An Act to amend the Criminal Code (protection of children and other vulnerable persons) and the Canada Evidence Act (S.C. 2005, c. 32)

Assented to 2005-07-20

Marginal note:1997, c. 30, s. 1

 The portion of subsection 278.9(1) of the Act before paragraph (a) is replaced by the following:

Marginal note:Publication prohibited
  • 278.9 (1) No person shall publish in any document, or broadcast or transmit in any way, any of the following:

Marginal note:R.S., c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 203, c. 19 (3rd Supp.), s. 14(2), c. 23 (4th Supp.), s. 1; 1993, c. 45, s. 7(1); 1997, c. 16, s. 6(4); 1999, c. 25, s. 2; 2001, c. 32, ss. 29(1), (2), (4) and (5), c. 41, ss. 34 and 133(13) and (14); 2002, c. 13, s. 20

 Section 486 of the Act is replaced by the following:

Marginal note:Exclusion of public in certain cases
  • 486. (1) Any proceedings against an accused shall be held in open court, but the presiding judge or justice may order the exclusion of all or any members of the public from the court room for all or part of the proceedings if the judge or justice is of the opinion that such an order is in the interest of public morals, the maintenance of order or the proper administration of justice or is necessary to prevent injury to international relations or national defence or national security.

  • Marginal note:Protection of witnesses under 18 and justice system participants

    (2) For the purposes of subsection (1), the “proper administration of justice” includes ensuring that

    • (a) the interests of witnesses under the age of eighteen years are safeguarded in all proceedings; and

    • (b) justice system participants who are involved in the proceedings are protected.

  • Marginal note:Reasons to be stated

    (3) If an accused is charged with an offence under section 151, 152, 153, 153.1, 155 or 159, subsection 160(2) or (3) or section 163.1, 171, 172, 172.1, 173, 212, 271, 272 or 273 and the prosecutor or the accused applies for an order under subsection (1), the judge or justice shall, if no such order is made, state, by reference to the circumstances of the case, the reason for not making an order.

Marginal note:Support person — witnesses under 18 or who have a disability
  • 486.1 (1) In any proceedings against an accused, the judge or justice shall, on application of the prosecutor, of a witness who is under the age of eighteen years or of a witness who has a mental or physical disability, order that a support person of the witness’ choice be permitted to be present and to be close to the witness while the witness testifies, unless the judge or justice is of the opinion that the order would interfere with the proper administration of justice.

  • Marginal note:Other witnesses

    (2) In any proceedings against an accused, the judge or justice may, on application of the prosecutor or a witness, order that a support person of the witness’ choice be permitted to be present and to be close to the witness while the witness testifies if the judge or justice is of the opinion that the order is necessary to obtain a full and candid account from the witness of the acts complained of.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2.1) An application referred to in subsection (1) or (2) may be made, during the proceedings, to the presiding judge or justice or, before the proceedings begin, to the judge or justice who will preside at the proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Factors to be considered

    (3) In making a determination under subsection (2), the judge or justice shall take into account the age of the witness, whether the witness has a mental or physical disability, the nature of the offence, the nature of any relationship between the witness and the accused, and any other circumstance that the judge or justice considers relevant.

  • Marginal note:Witness not to be a support person

    (4) The judge or justice shall not permit a witness to be a support person unless the judge or justice is of the opinion that doing so is necessary for the proper administration of justice.

  • Marginal note:No communication while testifying

    (5) The judge or justice may order that the support person and the witness not communicate with each other while the witness testifies.

  • Marginal note:No adverse inference

    (6) No adverse inference may be drawn from the fact that an order is, or is not, made under this section.

Marginal note:Testimony outside court room — witnesses under 18 or who have a disability
  • 486.2 (1) Despite section 650, in any proceedings against an accused, the judge or justice shall, on application of the prosecutor, of a witness who is under the age of eighteen years or of a witness who is able to communicate evidence but may have difficulty doing so by reason of a mental or physical disability, order that the witness testify outside the court room or behind a screen or other device that would allow the witness not to see the accused, unless the judge or justice is of the opinion that the order would interfere with the proper administration of justice.

  • Marginal note:Other witnesses

    (2) Despite section 650, in any proceedings against an accused, the judge or justice may, on application of the prosecutor or a witness, order that the witness testify outside the court room or behind a screen or other device that would allow the witness not to see the accused if the judge or justice is of the opinion that the order is necessary to obtain a full and candid account from the witness of the acts complained of.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2.1) An application referred to in subsection (1) or (2) may be made, during the proceedings, to the presiding judge or justice or, before the proceedings begin, to the judge or justice who will preside at the proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Factors to be considered

    (3) In making a determination under subsection (2), the judge or justice shall take into account the factors referred to in subsection 486.1(3).

