Government of Canada / Gouvernement du Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada


Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations

Version of section 1 from 2018-03-22 to 2021-06-03:

  •  (1) The following definitions apply in these Regulations.


    Act means the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. (Loi)

    bicycle engine

    bicycle engine means an engine that is designed to be installed on a bicycle. (moteur de bicyclette)


    CFR means Title 40, chapter I of the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States, as amended from time to time. (CFR)

    CFR 90

    CFR 90 means subchapter C, part 90, of the CFR. (CFR 90)

    CFR 1051

    CFR 1051 means subchapter U, part 1051, of the CFR. (CFR 1051)

    CFR 1054

    CFR 1054 means subchapter U, part 1054, of the CFR. (CFR 1054)

    CFR 1060

    CFR 1060 means subchapter U, part 1060, of the CFR. (CFR 1060)

    CFR 1068

    CFR 1068 means subchapter U, part 1068, of the CFR. (CFR 1068)

    complete fuel system

    complete fuel system means a fuel system that is attached to an engine and that consists of fuel lines and at least one fuel tank. (système complet d’alimentation en carburant)

    crankcase emissions

    crankcase emissions means substances that cause air pollution and that are emitted into the atmosphere from any portion of the crankcase ventilation or lubrication systems of an engine. (émissions du carter)

    diurnal emissions

    diurnal emissions means evaporative emissions that occur as a result of the venting of fuel tank vapours during daily temperature changes while the engine is not operating. (émissions diurnes)

    element of design

    element of design means, in respect of an engine,

    • (a) any control system including computer software, electronic control systems and computer logic;

    • (b) any control system calibrations;

    • (c) the results of systems interaction; or

    • (d) any hardware items. (élément de conception)

    emission control system

    emission control system means any device, system or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions from an engine. (système antipollution)

    emission family

    emission family means, for the 2019 and later model years,

    • (a) in respect of any engine of a company that is covered by an EPA certificate or the fuel lines and fuel tanks of a complete fuel system for an engine of a company that are covered by an EPA certificate, the classification units for which the certificate was issued; and

    • (b) in respect of any other engine of a company or other fuel lines and fuel tanks of a complete fuel system for an engine of a company, the classification units determined in accordance with

      • (i) in the case of an engine, other than a bicycle engine, section 230 of subpart C of CFR 1054,

      • (ii) in the case of fuel lines or fuel tanks that form part of a complete fuel system for an engine other than those that form part of a complete fuel system for a bicycle engine, section 230 of subpart C of CFR 1060, and

      • (iii) in the case of a bicycle engine or the fuel lines or fuel tanks that form part of a complete fuel system for that engine, section 230 of subpart C of CFR 1051. (famille d’émissions)


    engine means an off-road engine that is prescribed under subsections 5(1) and (1.1). (moteur)

    engine kit

    engine kit means an engine with hardware, fuel lines and fuel tanks that are designed to be assembled. (moteur prêt à assembler)


    EPA means the United States Environmental Protection Agency. (EPA)

    EPA certificate

    EPA certificate means a certificate of conformity to United States federal standards issued by the EPA. (certificat de l’EPA)

    evaporative emissions

    evaporative emissions means fuel compounds that are emitted into the atmosphere from an engine fuelled with volatile liquid fuel, other than exhaust emissions and crankcase emissions. (émissions de gaz d’évaporation)

    exhaust emissions

    exhaust emissions means substances emitted into the atmosphere from any opening downstream from the exhaust port of an engine. (émissions de gaz d’échappement)

    fuel line

    fuel line means hose, tubing and primer bulbs containing or exposed to liquid fuel, including molded hose, tubing and primer bulbs that transport fuel to or from an engine, but does not include

    • (a) fuel tank vent lines;

    • (b) segments of hose or tubing in which the external surface is normally exposed to liquid fuel inside the fuel tank;

