Exception for personal names
  •  (1) Sections 11.14 and 11.15 do not prevent a person from using, in the course of trade, that person’s name or the name of the person’s predecessor-in-title, except where the name is used in such a manner as to mislead the public.

  • Marginal note:Exception for comparative advertising

    (2) Subject to subsection (3), sections 11.14 and 11.15 do not prevent a person from using a protected geographical indication in comparative advertising in respect of a wine or spirit.

  • Marginal note:Exception not applicable to packaging

    (3) Subsection (2) does not apply to comparative advertising on labels or packaging associated with a wine or spirit.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.
Marginal note:Continued use
  •  (1) Where a Canadian has used a protected geographical indication in a continuous manner in relation to any business or commercial activity in respect of goods or services

    • (a) in good faith before April 15, 1994, or

    • (b) for at least ten years before that date,

    section 11.14 or 11.15, as the case may be, does not apply to any continued or similar use by that Canadian.

  • Definition of “Canadian”

    (2) For the purposes of this section, “Canadian” includes

    • (a) a Canadian citizen;

    • (b) a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act who has been ordinarily resident in Canada for not more than one year after the time at which the permanent resident first became eligible to apply for Canadian citizenship; and

    • (c) an entity that carries on business in Canada.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192;
  • 2001, c. 27, s. 271.
Marginal note:Exception for disuse
  •  (1) Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of a protected geographical indication identifying a wine or spirit if the indication has ceased to be protected by the laws applicable to the WTO Member for which the indication is protected, or has fallen into disuse in that Member.

  • Marginal note:Exceptions for customary names

    (2) Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of an indication in respect of a wine or spirit

    • (a) that is identical with a term customary in common language in Canada as the common name for the wine or spirit, as the case may be; or

    • (b) that is identical with a customary name of a grape variety existing in Canada on or before the day on which the Agreement comes into force.

  • Marginal note:Exception for generic names for wines

    (3) Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of the following indications in respect of wines:

    • (a) to (e[Repealed, SOR/2004-85]

    • (f) to (v[Repealed, SOR/2004-85]

  • Marginal note:Exception for generic names for spirits

    (4) Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration as a trade-mark or otherwise, in connection with a business, of the following indications in respect of spirits:

    • (a[Repealed, SOR/2004-85]

    • (b) Marc;

    • (c[Repealed, SOR/2004-85]

    • (d) Sambuca;

    • (e) Geneva Gin;

    • (f) Genièvre;

    • (g) Hollands Gin;

    • (h) London Gin;

    • (i) Schnapps;

    • (j) Malt Whiskey;

    • (k) Eau-de-vie;

    • (l) Bitters;

    • (m) Anisette;

    • (n) Curacao; and

    • (o) Curaçao.

  • Marginal note:Governor in Council amendment

    (5) The Governor in Council may, by order, amend subsection (3) or (4) by adding thereto or deleting therefrom an indication in respect of a wine or spirit, as the case may be.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192;
  • SOR/2004-85.
Marginal note:Exception for failure to take proceedings
  •  (1) Sections 11.14 and 11.15 do not apply to the adoption or use of a trade-mark by a person if no proceedings are taken to enforce those sections in respect of that person’s use or adoption of the trade-mark within five years after use of the trade-mark by that person or that person’s predecessor-in-title has become generally known in Canada or the trade-mark has been registered by that person in Canada, unless it is established that that person or that person’s predecessor-in-title first used or adopted the trade-mark with knowledge that such use or adoption was contrary to section 11.14 or 11.15, as the case may be.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) In proceedings respecting a registered trade-mark commenced after the expiration of five years from the earlier of the date of registration of the trade-mark in Canada and the date on which use of the trade-mark by the person who filed the application for registration of the trade-mark or that person’s predecessor-in-title has become generally known in Canada, the registration shall not be expunged or amended or held invalid on the basis of paragraph 12(1)(g) or (h) unless it is established that the person who filed the application for registration of the trade-mark did so with knowledge that the trade-mark was in whole or in part a protected geographical indication.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.
Marginal note:Transitional

 Notwithstanding sections 11.14 and 11.15 and paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h), where a person has in good faith

  • (a) filed an application in accordance with section 30 for, or secured the registration of, a trade-mark that is identical with or similar to the geographical indication in respect of a wine or spirit protected by the laws applicable to a WTO Member, or

  • (b) acquired rights to a trade-mark in respect of such a wine or spirit through use,

before the later of the date on which this section comes into force and the date on which protection in respect of the wine or spirit by the laws applicable to that Member commences, nothing in any of those provisions prevents the adoption, use or registration of that trade-mark by that person.

  • 1994, c. 47, s. 192.

REGISTRABLE TRADE-MARKS

Marginal note:When trade-mark registrable
  •  (1) Subject to section 13, a trade-mark is registrable if it is not

    • (a) a word that is primarily merely the name or the surname of an individual who is living or has died within the preceding thirty years;

    • (b) whether depicted, written or sounded, either clearly descriptive or deceptively misdescriptive in the English or French language of the character or quality of the wares or services in association with which it is used or proposed to be used or of the conditions of or the persons employed in their production or of their place of origin;

    • (c) the name in any language of any of the wares or services in connection with which it is used or proposed to be used;

    • (d) confusing with a registered trade-mark;

    • (e) a mark of which the adoption is prohibited by section 9 or 10;

    • (f) a denomination the adoption of which is prohibited by section 10.1;

    • (g) in whole or in part a protected geographical indication, where the trade-mark is to be registered in association with a wine not originating in a territory indicated by the geographical indication;

    • (h) in whole or in part a protected geographical indication, where the trade-mark is to be registered in association with a spirit not originating in a territory indicated by the geographical indication; and

    • (i) subject to subsection 3(3) and paragraph 3(4)(a) of the Olympic and Paralympic Marks Act, a mark the adoption of which is prohibited by subsection 3(1) of that Act.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) A trade-mark that is not registrable by reason of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is registrable if it has been so used in Canada by the applicant or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of filing an application for its registration.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 12;
  • 1990, c. 20, s. 81;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 59(F);
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 193;
  • 2007, c. 25, s. 14.
Marginal note:When distinguishing guises registrable
  •  (1) A distinguishing guise is registrable only if

    • (a) it has been so used in Canada by the applicant or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of filing an application for its registration; and

    • (b) the exclusive use by the applicant of the distinguishing guise in association with the wares or services with which it has been used is not likely unreasonably to limit the development of any art or industry.

  • Marginal note:Effect of registration

    (2) No registration of a distinguishing guise interferes with the use of any utilitarian feature embodied in the distinguishing guise.

  • Marginal note:Not to limit art or industry

    (3) The registration of a distinguishing guise may be expunged by the Federal Court on the application of any interested person if the Court decides that the registration has become likely unreasonably to limit the development of any art or industry.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 13;
  • R.S., c. 10(2nd Supp.), s. 64.
Marginal note:Registration of marks registered abroad
  •  (1) Notwithstanding section 12, a trade-mark that the applicant or the applicant’s predecessor in title has caused to be duly registered in or for the country of origin of the applicant is registrable if, in Canada,

    • (a) it is not confusing with a registered trade-mark;

    • (b) it is not without distinctive character, having regard to all the circumstances of the case including the length of time during which it has been used in any country;

    • (c) it is not contrary to morality or public order or of such a nature as to deceive the public; or

    • (d) it is not a trade-mark of which the adoption is prohibited by section 9 or 10.

  • Marginal note:Trade-marks regarded as registered abroad

    (2) A trade-mark that differs from the trade-mark registered in the country of origin only by elements that do not alter its distinctive character or affect its identity in the form under which it is registered in the country of origin shall be regarded for the purpose of subsection (1) as the trade-mark so registered.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 14;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 194.
Marginal note:Registration of confusing marks
  •  (1) Notwithstanding section 12 or 14, confusing trade-marks are registrable if the applicant is the owner of all such trade-marks, which shall be known as associated trade-marks.

  • Marginal note:Record

    (2) On the registration of any trade-mark associated with any other registered trade-mark, a note of the registration of each trade-mark shall be made on the record of registration of the other trade-mark.

  • Marginal note:Amendment

    (3) No amendment of the register recording any change in the ownership or in the name or address of the owner of any one of a group of associated trade-marks shall be made unless the Registrar is satisfied that the same change has occurred with respect to all the trade-marks in the group, and corresponding entries are made contemporaneously with respect to all those trade-marks.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 15.

PERSONS ENTITLED TO REGISTRATION OF TRADE-MARKS

Marginal note:Registration of marks used or made known in Canada
  •  (1) Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with section 30 for registration of a trade-mark that is registrable and that he or his predecessor in title has used in Canada or made known in Canada in association with wares or services is entitled, subject to section 38, to secure its registration in respect of those wares or services, unless at the date on which he or his predecessor in title first so used it or made it known it was confusing with

    • (a) a trade-mark that had been previously used in Canada or made known in Canada by any other person;

    • (b) a trade-mark in respect of which an application for registration had been previously filed in Canada by any other person; or

    • (c) a trade-name that had been previously used in Canada by any other person.

  • Marginal note:Marks registered and used abroad

    (2) Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with section 30 for registration of a trade-mark that is registrable and that the applicant or the applicant’s predecessor in title has duly registered in or for the country of origin of the applicant and has used in association with wares or services is entitled, subject to section 38, to secure its registration in respect of the wares or services in association with which it is registered in that country and has been used, unless at the date of filing of the application in accordance with section 30 it was confusing with

    • (a) a trade-mark that had been previously used in Canada or made known in Canada by any other person;

    • (b) a trade-mark in respect of which an application for registration had been previously filed in Canada by any other person; or

    • (c) a trade-name that had been previously used in Canada by any other person.

  • Marginal note:Proposed marks

    (3) Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with section 30 for registration of a proposed trade-mark that is registrable is entitled, subject to sections 38 and 40, to secure its registration in respect of the wares or services specified in the application, unless at the date of filing of the application it was confusing with

    • (a) a trade-mark that had been previously used in Canada or made known in Canada by any other person;

    • (b) a trade-mark in respect of which an application for registration had been previously filed in Canada by any other person; or

    • (c) a trade-name that had been previously used in Canada by any other person.

  • Marginal note:Where application for confusing mark pending

    (4) The right of an applicant to secure registration of a registrable trade-mark is not affected by the previous filing of an application for registration of a confusing trade-mark by another person, unless the application for registration of the confusing trade-mark was pending at the date of advertisement of the applicant’s application in accordance with section 37.

  • Marginal note:Previous use or making known

    (5) The right of an applicant to secure registration of a registrable trade-mark is not affected by the previous use or making known of a confusing trade-mark or trade-name by another person, if the confusing trade-mark or trade-name was abandoned at the date of advertisement of the applicant’s application in accordance with section 37.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 16;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 195.

VALIDITY AND EFFECT OF REGISTRATION

Marginal note:Effect of registration in relation to previous use, etc.
  •  (1) No application for registration of a trade-mark that has been advertised in accordance with section 37 shall be refused and no registration of a trade-mark shall be expunged or amended or held invalid on the ground of any previous use or making known of a confusing trade-mark or trade-name by a person other than the applicant for that registration or his predecessor in title, except at the instance of that other person or his successor in title, and the burden lies on that other person or his successor to establish that he had not abandoned the confusing trade-mark or trade-name at the date of advertisement of the applicant’s application.

