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Copyright Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-42)

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Act current to 2022-06-20 and last amended on 2020-07-01. Previous Versions

PART IIIInfringement of Copyright and Moral Rights and Exceptions to Infringement (continued)

Exceptions (continued)

Educational Institutions (continued)

Marginal note:Performances

 It is not an infringement of copyright for an educational institution or a person acting under its authority to do the following acts if they are done on the premises of an educational institution for educational or training purposes and not for profit, before an audience consisting primarily of students of the educational institution, instructors acting under the authority of the educational institution or any person who is directly responsible for setting a curriculum for the educational institution:

  • (a) the live performance in public, primarily by students of the educational institution, of a work;

  • (b) the performance in public of a sound recording, or of a work or performer’s performance that is embodied in a sound recording, as long as the sound recording is not an infringing copy or the person responsible for the performance has no reasonable grounds to believe that it is an infringing copy;

  • (c) the performance in public of a work or other subject-matter at the time of its communication to the public by telecommunication; and

  • (d) the performance in public of a cinematographic work, as long as the work is not an infringing copy or the person responsible for the performance has no reasonable grounds to believe that it is an infringing copy.

  • 1997, c. 24, s. 18
  • 2012, c. 20, s. 24

Marginal note:News and commentary

  •  (1) It is not an infringement of copyright for an educational institution or a person acting under its authority to

    • (a) make, at the time of its communication to the public by telecommunication, a single copy of a news program or a news commentary program, excluding documentaries, for the purposes of performing the copy for the students of the educational institution for educational or training purposes; and

    • (b) perform the copy in public before an audience consisting primarily of students of the educational institution on its premises for educational or training purposes.

  • (2) [Repealed, 2012, c. 20, s. 25]

  • 1997, c. 24, s. 18
  • 2012, c. 20, s. 25

Marginal note:Reproduction of broadcast

  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2) and section 29.9, it is not an infringement of copyright for an educational institution or a person acting under its authority to

    • (a) make a single copy of a work or other subject-matter at the time that it is communicated to the public by telecommunication; and

    • (b) keep the copy for up to thirty days to decide whether to perform the copy for educational or training purposes.

  • Marginal note:Royalties for reproduction

    (2) An educational institution that has not destroyed the copy by the expiration of the thirty days infringes copyright in the work or other subject-matter unless it pays any royalties, and complies with any terms and conditions, fixed under this Act for the making of the copy.

  • Marginal note:Royalties for performance

    (3) It is not an infringement of copyright for the educational institution or a person acting under its authority to perform the copy in public for educational or training purposes on the premises of the educational institution before an audience consisting primarily of students of the educational institution if the educational institution pays the royalties and complies with any terms and conditions fixed under this Act for the performance in public.

  • 1997, c. 24, s. 18

Marginal note:Unlawful reception

 The exceptions to infringement of copyright provided for under sections 29.5 to 29.7 do not apply where the communication to the public by telecommunication was received by unlawful means.

  • 1997, c. 24, s. 18

Marginal note:Records and marking

  •  (1) Where an educational institution or person acting under its authority

    • (a) [Repealed, 2012, c. 20, s. 26]

    • (b) makes a copy of a work or other subject-matter communicated to the public by telecommunication and performs it pursuant to section 29.7,

    the educational institution shall keep a record of the information prescribed by regulation in relation to the making of the copy, the destruction of it or any performance in public of it for which royalties are payable under this Act and shall, in addition, mark the copy in the manner prescribed by regulation.

  • Marginal note:Regulations

    (2) The Board may, with the approval of the Governor in Council, make regulations

    • (a) prescribing the information in relation to the making, destruction, performance and marking of copies that must be kept under subsection (1),

    • (b) prescribing the manner and form in which records referred to in that subsection must be kept and copies destroyed or marked, and

    • (c) respecting the sending of information to collective societies that carry on the business of collecting royalties referred to in subsection 29.7(2) or (3).

Marginal note:Literary collections

 The publication in a collection, mainly composed of non-copyright matter, intended for the use of educational institutions, and so described in the title and in any advertisements issued by the publisher, of short passages from published literary works in which copyright subsists and not themselves published for the use of educational institutions, does not infringe copyright in those published literary works if

  • (a) not more than two passages from works by the same author are published by the same publisher within five years;

  • (b) the source from which the passages are taken is acknowledged; and

  • (c) the name of the author, if given in the source, is mentioned.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 30
  • R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 7
  • 1997, c. 24, s. 18

Marginal note:Meaning of lesson

  •  (1) For the purposes of this section, lesson means a lesson, test or examination, or part of one, in which, or during the course of which, an act is done in respect of a work or other subject-matter by an educational institution or a person acting under its authority that would otherwise be an infringement of copyright but is permitted under a limitation or exception under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2) This section does not apply so as to permit any act referred to in paragraph (3)(a), (b) or (c) with respect to a work or other subject-matter whose use in the lesson constitutes an infringement of copyright or for whose use in the lesson the consent of the copyright owner is required.

