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Canada Business Corporations Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-44)

Act current to 2022-07-13 and last amended on 2022-06-23. Previous Versions

PART VCorporate Finance (continued)

Marginal note:Shares in series

  •  (1) The articles may authorize, subject to any limitations set out in them, the issue of any class of shares in one or more series and may do either or both of the following:

    • (a) fix the number of shares in, and determine the designation, rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attaching to the shares of, each series; or

    • (b) authorize the directors to fix the number of shares in, and determine the designation, rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attaching to the shares of, each series.

  • Marginal note:Series participation

    (2) If any cumulative dividends or amounts payable on return of capital in respect of a series of shares are not paid in full, the shares of all series of the same class participate rateably in respect of accumulated dividends and return of capital.

  • Marginal note:Restrictions on series

    (3) No rights, privileges, restrictions or conditions attached to a series of shares authorized under this section shall confer on a series a priority in respect of dividends or return of capital over any other series of shares of the same class that are then outstanding.

  • Marginal note:Amendment of articles

    (4) If the directors exercise their authority under paragraph (1)(b), they shall, before the issue of shares of the series, send, in the form that the Director fixes, articles of amendment to the Director to designate a series of shares.

  • Marginal note:Certificate of amendment

    (5) On receipt of articles of amendment designating a series of shares, the Director shall issue a certificate of amendment in accordance with section 262.

  • Marginal note:Effect of certificate

    (6) The articles of the corporation are amended accordingly on the date shown in the certificate of amendment.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 27
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 15

Marginal note:Pre-emptive right

  •  (1) If the articles so provide, no shares of a class shall be issued unless the shares have first been offered to the shareholders holding shares of that class, and those shareholders have a pre-emptive right to acquire the offered shares in proportion to their holdings of the shares of that class, at such price and on such terms as those shares are to be offered to others.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (2) Notwithstanding that the articles provide the pre-emptive right referred to in subsection (1), shareholders have no pre-emptive right in respect of shares to be issued

    • (a) for a consideration other than money;

    • (b) as a share dividend; or

    • (c) pursuant to the exercise of conversion privileges, options or rights previously granted by the corporation.

  • 1974-75-76, c. 33, s. 28
  • 1978-79, c. 9, s. 1(F)

Marginal note:Options and rights

  •  (1) A corporation may issue certificates, warrants or other evidences of conversion privileges, options or rights to acquire securities of the corporation, and shall set out the conditions thereof

    • (a) in the certificates, warrants or other evidences; or

    • (b) in certificates evidencing the securities to which the conversion privileges, options or rights are attached.

  • Marginal note:Transferable rights

    (2) Conversion privileges, options and rights to acquire securities of a corporation may be made transferable or non-transferable, and options and rights to acquire may be made separable or inseparable from any securities to which they are attached.

  • Marginal note:Reserved shares

    (3) Where a corporation has granted privileges to convert any securities issued by the corporation into shares, or into shares of another class or series, or has issued or granted options or rights to acquire shares, if the articles limit the number of authorized shares, the corporation shall reserve and continue to reserve sufficient authorized shares to meet the exercise of such conversion privileges, options and rights.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 29
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 16(F)

Marginal note:Restriction regarding bearer shares

  •  (1) Despite section 29, a corporation shall not issue, in bearer form, a certificate, warrant or other evidence of a conversion privilege, option or right to acquire a share of the corporation.

  • Marginal note:Replacement

    (2) A corporation shall, on the request of a holder of a certificate, warrant or other evidence of a conversion privilege, option or right to acquire a share of the corporation that is in bearer form and that was issued before the coming into force of this section, issue in exchange to that holder, in registered form, a certificate, warrant or other evidence, as the case may be.

  • 2018, c. 8, s. 7

Marginal note:Corporation holding its own shares

  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2) and sections 31 to 36, a corporation

    • (a) shall not hold shares in itself or in its holding body corporate; and

    • (b) shall not permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate to acquire shares of the corporation.

  • Marginal note:Subsidiary holding shares of its parent

    (2) Subject to section 31, a corporation shall cause a subsidiary body corporate of the corporation that holds shares of the corporation to sell or otherwise dispose of those shares within five years from the date

    • (a) the body corporate became a subsidiary of the corporation; or

    • (b) the corporation was continued under this Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 30
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 17
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 20(F)

Marginal note:Exception

  •  (1) A corporation may in the capacity of a personal representative hold shares in itself or in its holding body corporate unless it or the holding body corporate or a subsidiary of either of them has a beneficial interest in the shares.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) A corporation may hold shares in itself or in its holding body corporate by way of security for the purposes of a transaction entered into by it in the ordinary course of a business that includes the lending of money.

  • Marginal note:Exception — subsidiary acquiring shares

    (3) A corporation may permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate to acquire shares of the corporation

    • (a) in the subsidiary’s capacity as a personal representative, unless the subsidiary would have a beneficial interest in the shares; or

    • (b) by way of security for the purposes of a transaction entered into by the subsidiary in the ordinary course of a business that includes the lending of money.