  • Marginal note:When registration incontestable

    (2) In proceedings commenced after the expiration of five years from the date of registration of a trade-mark or from July 1, 1954, whichever is the later, no registration shall be expunged or amended or held invalid on the ground of the previous use or making known referred to in subsection (1), unless it is established that the person who adopted the registered trade-mark in Canada did so with knowledge of that previous use or making known.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 17.
Marginal note:When registration invalid
  •  (1) The registration of a trade-mark is invalid if

    • (a) the trade-mark was not registrable at the date of registration,

    • (b) the trade-mark is not distinctive at the time proceedings bringing the validity of the registration into question are commenced, or

    • (c) the trade-mark has been abandoned,

    and subject to section 17, it is invalid if the applicant for registration was not the person entitled to secure the registration.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (2) No registration of a trade-mark that had been so used in Canada by the registrant or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of registration shall be held invalid merely on the ground that evidence of the distinctiveness was not submitted to the competent authority or tribunal before the grant of the registration.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 18.
Marginal note:Rights conferred by registration

 Subject to sections 21, 32 and 67, the registration of a trade-mark in respect of any wares or services, unless shown to be invalid, gives to the owner of the trade-mark the exclusive right to the use throughout Canada of the trade-mark in respect of those wares or services.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 19;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 60.
Marginal note:Infringement
  •  (1) The right of the owner of a registered trade-mark to its exclusive use shall be deemed to be infringed by a person not entitled to its use under this Act who sells, distributes or advertises wares or services in association with a confusing trade-mark or trade-name, but no registration of a trade-mark prevents a person from making

    • (a) any bona fide use of his personal name as a trade-name, or

    • (b) any bona fide use, other than as a trade-mark,

      • (i) of the geographical name of his place of business, or

      • (ii) of any accurate description of the character or quality of his wares or services,

    in such a manner as is not likely to have the effect of depreciating the value of the goodwill attaching to the trade-mark.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (2) No registration of a trade-mark prevents a person from making any use of any of the indications mentioned in subsection 11.18(3) in association with a wine or any of the indications mentioned in subsection 11.18(4) in association with a spirit.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 20;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 196.
Marginal note:Concurrent use of confusing marks
  •  (1) Where, in any proceedings respecting a registered trade-mark the registration of which is entitled to the protection of subsection 17(2), it is made to appear to the Federal Court that one of the parties to the proceedings, other than the registered owner of the trade-mark, had in good faith used a confusing trade-mark or trade-name in Canada before the date of filing of the application for that registration, and the Court considers that it is not contrary to the public interest that the continued use of the confusing trade-mark or trade-name should be permitted in a defined territorial area concurrently with the use of the registered trade-mark, the Court may, subject to such terms as it deems just, order that the other party may continue to use the confusing trade-mark or trade-name within that area with an adequate specified distinction from the registered trade-mark.

  • Marginal note:Registration of order

    (2) The rights conferred by an order made under subsection (1) take effect only if, within three months from its date, the other party makes application to the Registrar to enter it on the register in connection with the registration of the registered trade-mark.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 21;
  • R.S., c. 10(2nd Supp.), s. 64.
Marginal note:Depreciation of goodwill
  •  (1) No person shall use a trade-mark registered by another person in a manner that is likely to have the effect of depreciating the value of the goodwill attaching thereto.

  • Marginal note:Action in respect thereof

    (2) In any action in respect of a use of a trade-mark contrary to subsection (1), the court may decline to order the recovery of damages or profits and may permit the defendant to continue to sell wares marked with the trade-mark that were in his possession or under his control at the time notice was given to him that the owner of the registered trade-mark complained of the use of the trade-mark.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 22.

CERTIFICATION MARKS

Marginal note:Registration of certification marks
  •  (1) A certification mark may be adopted and registered only by a person who is not engaged in the manufacture, sale, leasing or hiring of wares or the performance of services such as those in association with which the certification mark is used.

  • Marginal note:Licence

    (2) The owner of a certification mark may license others to use the mark in association with wares or services that meet the defined standard, and the use of the mark accordingly shall be deemed to be use thereof by the owner.

  • Marginal note:Unauthorized use

    (3) The owner of a registered certification mark may prevent its use by unlicensed persons or in association with any wares or services in respect of which the mark is registered but to which the licence does not extend.

  • Marginal note:Action by unincorporated body

    (4) Where the owner of a registered certification mark is an unincorporated body, any action or proceeding to prevent unauthorized use of the mark may be brought by any member of that body on behalf of himself and all other members thereof.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 23.
Marginal note:Registration of trade-mark confusing with certification mark

 With the consent of the owner of a certification mark, a trade-mark confusing with the certification mark may, if it exhibits an appropriate difference, be registered by some other person to indicate that the wares or services in association with which it is used have been manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him as one of the persons entitled to use the certification mark, but the registration thereof shall be expunged by the Registrar on the withdrawal at any time of the consent of the owner of the certification mark or on the cancellation of the registration of the certification mark.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 24.
Marginal note:Descriptive certification mark

 A certification mark descriptive of the place of origin of wares or services, and not confusing with any registered trade-mark, is registrable if the applicant is the administrative authority of a country, state, province or municipality including or forming part of the area indicated by the mark, or is a commercial association having an office or representative in that area, but the owner of any mark registered under this section shall permit the use of the mark in association with any wares or services produced or performed in the area of which the mark is descriptive.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 25.

REGISTER OF TRADE-MARKS

Marginal note:Register
  •  (1) There shall be kept under the supervision of the Registrar

    • (a) a register of trade-marks and of transfers, disclaimers, amendments, judgments and orders relating to each registered trade-mark; and

    • (b) the register of registered users that was required to be kept under this subsection as it read immediately before section 61 of the Intellectual Property Law Improvement Act came into force.

  • Marginal note:Information to be shown

    (2) The register referred to in paragraph (1)(a) shall show, with reference to each registered trade-mark, the following:

    • (a) the date of registration;

    • (b) a summary of the application for registration;

    • (c) a summary of all documents deposited with the application or subsequently thereto and affecting the rights to the trade-mark;

    • (d) particulars of each renewal;

    • (e) particulars of each change of name and address; and

    • (f) such other particulars as this Act or the regulations require to be entered thereon.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 26;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 61.
Marginal note:Register under Unfair Competition Act
  •  (1) The register kept under the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952, forms part of the register kept under this Act and, subject to subsection 44(2), no entry made therein, if properly made according to the law in force at the time it was made, is subject to be expunged or amended only because it might not properly have been made pursuant to this Act.

  • Marginal note:Trade-marks registered before Unfair Competition Act

    (2) Trade-marks on the register on September 1, 1932 shall be treated as design marks or word marks as defined in the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952, according to the following rules:

    • (a) any trade-mark consisting only of words or numerals or both without any indication of a special form or appearance shall be deemed to be a word mark;

    • (b) any other trade-mark consisting only of words or numerals or both shall be deemed to be a word mark if at the date of its registration the words or numerals or both would have been registrable independently of any defined special form or appearance and shall also be deemed to be a design mark for reading matter presenting the special form or appearance defined;

    • (c) any trade-mark including words or numerals or both in combination with other features shall be deemed

      • (i) to be a design mark having the features described in the application therefor but without any meaning being attributed to the words or numerals, and

      • (ii) to be a word mark if and so far as it would at the date of registration have been registrable independently of any defined form or appearance and without being combined with any other feature; and

    • (d) any other trade-mark shall be deemed to be a design mark having the features described in the application therefor.

  • Marginal note:Trade-marks registered under Unfair Competition Act

    (3) Trade-marks registered under the Unfair Competition Act, chapter 274 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952, shall, in accordance with their registration, continue to be treated as design marks or word marks as defined in that Act.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 26.
Marginal note:Indexes
  •  (1) There shall be kept under the supervision of the Registrar

    • (a) an index of registered trade-marks;

    • (b) an index of trade-marks in respect of which applications for registration are pending;

    • (c) an index of applications that have been abandoned or refused;

    • (d) an index of the names of owners of registered trade-marks;

    • (e) an index of the names of applicants for the registration of trade-marks;

    • (f) a list of trade-mark agents; and

    • (g) the index of the names of registered users that was required to be kept under this subsection as it reads immediately before section 61 of the Intellectual Property Law Improvement Act comes into force.

  • Marginal note:List of trade-mark agents

    (2) The list of trade-mark agents shall include the names of all persons and firms entitled to represent applicants in the presentation and prosecution of applications for the registration of a trade-mark or in other business before the Trade-marks Office.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 28;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 62.
Marginal note:Inspection
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), the registers, the documents on which the entries therein are based, all applications, including those abandoned, the indexes, the list of trade-mark agents and the list of geographical indications kept pursuant to subsection 11.12(1) shall be open to public inspection during business hours, and the Registrar shall, on request and on payment of the prescribed fee, furnish a copy certified by the registrar of any entry in the registers, indexes or lists, or of any of those documents or applications.

  • Marginal note:Register of registered users

    (2) The disclosure of documents on which entries in the register required to be kept under paragraph 26(1)(b) are based is subject to the provisions of subsection 50(6), as it reads immediately before section 61 of the Intellectual Property Law Improvement Act comes into force.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 29;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 63;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 197.

APPLICATIONS FOR REGISTRATION OF TRADE-MARKS

Marginal note:Contents of application

 An applicant for the registration of a trade-mark shall file with the Registrar an application containing

  • (a) a statement in ordinary commercial terms of the specific wares or services in association with which the mark has been or is proposed to be used;

  • (b) in the case of a trade-mark that has been used in Canada, the date from which the applicant or his named predecessors in title, if any, have so used the trade-mark in association with each of the general classes of wares or services described in the application;

  • (c) in the case of a trade-mark that has not been used in Canada but is made known in Canada, the name of a country of the Union in which it has been used by the applicant or his named predecessors in title, if any, and the date from and the manner in which the applicant or named predecessors in title have made it known in Canada in association with each of the general classes of wares or services described in the application;

  • (d) in the case of a trade-mark that is the subject in or for another country of the Union of a registration or an application for registration by the applicant or the applicant’s named predecessor in title on which the applicant bases the applicant’s right to registration, particulars of the application or registration and, if the trade-mark has neither been used in Canada nor made known in Canada, the name of a country in which the trade-mark has been used by the applicant or the applicant’s named predecessor in title, if any, in association with each of the general classes of wares or services described in the application;

  • (e) in the case of a proposed trade-mark, a statement that the applicant, by itself or through a licensee, or by itself and through a licensee, intends to use the trade-mark in Canada;

  • (f) in the case of a certification mark, particulars of the defined standard that the use of the mark is intended to indicate and a statement that the applicant is not engaged in the manufacture, sale, leasing or hiring of wares or the performance of services such as those in association with which the certification mark is used;

  • (g) the address of the applicant’s principal office or place of business in Canada, if any, and if the applicant has no office or place of business in Canada, the address of his principal office or place of business abroad and the name and address in Canada of a person or firm to whom any notice in respect of the application or registration may be sent, and on whom service of any proceedings in respect of the application or registration may be given or served with the same effect as if they had been given to or served on the applicant or registrant himself;

  • (h) unless the application is for the registration only of a word or words not depicted in a special form, a drawing of the trade-mark and such number of accurate representations of the trade-mark as may be prescribed; and

  • (i) a statement that the applicant is satisfied that he is entitled to use the trade-mark in Canada in association with the wares or services described in the application.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 30;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 64;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 198.
Marginal note:Applications based on registration abroad
  •  (1) An applicant whose right to registration of a trade-mark is based on a registration of the trade-mark in another country of the Union shall, before the date of advertisement of his application in accordance with section 37, furnish a copy of the registration certified by the office in which it was made, together with a translation thereof into English or French if it is in any other language, and such other evidence as the Registrar may require to establish fully his right to registration under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Evidence required in certain cases

    (2) An applicant whose trade-mark has been duly registered in his country of origin and who claims that the trade-mark is registrable under paragraph 14(1)(b) shall furnish such evidence as the Registrar may require by way of affidavit or statutory declaration establishing the circumstances on which he relies, including the length of time during which the trade-mark has been used in any country.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 30.
Marginal note:Further information in certain cases
  •  (1) An applicant who claims that his trade-mark is registrable under subsection 12(2) or section 13 shall furnish the Registrar with evidence by way of affidavit or statutory declaration establishing the extent to which and the time during which the trade-mark has been used in Canada and with any other evidence that the Registrar may require in support of the claim.

