On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations

Version of section 1 from 2006-11-02 to 2014-10-15:

  •  (1) The following definitions apply in these Regulations.

    “Act”

    “Act” means the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. (Loi)

    “approach angle”

    “approach angle” means the smallest angle, in a plan side view of a vehicle, formed by the level surface on which the vehicle is standing and a line tangent to the front tire static loaded radius arc and touching the underside of the vehicle forward of the front tire. (angle d’approche)

    “auxiliary emission control device”

    “auxiliary emission control device” means any element of design that senses temperature, vehicle speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, manifold vacuum, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of an emission control system. ((dispositif antipollution auxiliaire))

    “basic vehicle frontal area”

    “basic vehicle frontal area” means the area enclosed by the geometric projection of the basic vehicle, which includes tires but does not include mirrors or air deflectors, along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle onto a plane perpendicular to that axis. (surface frontale du véhicule de base)

    “break-over angle”

    “break-over angle” means the supplement of the largest angle, in the plan side view of a vehicle, that can be formed by two lines tangent to the front and rear static loaded radii arcs and intersecting at a point on the underside of the vehicle. (angle de rampe)

    “CFR”

    “CFR” means Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, of the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States as amended from time to time. (CFR)

    “Class I motorcycle”

    “Class I motorcycle” means a motorcycle having an engine displacement of less than 170 cm3. (motocyclette de classe I)

    “Class II motorcycle”

    “Class II motorcycle” means a motorcycle having an engine displacement of 170 cm3 or more but less than 280 cm3. (motocyclette de classe II)

    “Class III motorcycle”

    “Class III motorcycle” means a motorcycle having an engine displacement of 280 cm3or more. (motocyclette de classe III)

    “complete heavy-duty vehicle”

    “complete heavy-duty vehicle” means a heavy-duty vehicle having a GVWR of 6350 kg (14,000 pounds) or less that is powered by an Otto-cycle engine and that has a primary load carrying device or container attached at the time the vehicle leaves the control of the manufacturer of the engine. (véhicule lourd complet)

    “crankcase emissions”

    “crankcase emissions” means substances that cause air pollution and that are emitted to the atmosphere from any portion of the engine crankcase ventilation or lubrication systems. (émissions du carter)

    “curb weight”

    “curb weight” means the actual or manufacturer’s estimated weight of a vehicle in operational status with all standard equipment and weight of fuel at nominal tank capacity and the weight of optional equipment. (masse en état de marche)

    “departure angle”

    “departure angle” means the smallest angle, in a plan side view of a vehicle, formed by the level surface on which the vehicle is standing and a line tangent to the rear tire static loaded radius arc and touching the underside of the vehicle rearward of the rear tire. (angle de sortie)

    “diesel engine”

    “diesel engine” means a type of engine that has operating characteristics significantly similar to those of the theoretical Diesel combustion cycle. The non-use of a throttle during normal operation is indicative of a diesel engine. (moteur diesel)

    “diesel heavy-duty vehicle”

    “diesel heavy-duty vehicle” means a heavy-duty vehicle that is powered by a diesel engine. (véhicule lourd diesel)

    “element of design”

    “element of design” means, in respect of a vehicle or engine,

    • (a) any control system, including computer software, electronic control systems and computer logic;

    • (b) any control system calibrations;

    • (c) the results of systems interaction; or

    • (d) any hardware items. (élément de conception)

    “emission control system”

    “emission control system” means a unique group of emission control devices, auxiliary emission control devices, engine modifications and strategies, and other elements of design used to control exhaust emissions from a vehicle. (système antipollution)

    “EPA”

    “EPA” means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.(EPA)

    “EPA certificate”

    “EPA certificate” means a certificate of conformity to U.S. federal standards issued by the EPA.(certificat de l’EPA)

    “evaporative emissions”

    “evaporative emissions” means hydrocarbons emitted into the atmosphere from a vehicle, other than exhaust emissions and crankcase emissions. (émissions de gaz d’évaporation)

    “exhaust emissions”

    “exhaust emissions” means substances emitted into the atmosphere from any opening downstream from the exhaust port of a vehicle’s engine. (émissions de gaz d’échappement)

    “Federal Test Procedure”

    “Federal Test Procedure” means the test procedure as described in subsections 130(a) through (d) and (f) of Subpart B of the CFR which is designed to measure urban driving exhaust and evaporative emissions over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule set out in Appendix I of the CFR. (Federal Test Procedure)

    “full useful life emission bin”

    “full useful life emission bin” means the set of exhaust emission standards, measured using the Federal Test Procedure, that is set out in a horizontal row in Table S04-1 in section 1811, subpart S, of the CFR. (série d’émissions de durée de vie totale)

    “GVWR”

    “GVWR” means the gross vehicle weight rating specified by a manufacturer as the maximum design loaded weight of a single vehicle. (PNBV)

    “HC+NOx

    “HC+NOx means the sum of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen exhaust emissions. (HC+NOx)

    “heavy-duty engine”

    “heavy-duty engine” means an engine designed to be used for motive power in a heavy-duty vehicle, other than a medium-duty passenger vehicle or a complete heavy-duty vehicle. (moteur de véhicule lourd)

    “heavy-duty vehicle”

    “heavy-duty vehicle” means an on-road vehicle that has a GVWR of more than 3,856 kg (8,500 pounds), a curb weight of more than 2,722 kg (6,000 pounds) or a basic vehicle frontal area in excess of 4.2 m2 (45 square feet). (véhicule lourd)

    “heavy light-duty truck”

