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Income Tax Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.))

Full Document:  

Act current to 2021-11-17 and last amended on 2021-07-01. Previous Versions

PART IIncome Tax (continued)

DIVISION BComputation of Income (continued)

SUBDIVISION BIncome or Loss from a Business or Property (continued)

Marginal note:Weak currency debt — interpretation

  •  (1) The definitions in this subsection apply in this section.

    exchange date

    exchange date in respect of a debt of a taxpayer that is at any time a weak currency debt means, if the debt is incurred or assumed by the taxpayer

    • (a) in respect of borrowed money that is denominated in the final currency, the day that the debt is incurred or assumed by the taxpayer; and

    • (b) in respect of borrowed money that is not denominated in the final currency, or in respect of the acquisition of property, the day on which the taxpayer uses the borrowed money or the acquired property, directly or indirectly, to acquire funds that are, or to settle an obligation that is, denominated in the final currency. (date de l’échange)

    hedge

    hedge in respect of a debt of a taxpayer that is at any time a weak currency debt means any agreement made by the taxpayer

    • (a) that can reasonably be regarded as having been made by the taxpayer primarily to reduce the taxpayer’s risk, with respect to payments of principal or interest in respect of the debt, of fluctuations in the value of the weak currency; and

    • (b) that is identified by the taxpayer as a hedge in respect of the debt in a designation in prescribed form filed with the Minister on or before the 30th day after the day the taxpayer enters into the agreement. (opération de couverture)

    weak currency debt

    weak currency debt of a taxpayer at a particular time means a particular debt in a foreign currency (in this section referred to as the “weak currency”), incurred or assumed by the taxpayer at a time (in this section referred to as the “commitment time”) after February 27, 2000, in respect of a borrowing of money or an acquisition of property, where

    • (a) any of the following applies, namely,

      • (i) the borrowed money is denominated in a currency (in this section referred to as the “final currency”) other than the weak currency, is used for the purpose of earning income from a business or property and is not used to acquire funds in a currency other than the final currency,

      • (ii) the borrowed money or the acquired property is used, directly or indirectly, to acquire funds that are denominated in a currency (in this section referred to as the “final currency”) other than the weak currency, that are used for the purpose of earning income from a business or property and that are not used to acquire funds in a currency other than the final currency,

      • (iii) the borrowed money or the acquired property is used, directly or indirectly, to settle an obligation that is denominated in a currency (in this section referred to as the “final currency”) other than the weak currency, that is incurred or assumed for the purpose of earning income from a business or property and that is not incurred or assumed to acquire funds in a currency other than the final currency, or

      • (iv) the borrowed money or the acquired property is used, directly or indirectly, to settle another debt of the taxpayer that is at any time a weak currency debt in respect of which the final currency (which is deemed to be the final currency in respect of the particular debt) is a currency other than the currency of the particular debt;

    • (b) the amount of the particular debt (together with any other debt that would, but for this paragraph, be at any time a weak currency debt, and that can reasonably be regarded as having been incurred or assumed by the taxpayer as part of a series of transactions that includes the incurring or assumption of the particular debt) exceeds $500,000; and

    • (c) either of the following applies, namely,

      • (i) if the rate at which interest is payable at the particular time in the weak currency in respect of the particular debt is determined under a formula based on the value from time to time of a reference rate (other than a reference rate the value of which is established or materially influenced by the taxpayer), the interest rate at the commitment time, as determined under the formula as though interest were then payable, exceeds by more than two percentage points the rate at which interest would have been payable at the commitment time in the final currency if

        • (A) the taxpayer had, at the commitment time, instead incurred or assumed an equivalent amount of debt in the final currency on the same terms as the particular debt (excluding the rate of interest but including the structure of the interest calculation, such as whether the rate is fixed or floating) with those modifications that the difference in currency requires, and

        • (B) interest on the equivalent amount of debt referred to in clause (A) was payable at the commitment time, or