  • Marginal note:Registration to be restricted

    (2) The Registrar shall, having regard to the evidence adduced, restrict the registration to the wares or services in association with which the trade-mark is shown to have been so used as to have become distinctive and to the defined territorial area in Canada in which the trade-mark is shown to have become distinctive.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 31.
Marginal note:Applications by trade unions, etc.

 Every trade union or commercial association that applies for the registration of a trade-mark may be required to furnish satisfactory evidence that its existence is not contrary to the laws of the country in which its headquarters are situated.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 32.
Marginal note:Date of application abroad deemed date of application in Canada
  •  (1) When an application for the registration of a trade-mark has been made in or for any country of the Union other than Canada and an application is subsequently made in Canada for the registration for use in association with the same kind of wares or services of the same or substantially the same trade-mark by the same applicant or the applicant’s successor in title, the date of filing of the application in or for the other country is deemed to be the date of filing of the application in Canada, and the applicant is entitled to priority in Canada accordingly notwithstanding any intervening use in Canada or making known in Canada or any intervening application or registration if

    • (a) the application in Canada, including or accompanied by a declaration setting out the date on which and the country of the Union in or for which the earliest application was filed for the registration of the same or substantially the same trade-mark for use in association with the same kind of wares or services, is filed within a period of six months after that date, which period shall not be extended;

    • (b) the applicant or, if the applicant is a transferee, the applicant’s predecessor in title by whom any earlier application was filed in or for any country of the Union was at the date of the application a citizen or national of or domiciled in that country or had therein a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment; and

    • (c) the applicant furnishes, in accordance with any request under subsections (2) and (3), evidence necessary to establish fully the applicant’s right to priority.

  • Marginal note:Evidence requests

    (2) The Registrar may request the evidence before the day on which the application is allowed pursuant to section 39.

  • Marginal note:How and when evidence must be furnished

    (3) The Registrar may specify in the request the manner in which the evidence must be furnished and the period within which it must be furnished.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 34;
  • 1992, c. 1, s. 133;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 65;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 199.
Marginal note:Disclaimer

 The Registrar may require an applicant for registration of a trade-mark to disclaim the right to the exclusive use apart from the trade-mark of such portion of the trade-mark as is not independently registrable, but the disclaimer does not prejudice or affect the applicant’s rights then existing or thereafter arising in the disclaimed matter, nor does the disclaimer prejudice or affect the applicant’s right to registration on a subsequent application if the disclaimed matter has then become distinctive of the applicant’s wares or services.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 34.
Marginal note:Abandonment

 Where, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the prosecution of an application filed under this Act or any Act relating to trade-marks in force prior to July 1, 1954, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant of the default, treat the application as abandoned unless the default is remedied within the time specified in the notice.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 35.
Marginal note:When applications to be refused
  •  (1) The Registrar shall refuse an application for the registration of a trade-mark if he is satisfied that

    • (a) the application does not conform to the requirements of section 30,

    • (b) the trade-mark is not registrable, or

    • (c) the applicant is not the person entitled to registration of the trade-mark because it is confusing with another trade-mark for the registration of which an application is pending,

    and where the Registrar is not so satisfied, he shall cause the application to be advertised in the manner prescribed.

  • Marginal note:Notice to applicant

    (2) The Registrar shall not refuse any application without first notifying the applicant of his objections thereto and his reasons for those objections, and giving the applicant adequate opportunity to answer those objections.

  • Marginal note:Doubtful cases

    (3) Where the Registrar, by reason of a registered trade-mark, is in doubt whether the trade-mark claimed in the application is registrable, he shall, by registered letter, notify the owner of the registered trade-mark of the advertisement of the application.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 36.
Marginal note:Statement of opposition
  •  (1) Within two months after the advertisement of an application for the registration of a trade-mark, any person may, on payment of the prescribed fee, file a statement of opposition with the Registrar.

  • Marginal note:Grounds

    (2) A statement of opposition may be based on any of the following grounds:

    • (a) that the application does not conform to the requirements of section 30;

    • (b) that the trade-mark is not registrable;

    • (c) that the applicant is not the person entitled to registration of the trade-mark; or

    • (d) that the trade-mark is not distinctive.

  • Marginal note:Content

    (3) A statement of opposition shall set out

    • (a) the grounds of opposition in sufficient detail to enable the applicant to reply thereto; and

    • (b) the address of the opponent’s principal office or place of business in Canada, if any, and if the opponent has no office or place of business in Canada, the address of his principal office or place of business abroad and the name and address in Canada of a person or firm on whom service of any document in respect of the opposition may be made with the same effect as if it had been served on the opponent himself.

  • Marginal note:Frivolous opposition

    (4) If the Registrar considers that the opposition does not raise a substantial issue for decision, he shall reject it and shall give notice of his decision to the opponent.

  • Marginal note:Substantial issue

    (5) If the Registrar considers that the opposition raises a substantial issue for decision, he shall forward a copy of the statement of opposition to the applicant.

  • Marginal note:Counter statement

    (6) The applicant shall file a counter statement with the Registrar and serve a copy on the opponent in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time after a copy of the statement of opposition has been served on the applicant.

  • Marginal note:Evidence and hearing

    (7) Both the opponent and the applicant shall be given an opportunity, in the prescribed manner, to submit evidence and to make representations to the Registrar unless

    • (a) the opposition is withdrawn or deemed under subsection (7.1) to have been withdrawn; or

    • (b) the application is abandoned or deemed under subsection (7.2) to have been abandoned.

  • Marginal note:Withdrawal of opposition

    (7.1) The opposition shall be deemed to have been withdrawn if, in the prescribed circumstances, the opponent does not submit either evidence under subsection (7) or a statement that the opponent does not wish to submit evidence.

  • Marginal note:Abandonment of application

    (7.2) The application shall be deemed to have been abandoned if the applicant does not file and serve a counter statement within the time referred to in subsection (6) or if, in the prescribed circumstances, the applicant does not submit either evidence under subsection (7) or a statement that the applicant does not wish to submit evidence.

  • Marginal note:Decision

    (8) After considering the evidence and representations of the opponent and the applicant, the Registrar shall refuse the application or reject the opposition and notify the parties of the decision and the reasons for the decision.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 38;
  • 1992, c. 1, s. 134;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 66.
Marginal note:When application to be allowed
  •  (1) When an application for the registration of a trade-mark either has not been opposed and the time for the filing of a statement of opposition has expired or it has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the applicant, the Registrar shall allow the application or, if an appeal is taken, shall act in accordance with the final judgment given in the appeal.

  • Marginal note:No extension of time

    (2) Subject to subsection (3), the Registrar shall not extend the time for filing a statement of opposition with respect to any application that has been allowed.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (3) Where the Registrar has allowed an application without considering a previously filed request for an extension of time to file a statement of opposition, the Registrar may withdraw the application from allowance at any time before issuing a certificate of registration and, in accordance with section 47, extend the time for filing a statement of opposition.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 39;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 67.

REGISTRATION OF TRADE-MARKS

Marginal note:Registration of trade-marks
  •  (1) When an application for registration of a trade-mark, other than a proposed trade-mark, is allowed, the Registrar shall register the trade-mark and issue a certificate of its registration.

  • Marginal note:Proposed trade-mark

    (2) When an application for registration of a proposed trade-mark is allowed, the Registrar shall give notice to the applicant accordingly and shall register the trade-mark and issue a certificate of registration on receipt of a declaration that the use of the trade-mark in Canada, in association with the wares or services specified in the application, has been commenced by

    • (a) the applicant;

    • (b) the applicant’s successor in title; or

    • (c) an entity that is licensed by or with the authority of the applicant to use the trade-mark, if the applicant has direct or indirect control of the character or quality of the wares or services.

  • Marginal note:Abandonment of application

    (3) An application for registration of a proposed trade-mark shall be deemed to be abandoned if the Registrar has not received the declaration referred to in subsection (2) before the later of

    • (a) six months after the notice by the Registrar referred to in subsection (2), and

    • (b) three years after the date of filing of the application in Canada.

  • Marginal note:Form and effect

    (4) Registration of a trade-mark shall be made in the name of the applicant therefor or his transferee, and the day on which registration is made shall be entered on the register, and the registration takes effect on that day.

  • Marginal note:Section 34 does not apply

    (5) For the purposes of subsection (3), section 34 does not apply in determining when an application for registration is filed.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 40;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 68, c. 44, s. 231;
  • 1999, c. 31, s. 210(F).

AMENDMENT OF THE REGISTER

Marginal note:Amendments to register
  •  (1) The Registrar may, on application by the registered owner of a trade-mark made in the prescribed manner, make any of the following amendments to the register:

    • (a) correct any error or enter any change in the name, address or description of the registered owner or of his representative for service in Canada;

    • (b) cancel the registration of the trade-mark;

    • (c) amend the statement of the wares or services in respect of which the trade-mark is registered;

    • (d) amend the particulars of the defined standard that the use of a certification mark is intended to indicate; or

    • (e) enter a disclaimer that does not in any way extend the rights given by the existing registration of the trade-mark.

  • Marginal note:Conditions

    (2) An application to extend the statement of wares or services in respect of which a trade-mark is registered has the effect of an application for registration of the trade-mark in respect of the wares or services specified in the application for amendment.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 40.
Marginal note:Representative for service
  •  (1) The registered owner of a trade-mark who has no office or place of business in Canada shall name another representative for service in place of the latest recorded representative or supply a new and correct address of the latest recorded representative on notice from the Registrar that the latest recorded representative has died or that a letter addressed to him at the latest recorded address and sent by ordinary mail has been returned undelivered.

  • Marginal note:Change of address

    (2) When, after the dispatch of the notice referred to in subsection (1) by the Registrar, no new nomination is made or no new and correct address is supplied by the registered owner within three months, the Registrar or the Federal Court may dispose of any proceedings under this Act without requiring service on the registered owner of any process therein.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 41;
  • R.S., c. 10(2nd Supp.), s. 64.
Marginal note:Additional representations

 The registered owner of any trade-mark shall furnish such additional representations thereof as the Registrar may by notice demand and, if he fails to comply with that notice, the Registrar may by a further notice, fix a reasonable time after which, if the representations are not furnished, he may expunge the registration of the trade-mark.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 42.
Marginal note:Notice for information
  •  (1) The Registrar may at any time, and shall at the request of any person who pays the prescribed fee, by notice in writing require the registered owner of any trade-mark that was on the register on July 1, 1954 to furnish him within three months from the date of the notice with the information that would be required on an application for the registration of the trade-mark made at the date of the notice.

  • Marginal note:Amendments to register

    (2) The Registrar may amend the registration of the trade-mark in accordance with the information furnished to him under subsection (1).

