Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act (S.C. 2002, c. 18)

Act current to 2016-06-21 and last amended on 2015-06-23. Previous Versions

Enforcement

Marginal note:Designation of marine conservation area wardens

 The Minister may designate persons appointed under the Parks Canada Agency Act whose duties include the enforcement of this Act to be marine conservation area wardens

  • (a) for the enforcement of this Act and the regulations in any part of Canada or the exclusive economic zone of Canada, and

  • (b) for the preservation and maintenance of the public peace in marine conservation areas, except in any portion of them situated within the exclusive economic zone of Canada,

and marine conservation area wardens are, for those purposes, peace officers within the meaning of the Criminal Code.

Marginal note:Designation of enforcement officers

 The Minister may designate persons or classes of persons employed in the public service of Canada or by a provincial, municipal or local authority or an aboriginal government, whose duties include law enforcement, to be enforcement officers for the purpose of the enforcement of specified provisions of this Act or the regulations in specified marine conservation areas, and for that purpose enforcement officers have the powers and are entitled to the protection provided by law to peace officers within the meaning of the Criminal Code.

Marginal note:Contraventions Act
  •  (1) The Minister may designate persons or classes of persons employed in the federal public administration or by a provincial, municipal or local authority or by an aboriginal government for the purpose of the enforcement of this Act or the regulations with respect to offences that have been designated as contraventions under the Contraventions Act.

  • Marginal note:Limitations regarding designations

    (2) The Minister may specify that a designation is in respect of one or more marine conservation areas or in respect of all or specified offences under this Act that have been designated as contraventions under the Contraventions Act.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 21.
Marginal note:Certificate of designation and oath
  •  (1) Every marine conservation area warden, enforcement officer and person designated under section 19.1 shall be provided with a certificate of designation in a form approved by the Minister and shall take and subscribe an oath prescribed by the Minister.

  • Marginal note:Limitations must be specified

    (2) The certificate must specify the limitations, if any, to which the designation is subject.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 20;
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 21.
Marginal note:Right of passage

 In the discharge of their duties, marine conservation area wardens and enforcement officers and any persons accompanying them may enter on and pass through or over private property without being liable for doing so and without any person having the right to object to that use of the property.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 21.
Marginal note:Immunity

 Marine conservation area wardens and enforcement officers are not personally liable for anything they do or omit to do in good faith under this Act.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 21.
Marginal note:Arrest without warrant

 A marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer may, in accordance with the Criminal Code, arrest without warrant any person

  • (a) whom the warden or officer finds committing an offence under this Act; or

  • (b) who the warden or officer believes, on reasonable grounds, has committed or is about to commit an offence under this Act.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 21;
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 21.
Marginal note:Search and seizure
  •  (1) A marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer may

    • (a) enter and search any place and open and examine any package or receptacle in accordance with a warrant issued under subsection (2) at any time during the day or, if so specified in the warrant, during the night; and

    • (b) seize any thing that the warden or officer believes on reasonable grounds is a thing described in subsection (2).

  • Marginal note:Authority to issue warrant

    (2) If a justice of the peace, on ex parte application, is satisfied by information on oath that there are reasonable grounds to believe that there is in any place, including any building, boat or other conveyance, or in any package or receptacle,

    • (a) any thing in relation to which there are reasonable grounds to believe an offence under this Act or the regulations has been committed, or

    • (b) any thing that there are reasonable grounds to believe will afford evidence with respect to the commission of such an offence,

    the justice of the peace may issue a warrant authorizing a marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer named in the warrant to enter and search the place or to open and examine the package or receptacle, subject to any conditions specified in the warrant.

  • Marginal note:Where warrant not necessary

    (3) A marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer may exercise any powers under subsection (1) without a warrant if the conditions for obtaining a warrant exist but by reason of exigent circumstances it would not be practical to obtain one.

Marginal note:Custody of things seized
  •  (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3) and sections 25 and 26, where a marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer seizes a thing under this Act or under a warrant issued pursuant to the Criminal Code,

    • (a) sections 489.1 and 490 of the Criminal Code apply; and

    • (b) the warden or officer, or any person that the warden or officer may designate, shall retain custody of the thing subject to any order made under section 490 of the Criminal Code.

  • Marginal note:Forfeiture where ownership not ascertainable

    (2) If the lawful ownership of or entitlement to a seized thing cannot be ascertained within 30 days after its seizure, the thing, or any proceeds of its disposition, are forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada, if the thing was seized by a marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer employed in the public service of Canada, or to Her Majesty in right of a province, if the thing was seized by an enforcement officer employed by a provincial, municipal or local authority or an aboriginal government.

  • Marginal note:Perishable things

    (3) Where a seized thing is perishable, the marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer may dispose of it or destroy it, and any proceeds of its disposition shall be paid to the lawful owner or person lawfully entitled to possession of the thing, unless proceedings under this Act are commenced within 90 days after its seizure, or shall be retained by the warden or officer pending the outcome of those proceedings.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 23;
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 22(F).
Marginal note:Liability for costs

 If a thing is seized under this Act, the person who owned the thing at the time that it was seized, the person who had charge or control of the thing immediately before it was seized and the person who possessed it immediately before it was seized are jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable for all the costs of seizure, detention, maintenance and forfeiture, including any destruction or disposal costs, incurred by Her Majesty in right of Canada in relation to the thing in excess of any proceeds of its disposition, if any.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 23.

Offences and Punishment

Marginal note:Offence
  •  (1) Every person who contravenes any provision of this Act or any provision of the regulations designated by regulations made under paragraph 16(1)(n) is guilty of an offence and liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Contravention of other provisions of regulations or of conditions of permits, etc.

    (1.1) Every person who contravenes any provision of the regulations, other than a provision designated by regulations made under paragraph 16(1)(n), or any condition of a permit or other authorizing instrument issued under this Act is guilty of an offence and liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $200,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $25,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

  • Marginal note:Continuing offences

    (2) If a contravention of this Act or the regulations is committed or continued on more than one day, it constitutes a separate offence for each day on which it is committed or continued.

  • Marginal note:Offences involving more than one animal, plant or object

    (2.1) If an offence involves more than one animal, plant or object, the fine to be imposed in respect of that offence may, despite subsections (1) and (1.1), be the total of the fines that would have been imposed if each of the animals, plants or objects had been the subject of a separate information.

  • Marginal note:Deeming — second and subsequent offence

    (2.2) For the purposes of this section, a conviction for a particular offence under this Act is deemed to be a conviction for a second or subsequent offence if the court is satisfied that the offender has been previously convicted — under any Act of Parliament, or any Act of the legislature of a province, that relates to environmental or wildlife protection or conservation, or the protection of cultural, historical or archaeological resources — of a substantially similar offence.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2.3) Subsection (2.2) applies only to previous convictions on indictment and to previous convictions on summary conviction, and to previous convictions under any similar procedure under any Act of the legislature of a province.

  • Marginal note:Injunction

    (3) Whether or not proceedings have been commenced with respect to an offence under this Act, Her Majesty in right of Canada may undertake or continue proceedings to prevent conduct that constitutes such an offence.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 24;
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 24.
 
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