  • Marginal note:Specific offences

    (4) Despite section 650, if an accused is charged with an offence referred to in subsection (5), the presiding judge or justice may order that any witness testify

    • (a) outside the court room if the judge or justice is of the opinion that the order is necessary to protect the safety of the witness; and

    • (b) outside the court room or behind a screen or other device that would allow the witness not to see the accused if the judge or justice is of the opinion that the order is necessary to obtain a full and candid account from the witness of the acts complained of.

  • Marginal note:Offences

    (5) The offences for the purposes of subsection (4) are

    • (a) an offence under section 423.1, 467.11, 467.12 or 467.13, or a serious offence committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal organization;

    • (b) a terrorism offence;

    • (c) an offence under subsection 16(1) or (2), 17(1), 19(1), 20(1) or 22(1) of the Security of Information Act; or

    • (d) an offence under subsection 21(1) or section 23 of the Security of Information Act that is committed in relation to an offence referred to in paragraph (c).

  • Marginal note:Same procedure for determination

    (6) If the judge or justice is of the opinion that it is necessary for a witness to testify in order to determine whether an order under subsection (2) or (4) should be made in respect of that witness, the judge or justice shall order that the witness testify in accordance with that subsection.

  • Marginal note:Conditions of exclusion

    (7) A witness shall not testify outside the court room under subsection (1), (2), (4) or (6) unless arrangements are made for the accused, the judge or justice and the jury to watch the testimony of the witness by means of closed-circuit television or otherwise and the accused is permitted to communicate with counsel while watching the testimony.

  • Marginal note:No adverse inference

    (8) No adverse inference may be drawn from the fact that an order is, or is not, made under this section.

Marginal note:Accused not to cross-examine witness under 18
  • 486.3 (1) In any proceedings against an accused, on application of the prosecutor or a witness who is under the age of eighteen years, the accused shall not personally cross-examine the witness, unless the judge or justice is of the opinion that the proper administration of justice requires the accused to personally conduct the cross-examination. The judge or justice shall appoint counsel to conduct the cross-examination if the accused does not personally conduct the cross-examination.

  • Marginal note:Other witnesses

    (2) In any proceedings against an accused, on application of the prosecutor or a witness, the accused shall not personally cross-examine the witness if the judge or justice is of the opinion that, in order to obtain a full and candid account from the witness of the acts complained of, the accused should not personally cross-examine the witness. The judge or justice shall appoint counsel to conduct the cross-examination if the accused does not personally conduct the cross-examination.

  • Marginal note:Factors to be considered

    (3) In making a determination under subsection (2), the judge or justice shall take into account the factors referred to in subsection 486.1(3).

  • Marginal note:Victim of criminal harassment

    (4) In any proceedings in respect of an offence under section 264, on application of the prosecutor or the victim of the offence, the accused shall not personally cross-examine the victim unless the judge or justice is of the opinion that the proper administration of justice requires the accused to personally conduct the cross-examination. The judge or justice shall appoint counsel to conduct the cross-examination if the accused does not personally conduct the cross-examination.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (4.1) An application referred to in subsection (1), (2) or (4) may be made, during the proceedings, to the presiding judge or justice or, before the proceedings begin, to the judge or justice who will preside at the proceedings.

  • Marginal note:No adverse inference

    (5) No adverse inference may be drawn from the fact that counsel is, or is not, appointed under this section.

Marginal note:Order restricting publication — sexual offences
  • 486.4 (1) Subject to subsection (2), the presiding judge or justice may make an order directing that any information that could identify the complainant or a witness shall not be published in any document or broadcast or transmitted in any way, in proceedings in respect of

    • (a) any of the following offences:

      • (i) an offence under section 151, 152, 153, 153.1, 155, 159, 160, 162, 163.1, 170, 171, 172, 172.1, 173, 210, 211, 212, 213, 271, 272, 273, 346 or 347,

      • (ii) an offence under section 144 (rape), 145 (attempt to commit rape), 149 (indecent assault on female), 156 (indecent assault on male) or 245 (common assault) or subsection 246(1) (assault with intent) of the Criminal Code, chapter C-34 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1970, as it read immediately before January 4, 1983, or

      • (iii) an offence under subsection 146(1) (sexual intercourse with a female under 14) or (2) (sexual intercourse with a female between 14 and 16) or section 151 (seduction of a female between 16 and 18), 153 (sexual intercourse with step-daughter), 155 (buggery or bestiality), 157 (gross indecency), 166 (parent or guardian procuring defilement) or 167 (householder permitting defilement) of the Criminal Code, chapter C-34 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1970, as it read immediately before January 1, 1988; or

    • (b) two or more offences being dealt with in the same proceeding, at least one of which is an offence referred to in any of subparagraphs (a)(i) to (iii).