  • Marginal note:Failure to give information

    (3) Where the information required by subsection (1) is not furnished, the Registrar shall by a further notice fix a reasonable time after which, if the information is not furnished, he may expunge the registration of the trade-mark.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 43.
Marginal note:Registrar may request evidence of user
  •  (1) The Registrar may at any time and, at the written request made after three years from the date of the registration of a trade-mark by any person who pays the prescribed fee shall, unless the Registrar sees good reason to the contrary, give notice to the registered owner of the trade-mark requiring the registered owner to furnish within three months an affidavit or a statutory declaration showing, with respect to each of the wares or services specified in the registration, whether the trade-mark was in use in Canada at any time during the three year period immediately preceding the date of the notice and, if not, the date when it was last so in use and the reason for the absence of such use since that date.

  • Marginal note:Form of evidence

    (2) The Registrar shall not receive any evidence other than the affidavit or statutory declaration, but may hear representations made by or on behalf of the registered owner of the trade-mark or by or on behalf of the person at whose request the notice was given.

  • Marginal note:Effect of non-use

    (3) Where, by reason of the evidence furnished to the Registrar or the failure to furnish any evidence, it appears to the Registrar that a trade-mark, either with respect to all of the wares or services specified in the registration or with respect to any of those wares or services, was not used in Canada at any time during the three year period immediately preceding the date of the notice and that the absence of use has not been due to special circumstances that excuse the absence of use, the registration of the trade-mark is liable to be expunged or amended accordingly.

  • Marginal note:Notice to owner

    (4) When the Registrar reaches a decision whether or not the registration of a trade-mark ought to be expunged or amended, he shall give notice of his decision with the reasons therefor to the registered owner of the trade-mark and to the person at whose request the notice referred to in subsection (1) was given.

  • Marginal note:Action by Registrar

    (5) The Registrar shall act in accordance with his decision if no appeal therefrom is taken within the time limited by this Act or, if an appeal is taken, shall act in accordance with the final judgment given in the appeal.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 45;
  • 1993, c. 44, s. 232;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 200.

RENEWAL OF REGISTRATIONS

Marginal note:Renewal
  •  (1) The registration of a trade-mark that is on the register by virtue of this Act is subject to renewal within a period of fifteen years from the day of the registration or last renewal.

  • Marginal note:Notice to renew

    (2) If the registration of a trade-mark has been on the register without renewal for the period specified in subsection (1), the Registrar shall send a notice to the registered owner and to the registered owner’s representative for service, if any, stating that if within six months after the date of the notice the prescribed renewal fee is not paid, the registration will be expunged.

  • Marginal note:Failure to renew

    (3) If within the period of six months specified in the notice, which period shall not be extended, the prescribed renewal fee is not paid, the Registrar shall expunge the registration.

  • Marginal note:Effective date of renewal

    (4) When the prescribed fee for a renewal of any trade-mark registration under this section is paid within the time limited for the payment thereof, the renewal takes effect as of the day next following the expiration of the period specified in subsection (1).

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 46;
  • 1992, c. 1, s. 135.

EXTENSIONS OF TIME

Marginal note:Extensions of time
  •  (1) If, in any case, the Registrar is satisfied that the circumstances justify an extension of the time fixed by this Act or prescribed by the regulations for the doing of any act, he may, except as in this Act otherwise provided, extend the time after such notice to other persons and on such terms as he may direct.

  • Marginal note:Conditions

    (2) An extension applied for after the expiration of the time fixed for the doing of an act or the time extended by the Registrar under subsection (1) shall not be granted unless the prescribed fee is paid and the Registrar is satisfied that the failure to do the act or apply for the extension within that time or the extended time was not reasonably avoidable.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 46.

TRANSFER

Marginal note:Trade-mark transferable
  •  (1) A trade-mark, whether registered or unregistered, is transferable, and deemed always to have been transferable, either in connection with or separately from the goodwill of the business and in respect of either all or some of the wares or services in association with which it has been used.

  • Marginal note:Where two or more persons interested

    (2) Nothing in subsection (1) prevents a trade-mark from being held not to be distinctive if as a result of a transfer thereof there subsisted rights in two or more persons to the use of confusing trade-marks and the rights were exercised by those persons.

  • Marginal note:Registration of transfer

    (3) The Registrar shall register the transfer of any registered trade-mark on being furnished with evidence satisfactory to him of the transfer and the information that would be required by paragraph 30(g) in an application by the transferee to register the trade-mark.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 47.

CHANGE OF PURPOSE IN USE OF MARK

Marginal note:Change of purpose

 If a mark is used by a person as a trade-mark for any of the purposes or in any of the manners mentioned in the definition “certification mark” or “trade-mark” in section 2, it shall not be held invalid merely on the ground that the person or a predecessor in title uses it or has used it for any other of those purposes or in any other of those manners.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 48.

LICENCES

Marginal note:Licence to use trade-mark
  •  (1) For the purposes of this Act, if an entity is licensed by or with the authority of the owner of a trade-mark to use the trade-mark in a country and the owner has, under the licence, direct or indirect control of the character or quality of the wares or services, then the use, advertisement or display of the trade-mark in that country as or in a trade-mark, trade-name or otherwise by that entity has, and is deemed always to have had, the same effect as such a use, advertisement or display of the trade-mark in that country by the owner.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) For the purposes of this Act, to the extent that public notice is given of the fact that the use of a trade-mark is a licensed use and of the identity of the owner, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proven, that the use is licensed by the owner of the trade-mark and the character or quality of the wares or services is under the control of the owner.

  • Marginal note:Owner may be required to take proceedings

    (3) Subject to any agreement subsisting between an owner of a trade-mark and a licensee of the trade-mark, the licensee may call on the owner to take proceedings for infringement thereof, and, if the owner refuses or neglects to do so within two months after being so called on, the licensee may institute proceedings for infringement in the licensee’s own name as if the licensee were the owner, making the owner a defendant.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 50;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 69;
  • 1999, c. 31, s. 211(F).
Marginal note:Use of trade-mark by related companies
  •  (1) Where a company and the owner of a trade-mark that is used in Canada by that owner in association with a pharmaceutical preparation are related companies, the use by the company of the trade-mark, or a trade-mark confusing therewith, in association with a pharmaceutical preparation that at the time of that use or at any time thereafter,

    • (a) is acquired by a person directly or indirectly from the company, and

    • (b) is sold, distributed or advertised for sale in Canada in a package bearing the name of the company and the name of that person as the distributor thereof,

    has the same effect, for all purposes of this Act, as a use of the trade-mark or the confusing trade-mark, as the case may be, by that owner.

  • Marginal note:Where difference in composition

    (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to any use of a trade-mark or a confusing trade-mark by a company referred to in that subsection in association with a pharmaceutical preparation after such time, if any, as that pharmaceutical preparation is declared by the Minister of Health, by notice published in the Canada Gazette, to be sufficiently different in its composition from the pharmaceutical preparation in association with which the trade-mark is used in Canada by the owner referred to in subsection (1) as to be likely to result in a hazard to health.

  • Definition of “pharmaceutical preparation”

    (3) In this section, “pharmaceutical preparation” includes

    • (a) any substance or mixture of substances manufactured, sold or represented for use in

      • (i) the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of a disease, disorder or abnormal physical state, or the symptoms thereof, in humans or animals, or

      • (ii) restoring, correcting or modifying organic functions in humans or animals, and

    • (b) any substance to be used in the preparation or production of any substance or mixture of substances described in paragraph (a),

    but does not include any such substance or mixture of substances that is the same or substantially the same as a substance or mixture of substances that is a proprietary medicine within the meaning from time to time assigned to that expression by regulations made pursuant to the Food and Drugs Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 51;
  • 1996, c. 8, s. 32.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Marginal note:Definitions

 In sections 53 to 53.3,

“court”

« tribunal »

“court” means the Federal Court or the superior court of a province;

“duties”

« droits »

“duties” has the same meaning as in the Customs Act;

“Minister”

« ministre »

“Minister” means the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness;

“release”

« dédouanement »

“release” has the same meaning as in the Customs Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 52;
  • 1993, c. 44, s. 234;
  • 2005, c. 38, ss. 142, 145.
Marginal note:Proceedings for interim custody
  •  (1) Where a court is satisfied, on application of any interested person, that any registered trade-mark or any trade-name has been applied to any wares that have been imported into Canada or are about to be distributed in Canada in such a manner that the distribution of the wares would be contrary to this Act, or that any indication of a place of origin has been unlawfully applied to any wares, the court may make an order for the interim custody of the wares, pending a final determination of the legality of their importation or distribution in an action commenced within such time as is prescribed by the order.

  • Marginal note:Security

    (2) Before making an order under subsection (1), the court may require the applicant to furnish security, in an amount fixed by the court, to answer any damages that may by reason of the order be sustained by the owner, importer or consignee of the wares and for any amount that may become chargeable against the wares while they remain in custody under the order.

  • Marginal note:Lien for charges

    (3) Where, by the judgment in any action under this section finally determining the legality of the importation or distribution of the wares, their importation or distribution is forbidden, either absolutely or on condition, any lien for charges against them that arose prior to the date of an order made under this section has effect only so far as may be consistent with the due execution of the judgment.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition of imports

    (4) Where in any action under this section the court finds that the importation is or the distribution would be contrary to this Act, it may make an order prohibiting the future importation of wares to which the trade-mark, trade-name or indication of origin has been applied.

  • Marginal note:How application made

    (5) An application referred to in subsection (1) may be made in an action or otherwise, and either on notice or ex parte.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (6) No proceedings may be taken under subsection (1) for the interim custody of wares by the Minister if proceedings for the detention of the wares by the Minister may be taken under section 53.1.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 53;
  • 1993, c. 44, s. 234.
Marginal note:Proceedings for detention by Minister
  •  (1) Where a court is satisfied, on application by the owner of a registered trade-mark, that any wares to which the trade-mark has been applied are about to be imported into Canada or have been imported into Canada but have not yet been released, and that the distribution of the wares in Canada would be contrary to this Act, the court may make an order

    • (a) directing the Minister to take reasonable measures, on the basis of information reasonably required by the Minister and provided by the applicant, to detain the wares;

    • (b) directing the Minister to notify the applicant and the owner or importer of the wares, forthwith after detaining them, of the detention and the reasons therefor; and

    • (c) providing for such other matters as the court considers appropriate.

  • Marginal note:How application made

    (2) An application referred to in subsection (1) may be made in an action or otherwise, and either on notice or ex parte, except that it must always be made on notice to the Minister.

  • Marginal note:Court may require security

    (3) Before making an order under subsection (1), the court may require the applicant to furnish security, in an amount fixed by the court,

    • (a) to cover duties, storage and handling charges, and any other amount that may become chargeable against the wares; and

    • (b) to answer any damages that may by reason of the order be sustained by the owner, importer or consignee of the wares.

  • Marginal note:Application for directions

    (4) The Minister may apply to the court for directions in implementing an order made under subsection (1).

  • Marginal note:Minister may allow inspection

    (5) The Minister may give the applicant or the importer of the detained wares an opportunity to inspect them for the purpose of substantiating or refuting, as the case may be, the applicant’s claim.

  • Marginal note:Where applicant fails to commence an action

    (6) Unless an order made under subsection (1) provides otherwise, the Minister shall, subject to the Customs Act and to any other Act of Parliament that prohibits, controls or regulates the importation or exportation of goods, release the wares without further notice to the applicant if, two weeks after the applicant has been notified under paragraph (1)(b), the Minister has not been notified that an action has been commenced for a final determination by the court of the legality of the importation or distribution of the wares.