  • Marginal note:Exception — conditions precedent

    (4) A corporation may permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate to acquire shares of the corporation through the issuance of those shares by the corporation to the subsidiary body corporate if, before the acquisition takes place, the conditions prescribed for the purposes of this subsection are met.

  • Marginal note:Conditions subsequent

    (5) After an acquisition has taken place under the purported authority of subsection (4), the conditions prescribed for the purposes of this subsection must be met.

  • Marginal note:Non-compliance with conditions

    (6) If

    • (a) a corporation permits a subsidiary body corporate to acquire shares of the corporation under the purported authority of subsection (4), and

    • (b) either

      • (i) one or more of the conditions prescribed for the purposes of subsection (4) were not met, or

      • (ii) one or more of the conditions prescribed for the purposes of subsection (5) are not met or cease to be met,

    then, notwithstanding subsections 16(3) and 26(2), the prescribed consequences apply in respect of the acquisition of the shares and their issuance.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 31
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 18
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 21

Marginal note:Exception relating to Canadian ownership

  •  (1) Subject to subsection 39(8), a corporation may, for the purpose of assisting the corporation or any of its affiliates or associates to qualify under any prescribed law of Canada or a province to receive licences, permits, grants, payments or other benefits by reason of attaining or maintaining a specified level of Canadian ownership or control, hold shares in itself that

    • (a) are not constrained for the purpose of assisting the corporation or any of its affiliates or associates to so qualify; or

    • (b) are shares into which shares held under paragraph (a) were converted by the corporation that are constrained for the purpose of assisting the corporation to so qualify and that were not previously held by the corporation.

  • Marginal note:Prohibited transfers

    (2) A corporation shall not transfer shares held under subsection (1) to any person unless the corporation is satisfied, on reasonable grounds, that the ownership of the shares as a result of the transfer would assist the corporation or any of its affiliates or associates to achieve the purpose set out in subsection (1).

  • Marginal note:Offence

    (3) A corporation that, without reasonable cause, fails to comply with subsection (2) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.

  • Marginal note:Directors of corporation

    (4) Where a corporation commits an offence under subsection (3), any director of the corporation who knowingly authorized, permitted or acquiesced in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted.

  • Marginal note:Where shares are transferred

    (5) Where shares held under subsection (1) are transferred by a corporation, subsections 25(1), (3), (4) and (5), paragraph 115(3)(c) and subsection 118(1) apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, in respect of the transfer as if the transfer were an issue.

  • Marginal note:Transfer not void, voidable or null

    (6) No transfer of shares by a corporation shall be void, voidable or, in Quebec, null solely because the transfer is in contravention of subsection (2).

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 32
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 22

Marginal note:Voting shares

  •  (1) A corporation holding shares in itself or in its holding body corporate shall not vote or permit those shares to be voted unless the corporation

    • (a) holds the shares in the capacity of a personal representative; and

    • (b) has complied with section 153.

  • Marginal note:Subsidiary body corporate

    (2) A corporation shall not permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate holding shares in the corporation to vote, or permit those shares to be voted, unless the subsidiary body corporate satisfies the requirements of subsection (1).

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 33
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 19
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 23

Marginal note:Acquisition of corporation’s own shares

  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2) and to its articles, a corporation may purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (2) A corporation shall not make any payment to purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

    • (a) the corporation is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

    • (b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would after the payment be less than the aggregate of its liabilities and stated capital of all classes.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 34
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 20(F)

Marginal note:Alternative acquisition of corporation’s own shares

  •  (1) Notwithstanding subsection 34(2), but subject to subsection (3) and to its articles, a corporation may purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it to

    • (a) settle or compromise a debt or claim asserted by or against the corporation;

    • (b) eliminate fractional shares; or

    • (c) fulfil the terms of a non-assignable agreement under which the corporation has an option or is obliged to purchase shares owned by a director, an officer or an employee of the corporation.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) Notwithstanding subsection 34(2), a corporation may purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it to

    • (a) satisfy the claim of a shareholder who dissents under section 190; or

    • (b) comply with an order under section 241.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (3) A corporation shall not make any payment to purchase or acquire under subsection (1) shares issued by it if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

    • (a) the corporation is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

    • (b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would after the payment be less than the aggregate of

      • (i) its liabilities, and

      • (ii) the amount required for payment on a redemption or in a liquidation of all shares the holders of which have the right to be paid before the holders of the shares to be purchased or acquired, to the extent that the amount has not been included in its liabilities.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 35
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 21

Marginal note:Redemption of shares

  •  (1) Notwithstanding subsection 34(2) or 35(3), but subject to subsection (2) and to its articles, a corporation may purchase or redeem any redeemable shares issued by it at prices not exceeding the redemption price thereof stated in the articles or calculated according to a formula stated in the articles.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (2) A corporation shall not make any payment to purchase or redeem any redeemable shares issued by it if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

    • (a) the corporation is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

    • (b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would after the payment be less than the aggregate of

      • (i) its liabilities, and

      • (ii) the amount that would be required to pay the holders of shares that have a right to be paid, on a redemption or in a liquidation, rateably with or before the holders of the shares to be purchased or redeemed, to the extent that the amount has not been included in its liabilities.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 36
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 22
 
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