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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. B-3)

Act current to 2021-06-28 and last amended on 2019-11-01. Previous Versions

PART IAdministrative Officials (continued)

Trustees (continued)

Discharge of Trustee

Marginal note:Disposal of unrealizable property

  •  (1) Any property of a bankrupt that is listed in the statement of affairs referred to in paragraph 158(d) or otherwise disclosed to the trustee before the bankrupt’s discharge and that is found incapable of realization must be returned to the bankrupt before the trustee’s application for discharge, but if inspectors have been appointed, the trustee may do so only with their permission.

  • Marginal note:Final disposition of property

    (2) Where a trustee is unable to dispose of any property as provided in this section, the court may make such order as it may consider necessary.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 40
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 29

Marginal note:Application to court

  •  (1) When a trustee has completed the duties required of him with respect to the administration of the property of a bankrupt, he shall apply to the court for a discharge.

  • Marginal note:Discharge of trustee

    (2) The court may discharge a trustee with respect to any estate on full administration thereof or, for sufficient cause, before full administration.

  • Marginal note:When another trustee has been appointed

    (3) A trustee when replaced by another trustee is entitled to be discharged if he has accounted to the satisfaction of the inspectors and the court for all property that came to his hands, and a period of three months has elapsed after the date of the replacement without any undisposed of claim or objection having been made by the bankrupt or any creditor.

  • Marginal note:When estate deemed fully administered

    (4) When a trustee’s accounts have been approved by the inspectors and taxed by the court and all objections, applications, oppositions, motions and appeals have been settled or disposed of and all dividends have been paid, the estate is deemed to have been fully administered.

  • Marginal note:Objections to be filed with court and trustee

    (5) Any interested person desiring to object to the discharge of a trustee shall, at least five days prior to the date of the hearing, file notice of objection with the registrar of the court setting out the reasons for the objection and serve a copy of the notice on the trustee.

  • Marginal note:Court may grant discharge

    (6) The court shall consider the objection filed under subsection (5) and may grant or withhold a discharge accordingly or give such directions as it may deem proper in the circumstances.

  • Marginal note:Fraud or breach of trust

    (7) Nothing in or done under authority of this section relieves or discharges or shall be deemed to relieve or discharge a trustee from the results of any fraud.

  • Marginal note:Effect of discharge of trustee

    (8) The discharge of a trustee discharges him from all liability

    • (a) in respect of any act done or default made by him in the administration of the property of the bankrupt, and

    • (b) in relation to his conduct as trustee,

    but any discharge may be revoked by the court on proof that it was obtained by fraud or by suppression or concealment of any material fact.

  • Marginal note:Investigation not precluded

    (8.1) Nothing in subsection (8) is to be construed as preventing an inquiry, investigation or proceeding in respect of a trustee under subsection 14.01(1).

  • Marginal note:Security released

    (9) The discharge of a trustee under this section operates as a release of the security provided pursuant to subsection 16(1).

  • Marginal note:Trustee remains

    (10) Notwithstanding his discharge, the trustee remains the trustee of the estate for the performance of such duties as may be incidental to the full administration of the estate.

  • Marginal note:Appointment of trustee by court to complete administration

    (11) The court, on being satisfied that there are assets that have not been realized or distributed, may, on the application of any interested person, appoint a trustee to complete the administration of the estate of the bankrupt, and the trustee shall be governed by the provisions of this Act, in so far as they are applicable.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 41
  • 1997, c. 12, s. 25
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 25
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 12

PART IIBankruptcy Orders and Assignments

Acts of Bankruptcy

Marginal note:Acts of bankruptcy

  •  (1) A debtor commits an act of bankruptcy in each of the following cases:

    • (a) if in Canada or elsewhere he makes an assignment of his property to a trustee for the benefit of his creditors generally, whether it is an assignment authorized by this Act or not;

    • (b) if in Canada or elsewhere the debtor makes a fraudulent gift, delivery or transfer of the debtor’s property or of any part of it;

    • (c) if in Canada or elsewhere the debtor makes any transfer of the debtor’s property or any part of it, or creates any charge on it, that would under this Act be void or, in the Province of Quebec, null as a fraudulent preference;

    • (d) if, with intent to defeat or delay his creditors, he departs out of Canada, or, being out of Canada, remains out of Canada, or departs from his dwelling-house or otherwise absents himself;

    • (e) if the debtor permits any execution or other process issued against the debtor under which any of the debtor’s property is seized, levied on or taken in execution to remain unsatisfied until within five days after the time fixed by the executing officer for the sale of the property or for fifteen days after the seizure, levy or taking in execution, or if any of the debtor’s property has been sold by the executing officer, or if the execution or other process has been held by the executing officer for a period of fifteen days after written demand for payment without seizure, levy or taking in execution or satisfaction by payment, or if it is returned endorsed to the effect that the executing officer can find no property on which to levy or to seize or take, but if interpleader or opposition proceedings have been instituted with respect to the property seized, the time elapsing between the date at which the proceedings were instituted and the date at which the proceedings are finally disposed of, settled or abandoned shall not be taken into account in calculating the period of fifteen days;

    • (f) if he exhibits to any meeting of his creditors any statement of his assets and liabilities that shows that he is insolvent, or presents or causes to be presented to any such meeting a written admission of his inability to pay his debts;

    • (g) if he assigns, removes, secretes or disposes of or attempts or is about to assign, remove, secrete or dispose of any of his property with intent to defraud, defeat or delay his creditors or any of them;

    • (h) if he gives notice to any of his creditors that he has suspended or that he is about to suspend payment of his debts;

    • (i) if he defaults in any proposal made under this Act; and

    • (j) if he ceases to meet his liabilities generally as they become due.