    “heavy light-duty truck” means a light-duty truck having a GVWR of more than 2,722 kg (6,000 pounds). (camionnette lourde)

    “light-duty truck”

    “light-duty truck” means an on-road vehicle that has a GVWR of 3,856 kg (8,500 pounds) or less, a curb weight of 2,722 kg (6,000 pounds) or less and a basic vehicle frontal area of 4.2 m2 (45 square feet) or less and that

    • (a) is designed primarily for the transportation of property or that is a derivative of a vehicle that is designed for that purpose;

    • (b) is designed primarily for the transportation of persons and has a designated seating capacity of more than 12 persons; or

    • (c) is available with special features that enable it to be operated and used off-road, the special features being four-wheel drive and at least four of the following characteristics, that are calculated when the vehicle is at curb weight and on a level surface with the front wheels parallel to the vehicle’s longitudinal centreline and the tires are inflated to the manufacturer’s recommended pressure, namely,

      • (i) an approach angle of not less than 28 degrees,

      • (ii) a break-over angle of not less than 14 degrees,

      • (iii) a departure angle of not less than 20 degrees,

      • (iv) ground clearances of not less than 17.8 cm (7 inches) under the front and rear axles, and

      • (v) a ground clearance of not less than 20.3 cm (8 inches) under any point other than the front or rear axle. (camionnette)

    “light-duty vehicle”

    “light-duty vehicle” means an on-road vehicle that is designed primarily for the transportation of persons and has a designated seating capacity of not more than 12 persons. (véhicule léger)

    “light light-duty truck”

    “light light-duty truck” means a light-duty truck that has a GVWR of 2,722 kg (6,000 pounds) or less. (camionnette légère)

    “medium-duty passenger vehicle”

    “medium-duty passenger vehicle” means a heavy-duty vehicle that has a GVWR of less than 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds) and that is designed primarily for the transportation of persons but does not include any vehicle that

    • (a) is a truck that is incomplete because it does not have a primary load carrying device or container attached;

    • (b) has a seating capacity of more than 12 persons;

    • (c) is designed to seat more than 9 persons behind the driver; or

    • (d) is equipped with an open cargo area (for example, a pick-up truck box or bed) of 183 cm (72.0 inches) in interior length or more or with a covered box not readily accessible from the passenger compartment. (véhicule moyen à passagers)

    “model year”

    “model year” means the year, as determined under section 5, that is used by a manufacturer to designate a model of vehicle or engine. (année de modèle)

    “motorcycle”

    “motorcycle” means an on-road vehicle with a headlight, taillight and stoplight that has two or three wheels and a curb weight of 793 kg (1,749 pounds) or less, but does not mean a vehicle that has an engine displacement of less than 50 cm3 (3.1 cubic inches), or that, with an 80 kg (176 pound) driver

    • (a) cannot start from a dead stop using only the engine; or

    • (b) cannot exceed a speed of 40 km/h (25 miles per hour) on a level paved surface. (motocyclette)

    “nominal fuel tank capacity”

    “nominal fuel tank capacity” means the volume of the fuel tank specified by the manufacturer to the nearest three eighths of a litre (one tenth of a U.S. gallon). (capacité nominale du réservoir à carburant)

    “NOx”

    “NOx” means oxides of nitrogen, which is the sum of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide contained in a gas sample as if the nitric oxide were in the form of nitrogen dioxide. (NOx)

    “on-road vehicle”

    “on-road vehicle” means a self-propelled vehicle designed for or capable of transporting persons, property, material or permanently or temporarily affixed apparatus on a highway, but does not mean a vehicle that

    • (a) cannot exceed a speed of 40 km/h (25 miles per hour) on a level paved surface;

    • (b) lacks features customarily associated with safe and practical highway use such as a reverse gear, unless the vehicle is a motorcycle, a differential, or safety features required by federal or provincial laws;

    • (c) exhibits features that render its use on a highway unsafe, impractical, or highly unlikely, such as tracked road contact means or inordinate size; or

    • (d) is a military vehicle designed for use in combat or combat support. (véhicule routier)

    “Otto-cycle engine”

    “Otto-cycle engine” means a type of engine that has operating characteristics that are significantly similar to those of the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. The use of a throttle during normal operation is indicative of an Otto-cycle engine. (moteur à cycle Otto)

    “Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicle”

    “Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicle” means a heavy-duty vehicle that is powered by an Otto-cycle engine. (véhicule lourd à cycle Otto)

    “rounded”

    “rounded” means rounded in accordance with method ASTM-E29-93a of the American Society for Testing and Materials. (arrondir)

    “static loaded radius arc”

    “static loaded radius arc” means a portion of a circle whose centre is the centre of a standard tire-rim combination of a vehicle and whose radius is the distance from that centre to the level surface on which the vehicle is standing, measured with the vehicle at curb weight, the wheel parallel to the vehicle’s longitudinal centreline, and the tire inflated to the manufacturer’s recommended pressure. (arc du rayon sous charge)

    “useful life”

    “useful life” means the period of time or use, whether full or intermediate, in respect of which an emission standard applies to a vehicle or engine, as set out in the CFR. (durée de vie utile)

  • (2) Standards that are incorporated by reference in these Regulations from the CFR are those expressly set out in the CFR and shall be read as excluding

    • (a) references to the EPA or the Administrator of the EPA exercising discretion in any way;

    • (b) alternative standards related to fleet averages, other averages, emission credits, small volume manufacturers, or financial hardship; and

    • (c) standards or evidence of conformity of any authority other than the EPA.

  • SOR/2006-268, s. 1.