Enforcement in Canada (continued)
Assistance to Enforcement Officers and Analysts
Marginal note:Right of passage
38 An enforcement officer, analyst or any other person may, while carrying out their functions under this Act, enter on and pass through or over private property without being liable for exercising that power or without the owner of the property having the right to object to that use of the property.
39 The owner or the person in charge of a place entered by an enforcement officer or analyst under section 32, and every person found in the place, shall
(a) give the enforcement officer or analyst all reasonable assistance to enable the officer or analyst to carry out their functions under this Act; and
(b) provide the enforcement officer or analyst with any information with respect to the administration of this Act that the enforcement officer or analyst may reasonably require.
Forfeiture in Canada
Marginal note:Forfeiture on consent
40 (1) If an enforcement officer has seized a thing under section 32 or subsection 35(1) and the owner or person who was in lawful possession of it at the time of the seizure consents in writing at the request of the enforcement officer to its forfeiture, it is forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada.
Marginal note:Disposal or destruction
(2) The Minister may dispose of or destroy a thing forfeited under subsection (1) and, if the Minister so directs, the costs of the disposal or destruction shall be paid by the owner or the person who was in lawful possession of the thing at the time it was seized.
Marginal note:Forfeiture by order of court
(a) the thing is, on the conviction and in addition to any punishment imposed for the offence, forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada if the court so directs, in which case
(b) the thing shall, on the expiry of the period for taking an appeal from the conviction or on the final conclusion of the proceedings, be restored to the person from whom it was seized or to any other person entitled to its possession on any conditions that may be imposed by order of the court and that, in the opinion of the court, are necessary to avoid the commission of a further offence under this Act.
Marginal note:Things deemed not to have been seized
(2) For the purpose of subsection (1), anything released from detention under paragraph 35(4)(a) or (b) is deemed not to have been seized under section 32 or subsection 35(1).
Marginal note:Court may order forfeiture
42 If the authorized representative of a Canadian vessel or the registered owner of a Canadian aircraft has been convicted of an offence under this Act, the convicting court may, if the vessel or aircraft was seized under section 32 or subsection 35(1), in addition to any other penalty imposed, order that the vessel or aircraft, or any security given under subsection 34(1) be forfeited, and on the making of the order, the vessel or aircraft or security is forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada.
Marginal note:Disposal of forfeited vessel, aircraft, etc.
43 (1) If proceedings referred to in subsection 34(2) are instituted within the period referred to in that subsection and, at the final conclusion of those proceedings, any vessel or aircraft, or any security given under subsection 34(1), is ordered to be forfeited, it may be disposed of as the Governor in Council directs.
Marginal note:Return of seized vessel, etc., where no forfeiture ordered
(2) If a thing has been seized under section 32 and proceedings referred to in subsection (1) are instituted, but the thing is not, at the final conclusion of the proceedings, ordered to be forfeited, it must be returned to the person from whom it was seized, the proceeds of any sale of the cargo under subsection 33(3) must be paid to that person and any security given to the Minister under subsection 34(1) must be returned to that person.
(3) If, at the conclusion of proceedings referred to in subsection (1), the person from whom the thing was seized is convicted of an offence arising out of a contravention of this Act or the regulations, the thing and any cargo or the proceeds or security may be retained until the fine is paid, or the thing and any cargo may be sold under execution in satisfaction of the fine, or the proceeds realized from the sale of the cargo or the security or any part of the cargo or security may be applied in payment of the fine.
Marginal note:Application by person claiming interest
44 (1) If a thing has been ordered to be forfeited under this Act, any person, other than a person who was a party to the proceedings that resulted in the order, who claims a right or an interest in the thing as owner, holder of a security established on property or other right in rem or holder of any other claim under Canadian law may, within 30 days after the day on which the thing is ordered to be forfeited, apply by notice in writing to the Federal Court for an order under subsection (5).
Marginal note:Date of hearing
(2) The Federal Court must fix a day for the hearing of the application.
(3) An applicant for an order under subsection (5) must, at least 30 days before the day fixed under subsection (2), serve a notice of the application and of the hearing on the Minister and on all other persons claiming a right or an interest in the thing that is the subject-matter of the application as owner, holder of a security established on property or other right in rem or holder of any other claim under Canadian law of whom the applicant has knowledge.
