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Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act (S.C. 2013, c. 20)

Act current to 2020-05-04 and last amended on 2019-07-15. Previous Versions

Provisional Federal Rules (continued)

Division of the Value of Matrimonial Interests or Rights (continued)

Death of a Spouse or Common-Law Partner (continued)

Marginal note:Variation of amount

 On application by an executor of a will or an administrator of an estate, a court may, by order, vary the amount owed to the survivor under section 34 if the spouses or common-law partners had previously resolved the consequences of the breakdown of the conjugal relationship by agreement or judicial decision, or if that amount would be unconscionable, having regard to, among other things, the fact that any children of the deceased individual would not be adequately provided for.

Marginal note:Determination by court

  •  (1) On application by a survivor made within 10 months after the day on which the death of their spouse or common-law partner occurs, a court may, by order, determine any matter in respect of the survivor’s entitlement under sections 34 and 35 including

    • (a) determining the amount payable to the survivor; and

    • (b) providing that the amount payable to the survivor be settled by

      • (i) payment of the amount in a lump sum,

      • (ii) payment of the amount by installments,

      • (iii) if the survivor is a First Nation member, by the transfer of an interest or right, referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) or paragraph (b) or (c) of the definition interest or right in subsection 2(1), in or to any structure or land situated on a reserve of that First Nation, or

      • (iv) any combination of the methods referred to in subparagraphs (i) to (iii).

  • Marginal note:Extension of time

    (2) On application by the survivor, a court may, by order, extend the period of 10 months by any amount of time that it considers appropriate, if the court is satisfied that the survivor failed to make an application within that period for any of the following reasons:

    • (a) the survivor did not know of the death of their spouse or common-law partner until after the period expired;

    • (b) circumstances existed that were beyond the control of the survivor; or

    • (c) only after the period expired did the applicant become aware of any interests or rights referred to in subsections 34(1) to (3).

  • Marginal note:Clarification

    (3) A transfer may be ordered under subsection (1)

    • (a) in the case of a First Nation that is not referred to in any of paragraphs (b) to (d), despite sections 24 and 49 of the Indian Act;

    • (b) in the case of a First Nation as defined in subsection 2(1) of the First Nations Land Management Act, subject to any land code or First Nation law as defined in that subsection to which the First Nation is subject;

    • (c) in the case of a First Nation that has entered into a self-government agreement to which Her Majesty in right of Canada is a party, subject to any First Nation law enacted under the agreement; or

    • (d) in the case of the Mohawks of Kanesatake, subject to any land governance code adopted, or any Kanesatake Mohawk law enacted, under the Kanesatake Interim Land Base Governance Act.

  • Marginal note:Variation of trust

    (4) On application by a survivor, an executor of a will or an administrator of an estate, the court may, by order, vary the terms of a trust that is established under the terms of the deceased individual’s will so that the amount that is payable to the survivor may be paid.

  • Marginal note:Notice to affected persons

    (5) An applicant for an order under this section must, without delay, send a copy of the application to the following persons, to the Minister and to any other person specified in the rules regulating the practice and procedure in the court:

    • (a) in the case where the applicant is the survivor, to the executor of the will or the administrator of the estate, if the applicant knows who those persons are; or

    • (b) in the case where the applicant is the executor of a will or an administrator of an estate, to the survivor.

  • Marginal note:Notice to beneficiaries

    (6) On receipt of the copy of the application, the executor of the will or the administrator of the estate or, if neither has been appointed, the Minister must, without delay, send a copy of the application to the named beneficiaries under the will and the beneficiaries on intestacy.

Marginal note:Survivor’s choice

 If a court decides, after the death of a spouse or common-law partner, that an amount is payable to the survivor under section 30 or 36, the survivor may not, in respect of the interest or right in or to the family home and of the matrimonial interests or rights, benefit from the deceased individual’s will or sections 48 to 50.1 of the Indian Act.