  • Marginal note:Where court finds in plaintiff’s favour

    (7) Where, in an action commenced under this section, the court finds that the importation is or the distribution would be contrary to this Act, the court may make any order that it considers appropriate in the circumstances, including an order that the wares be destroyed or exported, or that they be delivered up to the plaintiff as the plaintiff’s property absolutely.

  • 1993, c. 44, s. 234.
Marginal note:Power of court to grant relief

 Where a court is satisfied, on application of any interested person, that any act has been done contrary to this Act, the court may make any order that it considers appropriate in the circumstances, including an order providing for relief by way of injunction and the recovery of damages or profits and for the destruction, exportation or other disposition of any offending wares, packages, labels and advertising material and of any dies used in connection therewith.

  • 1993, c. 44, s. 234.
Marginal note:Re-exportation of wares

 Where in any proceeding under section 53.1 or 53.2 the court finds

  • (a) that wares bearing a registered trade-mark have been imported into Canada in such manner that the distribution of the wares in Canada would be contrary to this Act, and

  • (b) that the registered trade-mark has, without the consent of the owner, been applied to those wares with the intent of counterfeiting or imitating the trade-mark, or of deceiving the public and inducing them to believe that the wares were made with the consent of the owner,

the court may not, other than in exceptional circumstances, make an order under that section requiring or permitting the wares to be exported in an unaltered state.

  • 1993, c. 44, s. 234.
Marginal note:Evidence
  •  (1) Evidence of any document in the official custody of the Registrar or of any extract therefrom may be given by the production of a copy thereof purporting to be certified to be true by the Registrar.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) A copy of any entry in the register purporting to be certified to be true by the Registrar is evidence of the facts set out therein.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (3) A copy of the record of the registration of a trade-mark purporting to be certified to be true by the Registrar is evidence of the facts set out therein and that the person named therein as owner is the registered owner of the trade-mark for the purposes and within the territorial area therein defined.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (4) A copy of any entry made or documents filed under the authority of any Act in force before July 1, 1954 relating to trade-marks, certified under the authority of that Act, is admissible in evidence and has the same probative force as a copy certified by the Registrar under this Act as provided in this section.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 54.
Marginal note:Jurisdiction of Federal Court

 The Federal Court has jurisdiction to entertain any action or proceeding for the enforcement of any of the provisions of this Act or of any right or remedy conferred or defined thereby.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 55;
  • R.S., c. 10(2nd Supp.), s. 64.
Marginal note:Appeal
  •  (1) An appeal lies to the Federal Court from any decision of the Registrar under this Act within two months from the date on which notice of the decision was dispatched by the Registrar or within such further time as the Court may allow, either before or after the expiration of the two months.

  • Marginal note:Procedure

    (2) An appeal under subsection (1) shall be made by way of notice of appeal filed with the Registrar and in the Federal Court.

  • Marginal note:Notice to owner

    (3) The appellant shall, within the time limited or allowed by subsection (1), send a copy of the notice by registered mail to the registered owner of any trade-mark that has been referred to by the Registrar in the decision complained of and to every other person who was entitled to notice of the decision.

  • Marginal note:Public notice

    (4) The Federal Court may direct that public notice of the hearing of an appeal under subsection (1) and of the matters at issue therein be given in such manner as it deems proper.

  • Marginal note:Additional evidence

    (5) On an appeal under subsection (1), evidence in addition to that adduced before the Registrar may be adduced and the Federal Court may exercise any discretion vested in the Registrar.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 56;
  • R.S., c. 10(2nd Supp.), s. 64.
Marginal note:Exclusive jurisdiction of Federal Court
  •  (1) The Federal Court has exclusive original jurisdiction, on the application of the Registrar or of any person interested, to order that any entry in the register be struck out or amended on the ground that at the date of the application the entry as it appears on the register does not accurately express or define the existing rights of the person appearing to be the registered owner of the mark.

  • Marginal note:Restriction

    (2) No person is entitled to institute under this section any proceeding calling into question any decision given by the Registrar of which that person had express notice and from which he had a right to appeal.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 57;
  • R.S., c. 10(2nd Supp.), s. 64.
Marginal note:How proceedings instituted

 An application under section 57 shall be made either by the filing of an originating notice of motion, by counter-claim in an action for the infringement of the trade-mark, or by statement of claim in an action claiming additional relief under this Act.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 58.
Marginal note:Notice to set out grounds
  •  (1) Where an appeal is taken under section 56 by the filing of a notice of appeal, or an application is made under section 57 by the filing of an originating notice of motion, the notice shall set out full particulars of the grounds on which relief is sought.

  • Marginal note:Reply

    (2) Any person on whom a copy of the notice described in subsection (1) has been served and who intends to contest the appeal or application, as the case may be, shall file and serve within the prescribed time or such further time as the court may allow a reply setting out full particulars of the grounds on which he relies.

  • Marginal note:Hearing

    (3) The proceedings on an appeal or application shall be heard and determined summarily on evidence adduced by affidavit unless the court otherwise directs, in which event it may order that any procedure permitted by its rules and practice be made available to the parties, including the introduction of oral evidence generally or in respect of one or more issues specified in the order.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 59.
Marginal note:Registrar to transmit documents
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), when any appeal or application has been made to the Federal Court under any of the provisions of this Act, the Registrar shall, at the request of any of the parties to the proceedings and on the payment of the prescribed fee, transmit to the Court all documents on file in the Registrar’s office relating to the matters in question in those proceedings, or copies of those documents certified by the Registrar.

  • Marginal note:Register of registered users

    (2) The transmission of documents on which entries in the register required to be kept under paragraph 26(1)(b) are based is subject to the provisions of subsection 50(6) of the Trade-marks Act, as it read immediately before section 69 of the Intellectual Property Law Improvement Act came into force.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 60;
  • 1993, c. 44, s. 238.
Marginal note:Judgments to be filed

 An officer of the Registry of the Federal Court shall file with the Registrar a certified copy of every judgment or order made by the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court of Canada relating to any trade-mark on the register.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 61;
  • 2002, c. 8, s. 177.

GENERAL

Marginal note:Administration

 This Act shall be administered by the Minister of Industry.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 62;
  • 1992, c. 1, s. 145(F);
  • 1995, c. 1, s. 62.
Marginal note:Registrar
  •  (1) There shall be a Registrar of Trade-marks, who shall be the Commissioner of Patents appointed under subsection 4(1) of the Patent Act. The Registrar shall be responsible to the Deputy Minister of Industry.

  • Marginal note:Acting registrar

    (2) When the Registrar is absent or unable to act or when the office of Registrar is vacant, his powers shall be exercised and his duties and functions performed in the capacity of acting registrar by such other officer as may be designated by the Minister of Industry.

  • Marginal note:Assistants

    (3) The Registrar may, after consultation with the Minister, delegate to any person he deems qualified any of his powers, duties and functions under this Act, except the power to delegate under this subsection.

  • Marginal note:Appeal

    (4) Any decision under this Act of a person authorized to make the decision pursuant to subsection (3) may be appealed in the like manner and subject to the like conditions as a decision of the Registrar under this Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 63;
  • 1992, c. 1, s. 145(F);
  • 1995, c. 1, s. 62;
  • 2014, c. 20, s. 370.
Marginal note:Publication of registrations

 The Registrar shall cause to be published periodically particulars of the registrations made and extended from time to time under this Act, and shall in such publication give particulars of any rulings made by him that are intended to serve as precedents for the determination of similar questions thereafter arising.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 64.
Marginal note:Regulations

 The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying into effect the purposes and provisions of this Act and, in particular, may make regulations with respect to the following matters:

  • (a) the form of the register and of the indexes to be maintained pursuant to this Act, and of the entries to be made therein;

  • (b) the form of applications to the Registrar;

  • (c) the registration of transfers, licences, disclaimers, judgments or other documents relating to any trade-mark;

  • (c.1) the maintenance of the list of trade-mark agents and the entry and removal of the names of persons and firms on the list, including the qualifications that must be met and the conditions that must be fulfilled to have a name entered on the list and to maintain the name on the list;

  • (d) the form and contents of certificates of registration;

  • (d.1) the procedure by and form in which an application may be made to the Minister, as defined in section 11.11, requesting the Minister to publish a statement referred to in subsection 11.12(2); and

  • (e) the payment of fees to the Registrar and the amount thereof.

  • R.S., 1985, c. T-13, s. 65;
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 70;
  • 1994, c. 47, s. 201.
Marginal note:Time limit deemed extended
  •  (1) Where any time limit or period of limitation specified under or pursuant to this Act expires on a day when the Office of the Registrar of Trade-marks is closed for business, the time limit or period of limitation shall be deemed to be extended to the next day when the Office is open for business.

  • Marginal note:When Trade-marks Office closed for business

    (2) The Office of the Registrar of Trade-marks shall be closed for business on Saturdays and holidays and on such other days as the Minister by order declares that it shall be closed for business.

  • Marginal note:Publication

    (3) Every order made by the Minister under subsection (2) shall be published in the Trade-marks Journal as soon as possible after the making thereof.

  • R.S., c. T-10, s. 66.

NEWFOUNDLAND

Marginal note:Registration of trade-mark before April 1, 1949
  •  (1) The registration of a trade-mark under the laws of Newfoundland before April 1, 1949 has the same force and effect in the Province of Newfoundland as if Newfoundland had not become part of Canada, and all rights and privileges acquired under or by virtue of those laws may continue to be exercised or enjoyed in the Province of Newfoundland as if Newfoundland had not become part of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Applications for trade-marks pending April 1, 1949

    (2) The laws of Newfoundland as they existed immediately before April 1, 1949 continue to apply in respect of applications for the registration of trade-marks under the laws of Newfoundland pending at that time and any trade-marks registered under those applications shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to have been registered under the laws of Newfoundland before April 1, 1949.

  • 1993, c. 15, s. 71.
Marginal note:Use of trade-mark or trade-name before April 1, 1949

 For the purposes of this Act, the use or making known of a trade-mark or the use of a trade-name in Newfoundland before April 1, 1949 shall not be deemed to be a use or making known of such trade-mark or a use of such trade-name in Canada before that date.

  • 1993, c. 15, s. 71.

TRANSITIONAL PROVISION

Marginal note:Prior applications for registration

 An application for the registration of a trade-mark filed before this section comes into force shall not be refused by reason only that subsection 50(1) deems the use, advertisement or display of the trade-mark by a licensed entity always to have had the same effect as a use, advertisement or display of the trade-mark by the owner.

  • 1993, c. 15, s. 71.

RELATED PROVISIONS

  • — 1992, c. 1, s. 135(2)

      • Transitional

         (2) Where a notice was sent under subsection 46(2) of the said Act before the coming into force of subsection (1), the renewal of the registration of the trade-mark shall be dealt with and disposed of as if subsection (1) had not come into force.

AMENDMENTS NOT IN FORCE

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 317

    • 317. The long title of the English version of the Trade-marks Act is replaced by the following:

      An Act relating to trademarks and unfair competition

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 318

    • 318. Section 1 of the English version of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Short title

        1. This Act may be cited as the Trademarks Act.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 319

      • 319. (1) The definition “distinguishing guise” in section 2 of the Act is repealed.

      • (2) The definitions “proposed trade-mark” and “representative for service” in section 2 of the Act are repealed.

      • (3) The definition “wares” in section 2 of the Act is repealed.