  • Marginal note:Mandatory order on application

    (2) In proceedings in respect of the offences referred to in paragraph (1)(a) or (b), the presiding judge or justice shall

    • (a) at the first reasonable opportunity, inform any witness under the age of eighteen years and the complainant of the right to make an application for the order; and

    • (b) on application made by the complainant, the prosecutor or any such witness, make the order.

  • Marginal note:Child pornography

    (3) In proceedings in respect of an offence under section 163.1, a judge or justice shall make an order directing that any information that could identify a witness who is under the age of eighteen years, or any person who is the subject of a representation, written material or a recording that constitutes child pornography within the meaning of that section, shall not be published in any document or broadcast or transmitted in any way.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (4) An order made under this section does not apply in respect of the disclosure of information in the course of the administration of justice when it is not the purpose of the disclosure to make the information known in the community.

Marginal note:Order restricting publication — victims and witnesses
  • 486.5 (1) Unless an order is made under section 486.4, on application of the prosecutor, a victim or a witness, a judge or justice may make an order directing that any information that could identify the victim or witness shall not be published in any document or broadcast or transmitted in any way if the judge or justice is satisfied that the order is necessary for the proper administration of justice.

  • Marginal note:Justice system participants

    (2) On application of a justice system participant who is involved in proceedings in respect of an offence referred to in subsection 486.2(5) or of the prosecutor in those proceedings, a judge or justice may make an order directing that any information that could identify the justice system participant shall not be published in any document or broadcast or transmitted in any way if the judge or justice is satisfied that the order is necessary for the proper administration of justice.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (3) An order made under this section does not apply in respect of the disclosure of information in the course of the administration of justice if it is not the purpose of the disclosure to make the information known in the community.

  • Marginal note:Application and notice

    (4) An applicant for an order shall

    • (a) apply in writing to the presiding judge or justice or, if the judge or justice has not been determined, to a judge of a superior court of criminal jurisdiction in the judicial district where the proceedings will take place; and

    • (b) provide notice of the application to the prosecutor, the accused and any other person affected by the order that the judge or justice specifies.

  • Marginal note:Grounds

    (5) An applicant for an order shall set out the grounds on which the applicant relies to establish that the order is necessary for the proper administration of justice.

  • Marginal note:Hearing may be held

    (6) The judge or justice may hold a hearing to determine whether an order should be made, and the hearing may be in private.

  • Marginal note:Factors to be considered

    (7) In determining whether to make an order, the judge or justice shall consider

    • (a) the right to a fair and public hearing;

    • (b) whether there is a real and substantial risk that the victim, witness or justice system participant would suffer significant harm if their identity were disclosed;

    • (c) whether the victim, witness or justice system participant needs the order for their security or to protect them from intimidation or retaliation;

    • (d) society’s interest in encouraging the reporting of offences and the participation of victims, witnesses and justice system participants in the criminal justice process;

    • (e) whether effective alternatives are available to protect the identity of the victim, witness or justice system participant;

    • (f) the salutary and deleterious effects of the proposed order;

    • (g) the impact of the proposed order on the freedom of expression of those affected by it; and

    • (h) any other factor that the judge or justice considers relevant.

  • Marginal note:Conditions

    (8) An order may be subject to any conditions that the judge or justice thinks fit.

  • Marginal note:Publication prohibited

    (9) Unless the judge or justice refuses to make an order, no person shall publish in any document or broadcast or transmit in any way

    • (a) the contents of an application;

    • (b) any evidence taken, information given or submissions made at a hearing under subsection (6); or

    • (c) any other information that could identify the person to whom the application relates as a victim, witness or justice system participant in the proceedings.

Marginal note:Offence
  • 486.6 (1) Every person who fails to comply with an order made under subsection 486.4(1), (2) or (3) or 486.5(1) or (2) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Application of order

    (2) For greater certainty, an order referred to in subsection (1) applies to prohibit, in relation to proceedings taken against any person who fails to comply with the order, the publication in any document or the broadcasting or transmission in any way of information that could identify a victim, witness or justice system participant whose identity is protected by the order.

 
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