  • Marginal note:Unauthorized assignments are void or null

    (2) Every assignment of an insolvent debtor’s property other than an assignment authorized by this Act, made by an insolvent debtor for the general benefit of their creditors, is void or, in the Province of Quebec, null.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 42
  • 1997, c. 12, s. 26
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 27

Application for Bankruptcy Order

Marginal note:Bankruptcy application

  •  (1) Subject to this section, one or more creditors may file in court an application for a bankruptcy order against a debtor if it is alleged in the application that

    • (a) the debt or debts owing to the applicant creditor or creditors amount to one thousand dollars; and

    • (b) the debtor has committed an act of bankruptcy within the six months preceding the filing of the application.

  • Marginal note:If applicant creditor is a secured creditor

    (2) If the applicant creditor referred to in subsection (1) is a secured creditor, they shall in their application either state that they are willing to give up their security for the benefit of the creditors, in the event of a bankruptcy order being made against the debtor, or give an estimate of the value of the applicant creditor’s security, and in the latter case they may be admitted as an applicant creditor to the extent of the balance of the debt due to them after deducting the value so estimated, in the same manner as if they were an unsecured creditor.

  • Marginal note:Affidavit

    (3) The application shall be verified by affidavit of the applicant or by someone duly authorized on their behalf having personal knowledge of the facts alleged in the application.

  • Marginal note:Consolidation of applications

    (4) If two or more applications are filed against the same debtor or against joint debtors, the court may consolidate the proceedings or any of them on any terms that the court thinks fit.

  • Marginal note:Place of filing

    (5) The application shall be filed in the court having jurisdiction in the judicial district of the locality of the debtor.

  • Marginal note:Proof of facts, etc.

    (6) At the hearing of the application, the court shall require proof of the facts alleged in the application and of the service of the application, and, if satisfied with the proof, may make a bankruptcy order.

  • Marginal note:Dismissal of application

    (7) If the court is not satisfied with the proof of the facts alleged in the application or of the service of the application, or is satisfied by the debtor that the debtor is able to pay their debts, or that for other sufficient cause no order ought to be made, it shall dismiss the application.

  • Marginal note:Dismissal with respect to some respondents only

    (8) If there are more respondents than one to an application, the court may dismiss the application with respect to one or more of them, without prejudice to the effect of the application as against the other or others of them.

  • Marginal note:Appointment of trustee

    (9) On a bankruptcy order being made, the court shall appoint a licensed trustee as trustee of the property of the bankrupt, having regard, as far as the court considers just, to the wishes of the creditors.

  • Marginal note:Stay of proceedings if facts denied

    (10) If the debtor appears at the hearing of the application and denies the truth of the facts alleged in the application, the court may, instead of dismissing the application, stay all proceedings on the application on any terms that it may see fit to impose on the applicant as to costs or on the debtor to prevent alienation of the debtor’s property and for any period of time that may be required for trial of the issue relating to the disputed facts.

  • Marginal note:Stay of proceedings for other reasons

    (11) The court may for other sufficient reason make an order staying the proceedings under an application, either altogether or for a limited time, on any terms and subject to any conditions that the court may think just.

  • Marginal note:Security for costs

    (12) Applicants who are resident out of Canada may be ordered to give security for costs to the debtor, and proceedings under the application may be stayed until the security is furnished.

  • Marginal note:Bankruptcy order on another application

    (13) If proceedings on an application have been stayed or have not been prosecuted with due diligence and effect, the court may, if by reason of the delay or for any other cause it is considered just, substitute or add as applicant any other creditor to whom the debtor may be indebted in the amount required by this Act and make a bankruptcy order on the application of the other creditor, and shall, immediately after making the order, dismiss on any terms that it may consider just the application in the stayed or non-prosecuted proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Withdrawing application

    (14) An application shall not be withdrawn without the leave of the court.

  • Marginal note:Application against one partner

    (15) Any creditor whose claim against a partnership is sufficient to entitle the creditor to present a bankruptcy application may present an application against any one or more partners of the firm without including the others.

  • Marginal note:Court may consolidate proceedings

    (16) If a bankruptcy order has been made against one member of a partnership, any other application against a member of the same partnership shall be filed in or transferred to the same court, and the court may give any directions for consolidating the proceedings under the applications that it thinks just.

  • Marginal note:Continuance of proceedings on death of debtor

    (17) If a debtor against whom an application has been filed dies, the proceedings shall, unless the court otherwise orders, be continued as if the debtor were alive.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 43
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 15
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 28
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