      • (4) The definitions “certification mark” and “trade-mark” in section 2 of the Act are replaced by the following:

        “certification mark”

        « marque de certification »

        “certification mark” means a sign or combination of signs that is used or proposed to be used for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish goods or services that are of a defined standard from those that are not of that defined standard, with respect to

        • (a) the character or quality of the goods or services,

        • (b) the working conditions under which the goods are produced or the services performed,

        • (c) the class of persons by whom the goods are produced or the services performed, or

        • (d) the area within which the goods are produced or the services performed;

        “trademark”

        « marque de commerce »

        “trademark” means

        • (a) a sign or combination of signs that is used or proposed to be used by a person for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish their goods or services from those of others, or

        • (b) a certification mark;

      • (5) Section 2 of the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order:

        “Nice Classification”

        « classification de Nice »

        “Nice Classification” means the classification established by the Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks, signed at Nice on June 15, 1957, including any amendments, modifications and revisions made from time to time to which Canada is a party;

        “sign”

        « signe »

        “sign” includes a word, a personal name, a design, a letter, a numeral, a colour, a figurative element, a three-dimensional shape, a hologram, a moving image, a mode of packaging goods, a sound, a scent, a taste, a texture and the positioning of a sign;

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 320

    • 320. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 2:

      • Reference to “person”

        2.1 Unless the context requires otherwise, a reference to “person” in this Act, in relation to a trademark, includes two or more persons who, by agreement, do not have the right to use the trademark in Canada except on behalf of both or all of them.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 321

      • 321. (1) Subsections 6(2) to (4) of the Act are replaced by the following:

        • Confusion  — trademark with other trademark

          (2) The use of a trademark causes confusion with another trademark if the use of both trademarks in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the goods or services associated with those trademarks are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the goods or services are of the same general class or appear in the same class of the Nice Classification.

        • Confusion  — trademark with trade name

          (3) The use of a trademark causes confusion with a trade name if the use of both the trademark and trade name in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the goods or services associated with the trademark and those associated with the business carried on under the trade name are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the goods or services are of the same general class or appear in the same class of the Nice Classification.

        • Confusion  — trade name with trademark

          (4) The use of a trade name causes confusion with a trademark if the use of both the trade name and trademark in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the goods or services associated with the business carried on under the trade name and those associated with the trademark are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the goods or services are of the same general class or appear in the same class of the Nice Classification.

      • (2) Paragraph 6(5)(e) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • (e) the degree of resemblance between the trademarks or trade names, including in appearance or sound or in the ideas suggested by them.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 322

    • 322. The heading before section 7 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      UNFAIR COMPETITION AND PROHIBITED SIGNS

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 323

      • 323. (1) Paragraph 9(1)(d) of the French version of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • d) un mot ou symbole susceptible de porter à croire que les produits ou services en liaison avec lesquels il est employé ont reçu l’approbation royale, vice-royale ou gouvernementale, ou que leur production, leur vente ou leur exécution a lieu sous le patronage ou sur l’autorité royale, vice-royale ou gouvernementale;

      • 1994, c. 47, s. 191(2)

        (2) Paragraph 9(1)(i.3) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • (i.3) any armorial bearing, flag or other emblem, or the name or any abbreviation of the name, of an international intergovernmental organization, if the armorial bearing, flag, emblem, name or abbreviation is on a list communicated under article 6ter of the Convention or pursuant to the obligations under the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights set out in Annex 1C to the WTO Agreement stemming from that article, and the Registrar gives public notice of the communication;

      • 1993, c. 15, s. 58(4)

        (3) Paragraph 9(2)(b)(ii) is replaced by the following:

        • (ii) an armorial bearing, flag, emblem, name or abbreviation mentioned in paragraph (1)(i.3), unless the use of the mark is likely to mislead the public as to a connection between the user and the organization.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 324

    • 324. Section 10 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Further prohibitions

        10. If any sign or combination of signs has by ordinary and bona fide commercial usage become recognized in Canada as designating the kind, quality, quantity, destination, value, place of origin or date of production of any goods or services, no person shall adopt it as a trademark in association with the goods or services or others of the same general class or use it in a way likely to mislead, nor shall any person so adopt or so use any sign or combination of signs so nearly resembling that sign or combination as to be likely to be mistaken for it.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 325

    • 325. Section 11 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Further prohibitions

        11. No person shall use in connection with a business, as a trademark or otherwise, any sign or combination of signs adopted contrary to section 9 or 10.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 326

      • 326. (1) The portion of subsection 12(1) of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:

        • When trademark registrable
          • 12. (1) Subject to subsection (2), a trademark is registrable if it is not

      • 1993, c. 15, s. 59(F)

        (2) Paragraph 12(1)(b) of the French version of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • b) qu’elle soit sous forme graphique, écrite ou sonore, elle donne une description claire ou donne une description fausse et trompeuse, en langue française ou anglaise, de la nature ou de la qualité des produits ou services en liaison avec lesquels elle est employée, ou en liaison avec lesquels on projette de l’employer, ou des conditions de leur production, ou des personnes qui les produisent, ou de leur lieu d’origine;

      • (3) Paragraph 12(1)(e) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • (e) a sign or combination of signs whose adoption is prohibited by section 9 or 10;

      • (4) Subsection 12(2) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • Utilitarian function

          (2) A trademark is not registrable if, in relation to the goods or services in association with which it is used or proposed to be used, its features are dictated primarily by a utilitarian function.

        • Registrable if distinctive

          (3) A trademark that is not registrable by reason of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is registrable if it is distinctive at the filing date of an application for its registration, having regard to all the circumstances of the case including the length of time during which it has been used.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 327

    • 327. Section 13 of the Act is repealed.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 328

    • 1994, c. 47, s. 194

      328. Sections 14 and 15 of the Act are replaced by the following:

      • Registration of confusing trademarks

        15. Despite section 12, confusing trademarks are registrable if the applicant is the owner of all of the confusing trademarks.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 329

    • 329. The heading before section 16 of the French version of the Act is replaced by the following:

      PERSONNES AYANT DROIT À L’ENREGISTREMENT D’UNE MARQUE DE COMMERCE

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 330

      • 330. (1) The portion of subsection 16(1) of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:

        • Entitlement to registration
          • 16. (1) Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with subsection 30(2) for the registration of a registrable trademark is entitled, subject to section 38, to secure its registration in respect of the goods or services specified in the application, unless at the filing date of the application or the date of first use of the trademark in Canada, whichever is earlier, it was confusing with

      • 1994, c. 47, s. 195

        (2) Subsections 16(2) to (5) of the Act are replaced by the following:

        • Pending application

          (2) The right of an applicant to secure registration of a registrable trademark is not affected by the previous filing of an application for registration of a confusing trademark by another person, unless the application for registration of the confusing trademark was pending on the day on which the applicant’s application is advertised under subsection 37(1).

        • Previous use or making known

          (3) The right of an applicant to secure registration of a registrable trademark is not affected by the previous use or making known of a confusing trademark or trade name by another person, if the confusing trademark or trade name was abandoned on the day on which the applicant’s application is advertised under subsection 37(1).

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 331

    • 331. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 18:

      • Not to limit art or industry

        18.1 The registration of a trademark may be expunged by the Federal Court on the application of any person interested if the Court decides that the registration is likely to unreasonably limit the development of any art or industry.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 332

    • 332. Section 20 of the Act is amended by adding the following after subsection (1):

      • Exception  — utilitarian feature

        (1.1) The registration of a trademark does not prevent a person from using any utilitarian feature embodied in the trademark.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 333

    • 333. Subsection 21(1) of the English version of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Concurrent use of confusing marks
        • 21. (1) If, in any proceedings respecting a registered trademark the registration of which is entitled to the protection of subsection 17(2), it is made to appear to the Federal Court that one of the parties to the proceedings, other than the registered owner of the trademark, had in good faith used a confusing trademark or trade name in Canada before the filing date of the application for that registration, and the Court considers that it is not contrary to the public interest that the continued use of the confusing trademark or trade name should be permitted in a defined territorial area concurrently with the use of the registered trademark, the Court may, subject to any terms that it considers just, order that the other party may continue to use the confusing trademark or trade name within that area with an adequate specified distinction from the registered trademark.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 334

      • 334. (1) Subsections 23(1) to (3) of the Act are replaced by the following:

        • Registration of certification marks
          • 23. (1) A certification mark may be adopted and registered only by a person who is not engaged in the manufacture, sale, leasing or hiring of goods or the performance of services such as those in association with which the certification mark is used or proposed to be used.

          • Licence

            (2) The owner of a certification mark may license others to use it in association with goods or services that meet the defined standard, and the use of the certification mark accordingly is deemed to be use by the owner.

          • Unauthorized use

            (3) The owner of a registered certification mark may prevent its use by unlicensed persons or in association with any goods or services in respect of which it is registered but to which the licence does not extend.

      • (2) Subsection 23(4) of the English version of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • Action by unincorporated body

          (4) If the owner of a registered certification mark is an unincorporated body, any action or proceeding to prevent unauthorized use of the certification mark may be brought by any member of that body on behalf of themselves and all other members.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 335

    • 335. Section 24 of the French version of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Enregistrement d’une marque de commerce créant de la confusion avec la marque de certification

        24. Avec le consentement du propriétaire d’une marque de certification, une marque de commerce créant de la confusion avec la marque de certification peut, si elle présente une différence caractéristique, être déposée par toute autre personne en vue d’indiquer que les produits en liaison avec lesquels elle est employée ont été fabriqués, vendus, donnés à bail ou loués, et que les services en liaison avec lesquels elle est employée ont été exécutés par elle comme étant une des personnes ayant droit d’employer la marque de certification, mais l’enregistrement de cette marque de commerce est radié par le registraire sur le retrait du consentement du propriétaire de la marque de certification, ou sur annulation de l’enregistrement de la marque de certification.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 336

    • 336. Section 25 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Descriptive certification mark

        25. A certification mark that is descriptive of the place of origin of goods or services, and not confusing with any registered trademark, is registrable if the applicant is the administrative authority of a country, state, province or municipality that includes or forms part of the area indicated by the certification mark, or is a commercial association that has an office or representative in that area, but the owner of any certification mark registered under this section shall permit its use in association with any goods or services produced or performed in the area of which it is descriptive.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 337

    • 337. Subsection 26(2) of the Act is amended by striking out “and” at the end of paragraph (e) and by adding the following after that paragraph:

      • (e.1) the names of the goods or services in respect of which the trademark is registered, grouped according to the classes of the Nice Classification, each group being preceded by the number of the class of the Nice Classification to which that group of goods or services belongs and presented in the order of the classes of the Nice Classification; and

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 338

    • 1993, c. 15, s. 62

      338. Section 28 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • List of trademark agents

        28. There shall be kept under the supervision of the Registrar a list of trademark agents, which shall include the names of all persons and firms entitled to represent applicants and others, including the registered owner of a trademark and parties to the proceedings under sections 38 and 45, in all business before the Office of the Registrar of Trademarks.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 339

    • 1993, c. 15, s. 64; 1994, c. 47, s. 198

      339. Sections 30 to 33 of the Act are replaced by the following:

      • Requirements for application
        • 30. (1) A person may file with the Registrar an application for the registration of a trademark in respect of goods or services if they are using or propose to use, and are entitled to use, the trademark in Canada in association with those goods or services.

        • Contents of application

          (2) The application shall contain

          • (a) a statement in ordinary commercial terms of the goods or services in association with which the trademark is used or proposed to be used;

          • (b) in the case of a certification mark, particulars of the defined standard that the use of the certification mark is intended to indicate and a statement that the applicant is not engaged in the manufacture, sale, leasing or hiring of goods or the performance of services such as those in association with which the certification mark is used or proposed to be used;

          • (c) a representation or description, or both, that permits the trademark to be clearly defined and that complies with any prescribed requirements; and

          • (d) any prescribed information or statement.

