PART 10By-laws and Members
152 (1) Unless the articles, the by-laws or a unanimous member agreement otherwise provides, the directors may, by resolution, make, amend or repeal any by-laws that regulate the activities or affairs of the corporation, except in respect of matters referred to in subsection 197(1).
Marginal note:Member approval
(2) The directors shall submit the by-law, amendment or repeal to the members at the next meeting of members, and the members may, by ordinary resolution, confirm, reject or amend the by-law, amendment or repeal.
Marginal note:Effective date
(3) Subject to subsection (5), the by-law, amendment or repeal is effective from the date of the resolution of the directors. If the by-law, amendment or repeal is confirmed, or confirmed as amended, by the members it remains effective in the form in which it was confirmed.
Marginal note:Ceasing to have effect
(4) The by-law, amendment or repeal ceases to have effect if it is not submitted by the directors to the members as required under subsection (2) or if it is rejected by the members.
Marginal note:Subsequent resolution
(5) If a by-law, an amendment or a repeal ceases to have effect, a subsequent resolution of the directors that has substantially the same purpose or effect is not effective until it is confirmed, or confirmed as amended, by the members.
Marginal note:Member proposal
(6) A member entitled to vote at an annual meeting of members may, in accordance with section 163, make a proposal to make, amend or repeal a by-law.
Marginal note:Copies to Director
153 A corporation shall, within the prescribed period, send to the Director a copy of any by-law, amendment or repealed by-law, except for those that have been rejected by the members.
Marginal note:Conditions of membership
Marginal note:Classes of membership
(2) If the articles provide for two or more classes or groups of members, the by-laws shall provide
Marginal note:Voting rights — one class or group
(3) The members of a corporation that has only one class or group of members have the right to vote at any meeting of the members.
Marginal note:Voting rights — several classes or groups
(4) If the articles provide for two or more classes or groups of members, the articles shall provide the members of at least one class or group with the right to vote at a meeting of members.
Marginal note:Right to vote
(5) Unless the articles otherwise provide, each member is entitled to one vote at a meeting of members.
(6) The corporation shall recognize any individual authorized by a member corporation or other entity to represent the member at meetings.
Marginal note:Powers of representative
(7) The individual may exercise on behalf of the member corporation or other entity all the powers of that corporation or entity.
Marginal note:Transfer of membership
(8) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, a membership may be transferred only to the corporation.
Marginal note:Issuance of memberships
155 The directors may issue memberships in accordance with the articles and any conditions set out in the by-laws.
Marginal note:Termination of membership
156 Unless the articles or by-laws of a corporation otherwise provide, a membership is terminated when
(a) the member dies or resigns;
(b) the member is expelled or their membership is otherwise terminated in accordance with the articles or by-laws;
(c) the member’s term of membership expires; or
(d) the corporation is liquidated and dissolved under Part 14.
Marginal note:Termination of member’s rights
157 Unless the articles or by-laws otherwise provide, the rights of a member, including any rights in the property of the corporation, cease to exist on termination of the membership.
Marginal note:Power to discipline a member
158 The articles or by-laws may provide that the directors, the members or any committee of directors or members of a corporation have power to discipline a member or to terminate their membership. If the articles or by-laws provide for such a power, they shall set out the circumstances and the manner in which that power may be exercised.
Marginal note:Place of meetings
Marginal note:Meeting outside Canada
(2) Despite subsection (1), a meeting of members of a corporation may be held at a place outside Canada if the place is specified in the articles or all the members entitled to vote at the meeting agree that the meeting is to be held at that place.
(3) A member who attends a meeting of members held outside Canada is deemed to have agreed to it being held outside Canada except when the member attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business on the grounds that the meeting is not lawfully held.
Marginal note:Participation in meeting by electronic means
(4) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, any person entitled to attend a meeting of members may participate in the meeting, in accordance with the regulations, if any, by means of a telephonic, an electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during the meeting, if the corporation makes available such a communication facility. A person so participating in a meeting is deemed for the purposes of this Act to be present at the meeting.
Marginal note:Meeting held by electronic means
(5) If the directors or members of a corporation call a meeting of members under this Act and if the by-laws so provide, those directors or members, as the case may be, may determine that the meeting shall be held, in accordance with the regulations, if any, entirely by means of a telephonic, an electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during the meeting.
Marginal note:Calling annual meetings
Marginal note:Authorization to delay calling of annual meeting
(2) On application of the corporation, the Director may authorize the corporation, on any terms that the Director thinks fit, to extend the time for calling an annual meeting if the Director reasonably believes that members will not be prejudiced.
Marginal note:Calling special meetings
(3) The directors of a corporation may at any time call a special meeting of members.
Marginal note:Fixing record date
Marginal note:No record date fixed
(2) If no record date is fixed by the directors,
(a) the record date for the determination of members entitled to receive notice of a meeting of members is
(b) the record date for the determination of members entitled to vote at a meeting of members is
(c) the record date for the determination of members for any purpose other than to establish a member’s right to receive notice of a meeting or to vote shall be at the close of business on the day on which the directors pass the resolution relating to the record date.
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