  • Marginal note:Communication by telecommunication

    (3) Subject to subsection (6), it is not an infringement of copyright for an educational institution or a person acting under its authority

    • (a) to communicate a lesson to the public by telecommunication for educational or training purposes, if that public consists only of students who are enrolled in a course of which the lesson forms a part or of other persons acting under the authority of the educational institution;

    • (b) to make a fixation of the lesson for the purpose of the act referred to in paragraph (a); or

    • (c) to do any other act that is necessary for the purpose of the acts referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b).

  • Marginal note:Participation by telecommunication

    (4) A student who is enrolled in a course of which the lesson forms a part is deemed to be a person on the premises of the educational institution when the student participates in or receives the lesson by means of communication by telecommunication under paragraph (3)(a).

  • Marginal note:Reproducing lessons

    (5) It is not an infringement of copyright for a student who has received a lesson by means of communication by telecommunication under paragraph (3)(a) to reproduce the lesson in order to be able to listen to or view it at a more convenient time. However, the student shall destroy the reproduction within 30 days after the day on which the students who are enrolled in the course to which the lesson relates have received their final course evaluations.

  • Marginal note:Conditions

    (6) The educational institution and any person acting under its authority, except a student, shall

    • (a) destroy any fixation of the lesson within 30 days after the day on which the students who are enrolled in the course to which the lesson relates have received their final course evaluations;

    • (b) take measures that can reasonably be expected to limit the communication by telecommunication of the lesson to the persons referred to in paragraph (3)(a);

    • (c) take, in relation to the communication by telecommunication of the lesson in digital form, measures that can reasonably be expected to prevent the students from fixing, reproducing or communicating the lesson other than as they may do under this section; and

    • (d) take, in relation to a communication by telecommunication in digital form, any measure prescribed by regulation.

  • 2012, c. 20, s. 27

Marginal note:Exception — digital reproduction of works

  •  (1) Subject to subsections (3) to (5), it is not an infringement of copyright for an educational institution that has a reprographic reproduction licence under which the institution is authorized to make reprographic reproductions of works in a collective society’s repertoire for an educational or training purpose

    • (a) to make a digital reproduction — of the same general nature and extent as the reprographic reproduction authorized under the licence — of a paper form of any of those works;

    • (b) to communicate the digital reproduction by telecommunication for an educational or training purpose to persons acting under the authority of the institution; or

    • (c) to do any other act that is necessary for the purpose of the acts referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b).

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (2) Subject to subsections (3) to (5), it is not an infringement of copyright for a person acting under the authority of the educational institution to whom the work has been communicated under paragraph (1)(b) to print one copy of the work.

  • Marginal note:Conditions

    (3) An educational institution that makes a digital reproduction of a work under paragraph (1)(a) shall

    • (a) pay to the collective society, with respect to all the persons to whom the digital reproduction is communicated by the institution under paragraph (1)(b), the royalties that would be payable if one reprographic reproduction were distributed by the institution to each of those persons, and comply with the licence terms and conditions applicable to a reprographic reproduction to the extent that they are reasonably applicable to a digital reproduction;

    • (b) take measures to prevent the digital reproduction from being communicated by telecommunication to any persons who are not acting under the authority of the institution;

    • (c) take measures to prevent a person to whom the work has been communicated under paragraph (1)(b) from printing more than one copy, and to prevent any other reproduction or communication of the digital reproduction; and

    • (d) take any measure prescribed by regulation.

  • Marginal note:Restriction

    (4) An educational institution may not make a digital reproduction of a work under paragraph (1)(a) if

    • (a) the institution has entered into a digital reproduction agreement respecting the work with a collective society under which the institution may make a digital reproduction of the work, may communicate the digital reproduction by telecommunication to persons acting under the authority of the institution and may permit those persons to print at least one copy of the work;

    • (b) there is a tariff approved under section 70 that is applicable to the digital reproduction of the work, to the communication of the digital reproduction by telecommunication to persons acting under the authority of the institution and to the printing by those persons of at least one copy of the work; or

    • (c) the institution has been informed by the collective society that is authorized to enter into reprographic agreements with respect to the work that the owner of the copyright in the work has informed it, under subsection (5), that the owner refuses to authorize the collective society to enter into a digital reproduction agreement with respect to the work.

  • Marginal note:Restriction

    (5) If the owner of the copyright in a work informs the collective society that is authorized to enter into reprographic agreements with respect to the work that the owner refuses to authorize it to enter into digital reproduction agreements with respect to the work, the collective society shall inform the educational institutions with which it has entered into reprographic reproduction agreements with respect to the work that they are not permitted to make digital reproductions under subsection (1).