Marginal note:Distribution of estate

  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), an executor of a will or an administrator of an estate must not proceed with the distribution of the estate until one of the following occurs:

    • (a) the survivor consents in writing to the proposed distribution;

    • (b) the period of 10 months referred to in subsection 36(1) and any extended period the court may have granted under subsection 36(2) have expired and no application has been made under subsection 36(1) within those periods; or

    • (c) an application made under subsection 36(1) is disposed of.

  • Marginal note:Advances to dependants

    (2) Subsection (1) does not prohibit reasonable advances to survivors or other dependants of the deceased spouse or common-law partner for their support.

  • Marginal note:Two survivors

    (3) When there are two survivors — a common-law partner and a spouse with whom the deceased individual was no longer cohabiting — and an amount is payable to both under an order referred to in section 36, the executor of the will or the administrator of the estate must pay the survivor who was the common-law partner before paying the survivor who was the spouse.

Marginal note:Improvident depletion

 On application by a survivor, a court may make any order that it considers necessary to restrain the improvident depletion of the interest or right in or to the family home and of the matrimonial interests or rights for the purpose of protecting

  • (a) the right that might be granted to the survivor in an order made under section 21 or any interest or right that might be transferred to the applicant in an order made under section 36; or

  • (b) the value of the interests or rights that will be used to determine the amount that might be payable to the survivor in an order made under section 36.

Marginal note:Enforcement of agreements

 If a survivor and the executor of the will or the administrator of the estate enter into a written agreement that sets out the amount to which the survivor is entitled and how to settle the amount payable by one or both of the methods referred to in subparagraph 36(1)(b)(i) or (ii), a court may, on application by one of them, make an order to enforce that agreement if the court is satisfied that the consent of the survivor to the agreement was free and informed and that the agreement is not unconscionable.

Notice to Council and Views of Council

Marginal note:Notice of application

  •  (1) An applicant for an order under this Act, except under sections 16 and 19, must, without delay, send a copy of the application to the council of any First Nation on whose reserve the structures and lands in question are situated.

  • Marginal note:Representations by council

    (2) On the council’s request, the court that is seized of the application must, before making its decision, allow the council to make representations with respect to the cultural, social and legal context that pertains to the application and to present its views about whether or not the order should be made.

Marginal note:Notice of order

 When the court makes an order under this Act, except under section 19, the person in whose favour the order is made must send, without delay, a copy of the order to the council of any First Nation on whose reserve the structures and lands in question are situated.

Jurisdiction of Courts

Definition of application

  •  (1) For the purposes of this section, application means an application made under any of sections 15, 20, 29 to 33, 48 or 52.

  • Marginal note:Divorce proceeding pending

    (2) When a divorce proceeding — as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Divorce Act — between spouses is pending, the court that has jurisdiction to hear and determine the matter has jurisdiction to hear and determine an application by one of the spouses.

  • Marginal note:Other proceedings pending

    (3) When a proceeding, other than a divorce proceeding, related to the consequences of the breakdown of a spouse’s or common-law partner’s conjugal relationship is pending, the court that is seized of the matter has jurisdiction to hear and determine an application by the spouse or common-law partner.

  • Marginal note:No pending proceedings

    (4) If no divorce proceeding is pending and no court is seized of a matter referred to in subsection (3), the court that has jurisdiction to hear and determine an application by a spouse or common-law partner is the court in the province in which the structures and lands in question are situated or, if that property is situated in more than one province, the court in one of those provinces whose jurisdiction is accepted by both spouses or common-law partners or, in the absence of agreement, either the court in the province in which they habitually reside or, if they have ceased to cohabit, in which they habitually resided on the day on which they ceased to cohabit.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (5) Despite subsection (4), if the court in a province that is seized of the matter referred to in subsection (3) is not a court as defined in subsection 2(1), the court that has jurisdiction to hear and determine an application by the spouse or common-law partner is the court, as defined in subsection 2(1), in that province.

 
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