    • (c) hose or tubing that is designed to return unused fuel from the carburetor to the fuel tank for engines designed to be used in a handheld machine; or

    • (d) primer bulbs that contain liquid fuel only for priming the engine before starting. (conduite d’alimentation en carburant)

    fuel tank

    fuel tank means a tank equipped with its cap and designed to hold fuel. (réservoir de carburant)

    handheld machine

    handheld machine means a machine, other than a bicycle powered by a bicycle engine, that

    • (a) is designed to be carried by the operator during its use;

    • (b) is designed to operate in more than one position during its use;

    • (c) has a dry weight of less than 16 kg, has no more than two wheels, and is designed to be carried or supported by the operator during its use;

    • (d) in the case of a vehicle, is designed to be used for recreational purposes and has a dry weight of less than 20 kg;

    • (e) is powered by an engine that has a total displacement equal to or less than 80 cm3;

    • (f) is an auger that has a dry weight of less than 22 kg; or

    • (g) is a jackhammer or compactor that is designed to be supported by the operator. (machine portative)


    machine means anything, including a vehicle, device, appliance or implement, powered by an engine. (machine)

    model year

    model year means the year, as determined under section 4, that is used by a manufacturer to designate a model of engine. (année de modèle)

    non-handheld machine

    non-handheld machine means a machine other than a handheld machine but does not include a bicycle powered by a bicycle engine. (machine non portative)

    off-road engine

    off-road engine means an engine, within the meaning of section 149 of the Act,

    • (a) that is used or designed to be used by itself and that is designed to be or is capable of being carried or moved; or

    • (b) that is used or designed to be used

      • (i) in or on a machine that is designed to be or is capable of being carried or moved,

      • (ii) in or on a machine that is self-propelled,

      • (iii) in or on a machine that serves a dual purpose by both propelling itself and performing another function, or

      • (iv) in or on a machine that is designed to be propelled while performing its function. (moteur hors route)

    permeation emissions

    permeation emissions means evaporative emissions resulting from the permeation of fuel through fuel line or fuel tank materials. (émissions par perméation)

    running loss emissions

    running loss emissions means evaporative emissions that escape from a complete fuel system while the engine is operating but does not include permeation emissions or diurnal emissions. (émissions de pertes en marche)

    unique identification number

    unique identification number means a number, consisting of Arabic numerals, Roman letters or both, that the manufacturer assigns to the engine for identification purposes. (numéro d’identification unique)

    useful life

    useful life means the period of time or use in respect of which an emission standard applies to an engine, attached fuel line or attached fuel tank as set out in section 12.5 and subsections 12.7(1) and 12.8(3). (durée de vie utile)

    volatile liquid fuel

    volatile liquid fuel means any fuel that is a liquid at atmospheric pressure and has a Reid vapour pressure, as determined by the American Society for Testing and Materials method D5191-15, Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method), greater than 13.79 kPa. (carburant liquide volatil)

    wintertime engine

    wintertime engine means an engine used to power a machine that is designed exclusively to be used in snow or on ice. (moteur hivernal)

  • (2) Standards that are incorporated by reference in these Regulations from the CFR are those expressly set out in the CFR and shall be read as excluding

    • (a) references to the EPA or the Administrator of the EPA exercising discretion in any way;

    • (b) alternative standards related to the averaging, banking and trading of emission credits, to small volume manufacturers or to financial hardship; and

    • (c) standards or evidence of conformity of any jurisdiction or authority other than the EPA and, in the case of the standards referred to in subsection 12.5(2) and subparagraphs 12.7(1)(a)(iv) and (v), the California Air Resources Board.

  • (3) For the purposes of these Regulations, a reference in the CFR to

    • (a) “nonroad vehicle” and “nonroad equipment” shall be read as machine; and

    • (b) “nonroad engine” shall be read as engine.

  • SOR/2012-99, s. 2(E)
  • SOR/2017-196, s. 1

Date modified: