Citizenship Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-29)

Act current to 2017-11-20 and last amended on 2017-10-11. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Prohibition
  •  (1) Despite anything in this Act, a person shall not be granted citizenship under subsection 5(1), (2) or (4) or 11(1) or take the oath of citizenship

    • (a) while the person, under any enactment in force in Canada,

      • (i) is under a probation order,

      • (ii) is a paroled inmate, or

      • (iii) is serving a term of imprisonment;

    • (a.1) while the person is serving a sentence outside Canada for an offence committed outside Canada that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an offence under an enactment in force in Canada;

    • (a.2) while the person is serving a sentence outside Canada for an offence under any Act of Parliament;

    • (b) while the person is charged with, on trial for, subject to or a party to an appeal relating to an offence under subsection 21.1(1) or 29.2(1) or (2), or an indictable offence under subsection 29(2) or (3) or any other Act of Parliament, other than an offence that is designated as a contravention under the Contraventions Act;

    • (b.1) subject to subsection (1.1), while the person is charged with, on trial for, subject to or a party to an appeal relating to an offence committed outside Canada that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an indictable offence under any Act of Parliament;

    • (c) while the person is under investigation by the Minister of Justice, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or the Canadian Security Intelligence Service for, or is charged with, on trial for, subject to or a party to an appeal relating to, an offence under any of sections 4 to 7 of the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act;

    • (d) if the person has been convicted of an offence under any of sections 4 to 7 of the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act;

    • (e) if the person has not obtained the authorization to return to Canada required under subsection 52(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act;

    • (e.1) if the person directly or indirectly misrepresents or withholds material circumstances relating to a relevant matter, which induces or could induce an error in the administration of this Act;

    • (e.2) if, during the five years immediately before the person’s application, the person was prohibited from being granted citizenship or taking the oath of citizenship under paragraph (e.1); or

    • (f) if, during the 10 years immediately before the person’s application, the person ceased to be a citizen under paragraph 10(1)(a), as it read immediately before the coming into force of section 8 of the Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act, or under subsection 10(1) or 10.1(3).

    • (g) [Repealed, 2017, c. 14, s. 10]

  • Marginal note:Waiver

    (1.1) The Minister may, in his or her discretion in the case of any person, waive the application of paragraph (1)(b.1) on compassionate grounds.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition

    (2) Despite anything in this Act, but subject to the Criminal Records Act, a person shall not be granted citizenship under subsection 5(1), (2) or (4) or 11(1) or take the oath of citizenship if the person has been convicted of an offence under subsection 21.1(1) or 29.2(1) or (2), or an indictable offence under subsection 29(2) or (3) or any other Act of Parliament, other than an offence that is designated as a contravention under the Contraventions Act,

    • (a) during the four-year period immediately before the date of the person’s application; or

    • (b) during the period beginning on the date of the person’s application and ending on the date on which the person would otherwise be granted citizenship or take the oath of citizenship.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition — conviction of offence outside Canada

    (3) Despite anything in this Act, a person shall not be granted citizenship under subsection 5(1), (2) or (4) or 11(1) or take the oath of citizenship if the person has been convicted of an offence outside Canada that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an indictable offence under any Act of Parliament, regardless of whether the person was pardoned or otherwise granted amnesty for the offence, and the conviction occurred during

    • (a) the four-year period immediately before the date of the person’s application; or

    • (b) the period beginning on the date of the person’s application and ending on the date that he or she would otherwise be granted citizenship or take the oath of citizenship.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition — specific cases

    (4) Despite anything in this Act, a person shall not be granted citizenship under subsection 5(1), (2) or (4) or 11(1) or take the oath of citizenship if the person, before or after the coming into force of this subsection and while the person was a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act,

    • (a) was convicted under section 47 of the Criminal Code of treason and sentenced to imprisonment for life or was convicted of high treason under that section;

    • (b) was convicted of a terrorism offence as defined in section 2 of the Criminal Code — or an offence outside Canada that, if committed in Canada, would constitute a terrorism offence as defined in that section — and sentenced to at least five years of imprisonment;

    • (c) was convicted of an offence under any of sections 73 to 76 of the National Defence Act and sentenced to imprisonment for life because the person acted traitorously;

    • (d) was convicted of an offence under section 78 of the National Defence Act and sentenced to imprisonment for life;

    • (e) was convicted of an offence under section 130 of the National Defence Act in respect of an act or omission that is punishable under section 47 of the Criminal Code and sentenced to imprisonment for life;

    • (f) was convicted under the National Defence Act of a terrorism offence as defined in subsection 2(1) of that Act and sentenced to at least five years of imprisonment;

    • (g) was convicted of an offence described in section 16 or 17 of the Security of Information Act and sentenced to imprisonment for life;

    • (h) was convicted of an offence under section 130 of the National Defence Act in respect of an act or omission that is punishable under section 16 or 17 of the Security of Information Act and sentenced to imprisonment for life; or

    • (i) served as a member of an armed force of a country or as a member of an organized armed group and that country or group was engaged in an armed conflict with Canada.

  • Marginal note:Exceptional circumstances

    (5) If the Minister considers that exceptional circumstances warrant it, he or she may decide that subsection (4) does not apply in respect of a person.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition — taking oath

    (6) Despite anything in this Act, a person shall not take the oath of citizenship if they never met or they no longer meet the requirements of this Act for the grant of citizenship.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-29, s. 22;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 11;
  • 1992, c. 47, s. 67, c. 49, s. 124;
  • 1999, c. 31, s. 42;
  • 2000, c. 24, s. 33;
  • 2001, c. 27, s. 231;
  • 2008, c. 14, s. 11;
  • 2014, c. 22, s. 19;
  • 2017, c. 14, s. 10.
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