        • Nice Classification

          (3) The goods or services referred to in paragraph (2)(a) are to be grouped according to the classes of the Nice Classification, each group being preceded by the number of the class of the Nice Classification to which that group of goods or services belongs and presented in the order of the classes of the Nice Classification.

        • Disagreement

          (4) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods or services are to be grouped shall be determined by the Registrar, whose determination is not subject to appeal.

      • Standard characters

        31. An applicant who seeks to register a trademark that consists only of letters, numerals, punctuation marks, diacritics or typographical symbols, or of any combination of them, without limiting the trademark to any particular font, size or colour shall

        • (a) file a representation under paragraph 30(2)(c) that consists only of characters for which the Registrar has adopted standard characters;

        • (b) include in their application a statement to the effect that they wish the trademark to be registered in standard characters; and

        • (c) comply with any prescribed requirements.

      • Further evidence in certain cases
        • 32. (1) An applicant shall furnish the Registrar with any evidence that the Registrar may require establishing that the trademark is distinctive at the filing date of the application for its registration if any of the following apply:

          • (a) the applicant claims that their trademark is registrable under subsection 12(3);

          • (b) the Registrar’s preliminary view is that the trademark is not inherently distinctive;

          • (c) the trademark consists exclusively of a single colour or of a combination of colours without delineated contours;

          • (d) the trademark consists exclusively or primarily of one or more of the following signs:

            • (i) the three-dimensional shape of any of the goods specified in the application, or of an integral part or the packaging of any of those goods,

            • (ii) a mode of packaging goods,

            • (iii) a sound,

            • (iv) a scent,

            • (v) a taste,

            • (vi) a texture,

            • (vii) any other prescribed sign.

        • Registration to be restricted

          (2) The Registrar shall, having regard to the evidence adduced, restrict the registration to the goods or services in association with which, and to the defined territorial area in Canada in which, the trademark is shown to be distinctive.

      • Filing date
        • 33. (1) The filing date of an application for the registration of a trademark in Canada is the day on which the Registrar has received all of the following:

          • (a) an explicit or implicit indication that the registration of the trademark is sought;

          • (b) information allowing the identity of the applicant to be established;

          • (c) information allowing the Registrar to contact the applicant;

          • (d) a representation or description of the trademark;

          • (e) a list of the goods or services for which registration of the trademark is sought;

          • (f) any prescribed fees.

        • Outstanding items

          (2) The Registrar shall notify the applicant whose application does not contain all the items set out in subsection (1) of the items that are outstanding and require that the applicant submit them within two months of the date of the notice. Despite section 47, that period cannot be extended.

        • Application deemed never filed

          (3) If the Registrar does not receive the outstanding items within those two months, the application is deemed never to have been filed. However, any fees paid in respect of the application shall not be refunded to the applicant.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 340

    • 1994, c. 47, s. 199
      • 340. (1) Subsection 34(1) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • Date of application abroad deemed date of application in Canada
          • 34. (1) Despite subsection 33(1), when an applicant files an application for the registration of a trademark in Canada after the applicant or the applicant’s predecessor in title has applied, in or for any country of the Union other than Canada, for the registration of the same or substantially the same trademark in association with the same kind of goods or services, the filing date of the application in or for the other country is deemed to be the filing date of the application in Canada and the applicant is entitled to priority in Canada accordingly despite any intervening use in Canada or making known in Canada or any intervening application or registration, if

            • (a) the filing date of the application in Canada is within a period of six months after the date on which the earliest application was filed in or for any country of the Union for the registration of the same or substantially the same trademark in association with the same kind of goods or services;

            • (b) the applicant files a request for priority in the prescribed time and manner and informs the Registrar of the filing date and country or office of filing of the application on which the request is based;

            • (c) the applicant, at the filing date of the application in Canada, is a citizen or national of or domiciled in a country of the Union or has a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment in a country of the Union; and

            • (d) the applicant furnishes, in accordance with any request under subsections (2) and (3), evidence necessary to fully establish the applicant’s right to priority.

      • (2) Subsection 34(2) is replaced by the following:

        • Evidence requests

          (2) The Registrar may request the evidence before the day on which the trademark is registered under section 40.

      • (3) Section 34 of the Act is amended by adding the following after subsection (3):

        • Withdrawal of request

          (4) An applicant may, in the prescribed time and manner, withdraw a request for priority.

        • Extension

          (5) An applicant is not permitted to apply under section 47 for an extension of the six-month period referred to in paragraph (1)(a) until that period has ended, and the Registrar is not permitted to extend the period by more than seven days.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 341

    • 341. Section 36 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Abandonment

        36. If, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the prosecution of an application filed under this Act, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant of the default, treat the application as abandoned unless the default is remedied within the prescribed time.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 342

      • 342. (1) Paragraph 37(1)(a) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • (a) the application does not conform to the requirements of subsection 30(2);

      • (2) Subsection 37(1) of the Act is amended by striking out “or” at the end of paragraph (b), by adding “or” at the end of paragraph (c) and by replacing the portion after paragraph (c) with the following:

        • (d) the trademark is not distinctive.

        If the Registrar is not so satisfied, the Registrar shall cause the application to be advertised in the prescribed manner.

      • (3) Section 37 of the Act is amended by adding the following after subsection (3):

        • Withdrawal of advertisement

          (4) If, after the application has been advertised but before the trademark is registered, the Registrar is satisfied that the application should not have been advertised or was incorrectly advertised and the Registrar considers it reasonable to do so, the Registrar may withdraw the advertisement. If the Registrar withdraws the advertisement, the application is deemed never to have been advertised.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 343

      • 343. (1) Paragraph 38(2)(a) of the Act is replaced by the following:

        • (a) that the application does not conform to the requirements of subsection 30(2), without taking into account if it meets the requirement in subsection 30(3);

      • (2) Subsection 38(2) of the Act is amended by striking out “or” at the end of paragraph (c) and by adding the following after paragraph (d):

        • (e) that, at the filing date of the application in Canada, the applicant was not using and did not propose to use the trademark in Canada in association with the goods or services specified in the application; or

        • (f) that, at the filing date of the application in Canada, the applicant was not entitled to use the trademark in Canada in association with those goods or services.

      • 1993, c. 15, s. 66(2)

        (3) Subsections 38(6) to (8) of the Act are replaced by the following:

        • Power to strike

          (6) At the applicant’s request, the Registrar may  —  at any time before the day on which the applicant files a counter statement  —  strike all or part of the statement of opposition if the statement or part of it

          • (a) is not based on any of the grounds set out in subsection (2); or

          • (b) does not set out a ground of opposition in sufficient detail to enable the applicant to reply to it.

        • Counter statement

          (7) The applicant shall file a counter statement with the Registrar and serve a copy on the opponent in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time after a copy of the statement of opposition has been forwarded to the applicant. The counter statement need only state that the applicant intends to respond to the opposition.

        • Evidence and hearing

          (8) Both the opponent and the applicant shall be given an opportunity, in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time, to submit evidence and to make representations to the Registrar unless

          • (a) the opposition is withdrawn or deemed under subsection (10) to have been withdrawn; or

          • (b) the application is abandoned or deemed under subsection (11) to have been abandoned.

        • Service

          (9) The opponent and the applicant shall, in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time, serve on each other any evidence and written representations that they submit to the Registrar.

        • Deemed withdrawal of opposition

          (10) The opposition is deemed to have been withdrawn if, in the prescribed circumstances, the opponent does not submit and serve either evidence under subsection (8) or a statement that the opponent does not wish to submit evidence.

        • Deemed abandonment of application

          (11) The application is deemed to have been abandoned if the applicant does not file and serve a counter statement within the time referred to in subsection (7) or if, in the prescribed circumstances, the applicant does not submit and serve either evidence under subsection (8) or a statement that the applicant does not wish to submit evidence.

        • Decision

          (12) After considering the evidence and representations of the opponent and the applicant, the Registrar shall refuse the application, reject the opposition, or refuse the application with respect to one or more of the goods or services specified in it and reject the opposition with respect to the others. He or she shall notify the parties of the decision and the reasons for it.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 344

    • 1993, c. 15, s. 67

      344. Section 39 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Divisional application
        • 39. (1) After having filed an application for the registration of a trademark, an applicant may limit the original application to one or more of the goods or services that were within its scope and file a divisional application for the registration of the same trademark in association with any other goods or services that were

          • (a) within the scope of the original application on its filing date; and

          • (b) within the scope of the original application as advertised, if the divisional application is filed on or after the day on which the application is advertised under subsection 37(1).

        • Identification

          (2) A divisional application shall indicate that it is a divisional application and shall, in the prescribed manner, identify the corresponding original application.

        • Separate application

          (3) A divisional application is a separate application, including with respect to the payment of any fees.

        • Filing date

          (4) A divisional application’s filing date is deemed to be the original application’s filing date.

        • Division of divisional application

          (5) A divisional application may itself be divided under subsection (1), in which case this section applies as if that divisional application were an original application.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 345

    • 1993, c. 15, s. 68, c. 44, ss. 231(2) and (3); 1999, c. 31, s. 210(F)

      345. Section 40 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Registration of trademarks

        40. When an application for the registration of a trademark either has not been opposed and the time for the filing of a statement of opposition has expired, or has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the applicant, the Registrar shall register the trademark in the name of the applicant and issue a certificate of its registration or, if an appeal is taken, shall act in accordance with the final judgment given in the appeal.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 346

      • 346. (1) The portion of subsection 41(1) of the Act before paragraph (b) is replaced by the following:

        • Amendments to register
          • 41. (1) The Registrar may, on application by the registered owner of a trademark made in the prescribed manner and on payment of the prescribed fee, make any of the following amendments to the register:

            • (a) correct any error or enter any change in the name, address or description of the registered owner;

      • (2) Subsection 41(1) of the Act is amended by striking out “or” at the end of paragraph (d), by adding “or” at the end of paragraph (e) and by adding the following after paragraph (e):

        • (f) subject to the regulations, merge registrations of the trademark that stem, under section 39, from the same original application.

      • (3) Section 41 of the Act is amended by adding the following after subsection (2):

        • Obvious error

          (3) The Registrar may, within six months after an entry in the register is made, correct any error in the entry that is obvious from the documents relating to the registered trademark in question that are, at the time that the entry is made, on file in the Registrar’s office.

        • Removal of registration

          (4) The Registrar may, within three months after the registration of a trademark, remove the registration from the register if the Registrar registered the trademark without considering a previously filed request for an extension of time to file a statement of opposition.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 347

    • 347. Section 42 of the Act is repealed.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 348

    • 348. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 44:

      • Registrar may require amendment
        • 44.1 (1) The Registrar may give notice to the registered owner of a trademark requiring the owner to furnish the Registrar, in the prescribed time and manner, with a statement of the goods or services in respect of which the trademark is registered, in which those goods or services are grouped in the manner described in subsection 30(3).

        • Amendments to register

          (2) The Registrar may amend the register in accordance with the statement furnished under subsection (1).

        • Failure to furnish statement

          (3) If the statement required by subsection (1) is not furnished, the Registrar shall by a further notice fix a reasonable time after which, if the statement is not furnished, the Registrar may expunge the registration of the trademark or refuse to renew it.

