Assented to 2002-02-19
An Act in respect of criminal justice for young persons and to amend and repeal other Acts
This enactment repeals and replaces the Young Offenders Act and provides principles, procedures and protections for the prosecution of young persons under criminal and other federal laws.
This enactment sets out a range of extrajudicial measures, establishes the judicial procedures and protections for young persons alleged to have committed an offence, encourages the participation of parents, victims, communities, youth justice committees and others in the youth justice system, sets out a range of sentences available to the youth justice court, establishes custody and supervision provisions, sets out the rules for the keeping of records and protection of privacy, provides transitional provisions and makes consequential amendments to other Acts.
WHEREAS members of society share a responsibility to address the developmental challenges and the needs of young persons and to guide them into adulthood;
WHEREAS communities, families, parents and others concerned with the development of young persons should, through multi-disciplinary approaches, take reasonable steps to prevent youth crime by addressing its underlying causes, to respond to the needs of young persons, and to provide guidance and support to those at risk of committing crimes;
WHEREAS information about youth justice, youth crime and the effectiveness of measures taken to address youth crime should be publicly available;
WHEREAS Canada is a party to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and recognizes that young persons have rights and freedoms, including those stated in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Canadian Bill of Rights, and have special guarantees of their rights and freedoms;
AND WHEREAS Canadian society should have a youth criminal justice system that commands respect, takes into account the interests of victims, fosters responsibility and ensures accountability through meaningful consequences and effective rehabilitation and reintegration, and that reserves its most serious intervention for the most serious crimes and reduces the over-reliance on incarceration for non-violent young persons;
NOW, THEREFORE, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:
Marginal note:Short title
2. (1) The definitions in this subsection apply in this Act.
« adulte »
“adult” means a person who is neither a young person nor a child.
« peine applicable aux adultes »
“adult sentence”, in the case of a young person who is found guilty of an offence, means any sentence that could be imposed on an adult who has been convicted of the same offence.
« procureur général »
“Attorney General” means the Attorney General as defined in section 2 of the Criminal Code, read as if the reference in that definition to “proceedings” were a reference to “proceedings or extrajudicial measures”, and includes an agent or delegate of the Attorney General.
« enfant »
“child” means a person who is or, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, appears to be less than twelve years old.
« groupe consultatif »
“conference” means a group of persons who are convened to give advice in accordance with section 19.
“confirmed delivery service”
« service de messagerie »
“confirmed delivery service” means certified or registered mail or any other method of service that provides proof of delivery.
« période de garde »
“custodial portion”, with respect to a youth sentence imposed on a young person under paragraph 42(2)(n), (o), (q) or (r), means the period of time, or the portion of the young person’s youth sentence, that must be served in custody before he or she begins to serve the remainder under supervision in the community subject to conditions under paragraph 42(2)(n) or under conditional supervision under paragraph 42(2)(o), (q) or (r).
« communication »
“disclosure” means the communication of information other than by way of publication.
« mesures extrajudiciaires »
“extrajudicial measures” means measures other than judicial proceedings under this Act used to deal with a young person alleged to have committed an offence and includes extrajudicial sanctions.
« sanction extrajudiciaire »
“extrajudicial sanction” means a sanction that is part of a program referred to in section 10.
« infraction »
“offence” means an offence created by an Act of Parliament or by any regulation, rule, order, by-law or ordinance made under an Act of Parliament other than an ordinance of the Yukon Territory or the Northwest Territories or a law of the Legislature for Nunavut.
« père ou mère »ou« père et mère »
“parent” includes, in respect of a young person, any person who is under a legal duty to provide for the young person or any person who has, in law or in fact, the custody or control of the young person, but does not include a person who has the custody or control of the young person by reason only of proceedings under this Act.
« rapport prédécisionnel »
“pre-sentence report” means a report on the personal and family history and present environment of a young person made in accordance with section 40.
« infraction désignée »
“presumptive offence” means
(a) an offence committed, or alleged to have been committed, by a young person who has attained the age of fourteen years, or, in a province where the lieutenant governor in council has fixed an age greater than fourteen years under section 61, the age so fixed, under one of the following provisions of the Criminal Code:
(i) section 231 or 235 (first degree murder or second degree murder within the meaning of section 231),
(ii) section 239 (attempt to commit murder),
(iii) section 232, 234 or 236 (manslaughter), or
(iv) section 273 (aggravated sexual assault); or
(b) a serious violent offence for which an adult is liable to imprisonment for a term of more than two years committed, or alleged to have been committed, by a young person after the coming into force of section 62 (adult sentence) and after the young person has attained the age of fourteen years, or, in a province where the lieutenant governor in council has fixed an age greater than fourteen years under section 61, the age so fixed, if at the time of the commission or alleged commission of the offence at least two judicial determinations have been made under subsection 42(9), at different proceedings, that the young person has committed a serious violent offence.
« directeur provincial »ou« directeur »
“provincial director” means a person, a group or class of persons or a body appointed or designated by or under an Act of the legislature of a province or by the lieutenant governor in council of a province or his or her delegate to perform in that province, either generally or in a specific case, any of the duties or functions of a provincial director under this Act.
« publication »
“publication” means the communication of information by making it known or accessible to the general public through any means, including print, radio or television broadcast, telecommunication or electronic means.
« dossier »
“record” includes any thing containing information, regardless of its physical form or characteristics, including microform, sound recording, videotape, machine-readable record, and any copy of any of those things, that is created or kept for the purposes of this Act or for the investigation of an offence that is or could be prosecuted under this Act.
« commission d’examen »
“review board” means a review board referred to in subsection 87(2).
“serious violent offence”
« infraction grave avec violence »
“serious violent offence” means an offence in the commission of which a young person causes or attempts to cause serious bodily harm.
« adolescent »
“young person” means a person who is or, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, appears to be twelve years old or older, but less than eighteen years old and, if the context requires, includes any person who is charged under this Act with having committed an offence while he or she was a young person or who is found guilty of an offence under this Act.
“youth custody facility”
« lieu de garde »
“youth custody facility” means a facility designated under subsection 85(2) for the placement of young persons and, if so designated, includes a facility for the secure restraint of young persons, a community residential centre, a group home, a child care institution and a forest or wilderness camp.
“youth justice court”
« tribunal pour adolescents »
“youth justice court” means a youth justice court referred to in section 13.
“youth justice court judge”
« juge du tribunal pour adolescents »
“youth justice court judge” means a youth justice court judge referred to in section 13.
« peine spécifique »
“youth sentence” means a sentence imposed under section 42, 51 or 59 or any of sections 94 to 96 and includes a confirmation or a variation of that sentence.
« délégué à la jeunesse »
“youth worker” means any person appointed or designated, whether by title of youth worker or probation officer or by any other title, by or under an Act of the legislature of a province or by the lieutenant governor in council of a province or his or her delegate to perform in that province, either generally or in a specific case, any of the duties or functions of a youth worker under this Act.
Marginal note:Words and expressions
(2) Unless otherwise provided, words and expressions used in this Act have the same meaning as in the Criminal Code.
Marginal note:Descriptive cross-references
(3) If, in any provision of this Act, a reference to another provision of this Act or a provision of any other Act is followed by words in parentheses that are or purport to be descriptive of the subject-matter of the provision referred to, those words form no part of the provision in which they occur but are inserted for convenience of reference only.
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