  • Marginal note:Deeming provision

    (6) The owner of the copyright in a work who, in respect of the work, has authorized a collective society to enter into a reprographic reproduction agreement with an educational institution is deemed to have authorized the society to enter into a digital reproduction agreement with the institution — subject to the same restrictions as a reprographic reproduction agreement — unless the owner has refused to give this authorization under subsection (5) or has authorized another collective society to enter into a digital reproduction agreement with respect to the work.

  • Marginal note:Maximum amount that may be recovered

    (7) In proceedings against an educational institution for making a digital reproduction of a paper form of a work, or for communicating such a reproduction by telecommunication for an educational or training purpose to persons acting under the authority of the institution, the owner of the copyright in the work may not recover an amount more than

    • (a) in the case where there is a digital reproduction licence that meets the conditions described in paragraph (4)(a) in respect of the work — or, if none exists in respect of the work, in respect of a work of the same category — the amount of royalties that would be payable under that licence in respect of those acts or, if there is more than one applicable licence, the greatest amount of royalties payable under any of those licences; and

    • (b) in the case where there is no licence described in paragraph (a) but there is a reprographic reproduction licence in respect of the work — or, if none exists in respect of the work, in respect of a work of the same category — the amount of royalties that would be payable under that licence in respect of those acts or, if there is more than one applicable licence, the greatest amount of royalties payable under any of those licences.

  • Marginal note:No damages

    (8) The owner of the copyright in a work may not recover any damages against a person acting under the authority of the educational institution who, in respect of a digital reproduction of the work that is communicated to the person by telecommunication, prints one copy of the work if, at the time of the printing, it was reasonable for the person to believe that the communication was made in accordance with paragraph (1)(b).

Marginal note:Royalties — digital reproduction agreement

  •  (1) If an educational institution has paid royalties to a collective society for the digital reproduction of a work under paragraph 30.02(3)(a) and afterwards the institution enters into a digital reproduction agreement described in paragraph 30.02(4)(a) with any collective society,

    • (a) in the case where the institution would — under that digital reproduction agreement — pay a greater amount of royalties for the digital reproduction of that work than what was payable under paragraph 30.02(3)(a), the institution shall pay to the collective society to which it paid royalties under that paragraph the difference between

      • (i) the amount of royalties that the institution would have had to pay for the digital reproduction of that work if the agreement had been entered into on the day on which the institution first made a digital reproduction under paragraph 30.02(1)(a), and

      • (ii) the amount of royalties that the institution paid to the society under paragraph 30.02(3)(a) for the digital reproduction of that work from the day on which that paragraph comes into force until the day on which they enter into the digital reproduction agreement; and

    • (b) in the case where the institution would — under that digital reproduction agreement — pay a lesser amount of royalties for the digital reproduction of that work than what was payable under paragraph 30.02(3)(a), the collective society to which the institution paid royalties under that paragraph shall pay to the institution the difference between

      • (i) the amount of royalties that the institution paid to the society under paragraph 30.02(3)(a) for the digital reproduction of that work from the day on which that paragraph comes into force until the day on which they enter into the digital reproduction agreement, and

      • (ii) the amount of royalties that the institution would have had to pay for the digital reproduction of that work if the agreement had been entered into on the day on which the institution first made a digital reproduction under paragraph 30.02(1)(a).

  • Marginal note:Royalties — tariff

    (2) If an educational institution has paid royalties to a collective society for the digital reproduction of a work under paragraph 30.02(3)(a) and afterwards a tariff applies to the digital reproduction of that work under paragraph 30.02(4)(b),

    • (a) in the case where the institution would — under the tariff — pay a greater amount of royalties for the digital reproduction of that work than what was payable under paragraph 30.02(3)(a), the institution shall pay to the collective society to which it paid royalties under that paragraph the difference between

      • (i) the amount of royalties that the institution would have had to pay for the digital reproduction of that work if the tariff had been approved on the day on which the institution first made a digital reproduction under paragraph 30.02(1)(a), and

      • (ii) the amount of royalties that the institution paid to the society under paragraph 30.02(3)(a) for the digital reproduction of that work from the day on which that paragraph comes into force until the day on which the tariff is approved; and

    • (b) in the case where the institution would — under the tariff — pay a lesser amount of royalties for the digital reproduction of that work than what was payable under paragraph 30.02(3)(a), the collective society to which the institution paid royalties under that paragraph shall pay to the institution the difference between

      • (i) the amount of royalties that the institution paid to the society under paragraph 30.02(3)(a) for the digital reproduction of that work from the day on which that paragraph comes into force until the day on which the tariff is approved, and

      • (ii) the amount of royalties that the institution would have had to pay for the digital reproduction of that work if the tariff had been approved on the day on which the institution first made a digital reproduction under paragraph 30.02(1)(a).

 
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