Marginal note:Notice of intervention
(4) Each person, other than the Minister, who is served with a notice under subsection (3) and who intends to appear at the hearing of the application to which the notice relates must, at least 10 days before the day fixed for the hearing, file a notice of intervention in the Registry of the Federal Court and serve a copy of the notice on the Minister and on the applicant.
Marginal note:Order declaring nature and extent of interests
(5) If, on the hearing of an application under this section, the Federal Court is satisfied that the applicant, or the intervenors, if any, or any of them,
(a) is innocent of any complicity in any conduct that caused the thing to be subject to forfeiture and of any collusion in relation to any such conduct, and
(b) exercised all reasonable care in respect of the persons permitted to obtain possession and use of the thing so as to be satisfied that it was not likely to be used contrary to the provisions of this Act or, in the case of a holder of a security established on property, other than the holder of a maritime lien or statutory right in rem, that the applicant or intervenor exercised such care with respect to the person who gave the property as security,
those of the applicant and the intervenors in respect of whom the Court is so satisfied are entitled to an order declaring that their rights or interests are not affected by the forfeiture and declaring the nature and extent of each of their rights or interests and the ranking among them.
Marginal note:Additional order
(6) If an order is made under subsection (5), the Court may, in addition, order that the thing to which the rights or interests relate be delivered to one or more of the persons found to have a right or an interest in it or that an amount equal to the value of each of the interests so declared be paid to the persons found to have those interests.
Liability for Costs
Marginal note:Liability for costs
44.1 If a thing is seized under this Act, the person who owned the thing at the time it was seized, the person who had charge or control of the thing immediately before it was seized and the person who possessed it immediately before it was seized are jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable for all the costs of seizure, detention, maintenance and forfeiture, including any destruction or disposal costs, incurred by Her Majesty in right of Canada in relation to the thing in excess of any proceeds of its disposition, if any.
- 2009, c. 14, s. 10
Inspections in the Antarctic
Marginal note:Designation of inspectors
45 (1) The Minister may designate as an inspector, for the purpose of this Act or any provision of this Act, any person or any member of a class of persons who, in the Minister’s opinion, is qualified to be so designated.
(2) The Minister may, including on the request of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, limit the powers that may be exercised by an inspector under this Act.
Marginal note:Production of certificate
(3) The Minister must provide every inspector with a certificate of designation that includes any limits specified under subsection (2). On entering any place, the inspector must, if so requested, produce the certificate to the person in charge of the place.
Marginal note:Powers of inspectors
46 (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (6), for the purposes of this Act, an inspector may, at any reasonable time, enter any place in the Antarctic in which the inspector believes, on reasonable grounds, there is anything to which this Act applies or any document relating to its administration.
(2) An inspector may not enter a dwelling-house without the consent of the occupant.
Marginal note:Stopping and detaining conveyances
(3) For the purposes of this Act, an inspector may, at any reasonable time, direct that any of the following be moved to a place where an inspection can be carried out and may, for a reasonable time, detain any of the following:
Marginal note:Powers in relation to vessels, etc.
(4) Subject to subsection (2), for the purposes of this Act, an inspector may, at any reasonable time,
Marginal note:Powers of inspectors
(5) In carrying out an inspection of a place under this section, an inspector may exercise any of the powers referred to in subsections 30(9), (11) and (12).
Marginal note:Foreign ownership
(6) An inspector may not exercise any powers under this section in respect of any station, installation, equipment, platform anchored at sea, shipping container or conveyance (other than a Canadian vessel or Canadian aircraft) that is owned by a person who is not a Canadian unless the inspector first obtains the consent of the person in charge of the station, installation, equipment, platform, container or conveyance.
(7) An analyst may, for the purposes of this Act, accompany an inspector who is carrying out an inspection of a place under this section, and the analyst may, when accompanying the inspector, enter the place and exercise any of the powers referred to in subsection (5).
(8) The owner of a place or a Canadian or permit holder in charge of a place being inspected under this section, and every Canadian or permit holder found in the place, shall
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