        • Disagreement

          (4) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods or services are to be grouped shall be determined by the Registrar, whose determination is not subject to appeal.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 349

    • 1994, c. 47, s. 200(1)

      349. Subsections 45(1) and (2) of the Act are replaced by the following:

      • Registrar may request evidence of use
        • 45. (1) After three years beginning on the day on which a trademark is registered, unless the Registrar sees good reason to the contrary, the Registrar shall, at the written request of any person who pays the prescribed fee  —  or may, on his or her own initiative  —  give notice to the registered owner of the trademark requiring the registered owner to furnish within three months an affidavit or a statutory declaration showing, with respect to all the goods or services specified in the registration or to those that may be specified in the notice, whether the trademark was in use in Canada at any time during the three-year period immediately preceding the date of the notice and, if not, the date when it was last so in use and the reason for the absence of such use since that date.

        • Form of evidence

          (2) The Registrar shall not receive any evidence other than the affidavit or statutory declaration, but may receive representations made in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time by the registered owner of the trademark or by the person at whose request the notice was given.

        • Service

          (2.1) The registered owner of the trademark shall, in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time, serve on the person at whose request the notice was given any evidence that the registered owner submits to the Registrar. Those parties shall, in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time, serve on each other any written representations that they submit to the Registrar.

        • Failure to serve

          (2.2) The Registrar is not required to consider any evidence or written representations that was not served in accordance with subsection (2.1).

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 350

    • 1992, c. 1, s. 135(1)

      350. Section 46 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Term
        • 46. (1) Subject to any other provision of this Act, the registration of a trademark is on the register for an initial period of 10 years beginning on the day of the registration and for subsequent renewal periods of 10 years if, for each renewal, the prescribed renewal fee is paid within the prescribed period.

        • Notice to renew

          (2) If the initial period or a renewal period expires and the prescribed renewal fee has not been paid, the Registrar shall send a notice to the registered owner stating that if the fee is not paid within the prescribed period, the registration will be expunged.

        • Failure to renew

          (3) If the prescribed renewal fee is not paid within the prescribed period, the Registrar shall expunge the registration. The registration is deemed to have been expunged at the expiry of the initial period or the last renewal period.

        • Renewal

          (4) If the prescribed renewal fee is paid within the prescribed period, the renewal period begins at the expiry of the initial period or the last renewal period.

        • Extension

          (5) A registered owner is not permitted to apply under section 47 for an extension of the prescribed period until that period has expired, and the Registrar is not permitted to extend the period by more than seven days.

        • Prescribed period

          (6) For the purposes of this section, the prescribed period begins at least six months before the expiry of the initial period or the renewal period and ends no earlier than six months after the expiry of that period.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 351

    • 351. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 47:

      • Proceeding under section 45
        • 47.1 (1) The Registrar shall grant an extension of any time limit fixed under this Act in the context of a proceeding commenced by the Registrar, on his or her own initiative, under section 45, if the extension is requested after the expiry of the time limit and within two months after its expiry.

        • One time extension

          (2) No extension under subsection (1) shall be granted more than once.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 352

    • 352. Subsection 48(3) of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Transfer of application

        (3) The Registrar shall, subject to the regulations, record the transfer of an application for the registration of a trademark on the request of the applicant or, on receipt of evidence satisfactory to the Registrar of the transfer, on the request of a transferee of the application.

      • Transfer of trademark

        (4) The Registrar shall, subject to the regulations, register the transfer of any registered trademark on the request of the registered owner or, on receipt of evidence satisfactory to the Registrar of the transfer, on the request of a transferee of the trademark.

      • Removal of recording or registration

        (5) The Registrar shall remove the recording or the registration of the transfer referred to in subsection (3) or (4) on receipt of evidence satisfactory to the Registrar that the transfer should not have been recorded or registered.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 353

    • 353. Section 49 of the Act and the heading before it are replaced by the following:

      CHANGE OF PURPOSE IN USE OF TRADEMARK

      • Change of purpose

        49. If a sign or combination of signs is used by a person as a trademark for any of the purposes or in any of the manners mentioned in the definition “certification mark” or “trademark” in section 2, no application for the registration of the trademark shall be refused and no registration of the trademark shall be expunged, amended or held invalid merely on the ground that the person or a predecessor in title uses the trademark or has used it for any other of those purposes or in any other of those manners.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 354

    • 354. Subsection 57(1) of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Exclusive jurisdiction of Federal Court
        • 57. (1) The Federal Court has exclusive original jurisdiction, on the application of the Registrar or of any person interested, to order that any entry in the register be struck out or amended on the ground that at the date of the application the entry as it appears on the register does not accurately express or define the existing rights of the person appearing to be the registered owner of the trademark.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 355

    • 355. Section 61 of the Act is renumbered as subsection 61(1) and is amended by adding the following:

      • Judgment sent by parties

        (2) A person who makes a request to the Registrar relating to a judgment or order made by the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court of Canada in a proceeding to which they were a party shall, at the request of the Registrar, send a copy of that judgment or order to the Registrar.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 356

    • 356. Section 64 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Electronic form and means
        • 64. (1) Subject to the regulations, any document, information or fee that is provided to the Registrar under this Act may be provided in any electronic form, and by any electronic means, that is specified by the Registrar.

        • Collection, storage, etc.

          (2) Subject to the regulations, the Registrar may use electronic means to create, collect, receive, store, transfer, distribute, publish, certify or otherwise deal with documents or information.

        • Definition

          (3) In this section, “electronic”, in reference to a form or means, includes optical, magnetic and other similar forms or means.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 357

    • 357. Section 65 of the Act is replaced by the following:

      • Regulations

        65. The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying into effect the purposes and provisions of this Act and, in particular, may make regulations

        • (a) respecting the form of the register to be kept under this Act, and of the entries to be made in it;

        • (b) respecting applications to the Registrar and the processing of those applications;

        • (c) respecting the manner in which the goods or services referred to in paragraph 30(2)(a) are to be described;

        • (d) respecting the merger of registrations under paragraph 41(1)(f), including, for the purpose of renewal under section 46, the deemed day of registration or last renewal;

        • (e) respecting the recording or registration of transfers, licences, disclaimers, judgments or other documents relating to any trademark;

        • (f) respecting the maintenance of the list of trademark agents and the entry and removal of the names of persons and firms on the list, including the qualifications that must be met and the conditions that must be fulfilled to have a name entered on the list and to maintain the name on the list;

        • (g) respecting certificates of registration;

        • (h) respecting the procedure by and form in which an application may be made to the Minister, as defined in section 11.11, requesting the Minister to publish a statement referred to in subsection 11.12(2);

        • (i) respecting proceedings under sections 38 and 45, including documents relating to those proceedings;

        • (j) respecting the payment of fees to the Registrar and the amount of those fees;

        • (k) respecting the provision of documents and information to the Registrar, including the time at which they are deemed to be received by the Registrar;

        • (l) respecting correspondence between the Registrar and any other person;

        • (m) respecting the grouping of goods or services according to the classes of the Nice Classification and the numbering of those classes; and

        • (n) prescribing anything that by this Act is to be prescribed.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 358

    • 358. The Act is amended by adding the following after section 65:

      • Regulations  — Madrid Protocol and Singapore Treaty

        65.1 The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying into effect

        • (a) despite anything in this Act, the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, adopted at Madrid on June 27, 1989, including any amendments, modifications and revisions made from time to time to which Canada is a party; and

        • (b) the Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks, done at Singapore on March 27, 2006, including any amendments and revisions made from time to time to which Canada is a party.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 359

    • 1993, c. 15, s. 71

      359. Section 69 of the Act and the heading before it are replaced by the following:

      TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

      • Application not advertised

        69. An application for registration in respect of which all of the items set out in subsection 33(1), as enacted by section 339 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1, have been received by the Registrar before the day on which that section 339 comes into force, and that has not been advertised under subsection 37(1) before that day shall be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with

        • (a) the provisions of this Act other than section 31, subsection 33(1) and section 34, as enacted or amended by the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1; and

        • (b) section 34, as it read immediately before the day on which section 339 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1 comes into force.

      • Application advertised
        • 70. (1) An application for registration that has been advertised under subsection 37(1) before the day on which section 342 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1 comes into force shall be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with

          • (a) the provisions of this Act as they read immediately before the day on which section 342 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1 comes into force, other than subsections 6(2) to (4), sections 28 and 36, subsections 38(6) to (8) and sections 39 and 40; and

          • (b) the definition “Nice Classification” in section 2, subsections 6(2) to (4), sections 28 and 36, subsections 38(6) to (12), sections 39 and 40 and subsections 48(3) and (5), as enacted by the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1.

        • Regulations

          (2) For greater certainty, a regulation made under section 65, as enacted by section 357 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1, applies to an application referred to in subsection (1), unless the regulation provides otherwise.

        • Nice Classification

          (3) Despite subsection (1), the Registrar may require an applicant to amend the statement of goods or services contained in an application referred to in subsection (1) so that the goods or services are grouped in the manner described in subsection 30(3), as enacted by section 339 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1.

        • Disagreement

          (4) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods or services are to be grouped shall be determined by the Registrar, whose determination is not subject to appeal.

      • Declaration of use

        71. For greater certainty, an applicant is not required to submit a declaration of use referred to in subsection 40(2), as that subsection read immediately before the day on which section 345 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1 comes into force, in order for the Registrar to register the trademark and issue a certificate of registration.

      • Registered trademarks  — applications filed before coming into force

        72. Any matter arising on or after the day on which section 345 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1 comes into force, in respect of a trademark registered on or after that day on the basis of an application filed before that day, shall be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

      • Registered trademarks
        • 73. (1) Subject to subsections (2) to (4), any matter arising on or after the day on which section 345 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1 comes into force, in respect of a trademark registered before that day, shall be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

        • Application of paragraph 26(2)(e.1)

          (2) Paragraph 26(2)(e.1) does not apply to a trademark referred to in subsection (1) unless the register is amended under section 44.1.

        • Amending register

          (3) The Registrar may amend the register kept under section 26 to reflect the amendments to this Act that are made by the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1.

        • Subsection 46(1)

          (4) Subsection 46(1), as it read immediately before the day on which section 350 of the Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1 comes into force, continues to apply to a registration that is on the register on the day before the day on which that section comes into force until the registration is renewed.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 360

    • Replacement of “wares”

      360. The Act is amended by replacing “wares”, wherever it occurs, with “goods”.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 361

    • Replacement of “trade-mark”

      361. The English version of the Act is amended by replacing “trade-mark”, “trade-marks”, “Trade-mark” and “Trade-marks” with “trademark”, “trademarks”, “Trademark” and “Trademarks”, respectively.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 362

    • Replacement of “trade-name”

      362. The English version of the Act is amended by replacing “trade-name”, wherever it occurs, with “trade name”.

  • — 2014, c. 20, s. 363

    • Replacement of “utiliser”, etc.

      363. The French version of the Act is amended by replacing “utiliser”, “utilisé”, “utilisée” and “utilisation” with “employer”, “employé”, “employée” and “emploi”, respectively, with any grammatical changes that the circumstances require, in the following provisions:

      • (a) the portion of paragraph 7(d) before subparagraph (i);

      • (b) paragraph 9(1)(f);

      • (c) section 11.1;

      • (d) the portion of subsection 11.14(2) before paragraph (a);

      • (e) the portion of subsection 11.15(2) before paragraph (a);

      • (f) subsections 11.16(1) and (2);

      • (g) the portion of subsection 11.17(1) before paragraph (a);

      • (h) subsections 11.18(1) to (4);

      • (i) subsection 11.19(1);

      • (j) the portion of section 11.2 before paragraph (a);

      • (k) subsection 17(2); and

      • (l) paragraph 20(1)(a) and subsection 20(2).