      • (ii) in any other case, the rate at which interest is payable at the particular time in the weak currency in respect of the particular debt exceeds by more than two percentage points the rate at which interest would have been payable at the particular time in the final currency if at the commitment time the taxpayer had instead incurred or assumed an equivalent amount of debt in the final currency on the same terms as the particular debt (excluding the rate of interest but including the structure of the interest calculation, such as whether the rate is fixed or floating), with those modifications that the difference in currency requires. (dette en devise faible)

  • Marginal note:Interest and gain

    (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the following rules apply in respect of a particular debt of a taxpayer (other than a corporation described in one or more of paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (e) of the definition specified financial institution in subsection 248(1)) that is at any time a weak currency debt:

    • (a) no deduction on account of interest that accrues on the debt for any period that begins after the day that is the later of June 30, 2000 and the exchange date during which it is a weak currency debt shall exceed the amount of interest that would, if at the commitment time the taxpayer had instead incurred or assumed an equivalent amount of debt, the principal and interest in respect of which were denominated in the final currency, on the same terms as the particular debt (excluding the rate of interest but including the structure of the interest calculation, such as whether the rate is fixed or floating) have accrued on the equivalent debt during that period, with those modifications that the difference in currency requires;

    • (b) the amount, if any, of the taxpayer’s gain or loss (in this section referred to as a “foreign exchange gain or loss”) for a taxation year on the settlement or extinguishment of the debt that arises because of the fluctuation in the value of any currency shall be included or deducted, as the case may be, in computing the taxpayer’s income for the year from the business or the property to which the debt relates; and

    • (c) the amount of any interest on the debt that was, because of this subsection, not deductible is deemed, for the purpose of computing the taxpayer’s foreign exchange gain or loss on the settlement or extinguishment of the debt, to be an amount paid by the taxpayer to settle or extinguish the debt.

  • Marginal note:Hedges

    (3) In applying subsection (2) in circumstances where a taxpayer has entered into a hedge in respect of a debt of the taxpayer that is at any time a weak currency debt, the amount paid or payable in the weak currency for a taxation year on account of interest on the debt, or paid in the weak currency in the year on account of the debt’s principal, shall be decreased by the amount of any foreign exchange gain, or increased by the amount of any foreign exchange loss, on the hedge in respect of the amount so paid or payable.

  • Marginal note:Repayment of principal

    (4) If the amount (expressed in the weak currency) outstanding on account of principal in respect of a debt of the taxpayer that is at any time a weak currency debt is reduced before maturity (whether by repayment or otherwise), the amount (expressed in the weak currency) of the reduction is deemed, except for the purposes of determining the rate of interest that would have been charged on an equivalent loan in the final currency and applying paragraph (b) of the definition weak currency debt in subsection (1), to have been a separate debt from the commitment time.

  • [NOTE: Application provisions are not included in the consolidated text
  • see relevant amending Acts and regulations.]
  • 2001, c. 17, s. 14

Marginal note:Definitions

  •  (1) The definitions in section 12.5 apply for the purposes of this section.

  • Marginal note:Transition year income deduction

    (2) There shall be deducted in computing an insurer’s income for its transition year from an insurance business carried on by it in Canada in the transition year the absolute value of the negative amount, if any, of the insurer’s reserve transition amount in respect of that insurance business.

  • Marginal note:Transition year income inclusion reversal

    (3) If an amount has been included under subsection 12.5(2) in computing an insurer’s income for its transition year from an insurance business carried on by it in Canada, there shall be deducted in computing the insurer’s income, for each particular taxation year of the insurer that ends after the beginning of the transition year, from that insurance business, the amount determined by the formula

    A × B/1825

    where

    A
    is the amount included under subsection 12.5(2) in computing the insurer’s income for the transition year from that insurance business; and
    B
    is the number of days in the particular taxation year that are before the day that is 1825 days after the first day of the transition year.
  • Marginal note:Ceasing to carry on business

    (4) If at any time an insurer ceases to carry on all or substantially all of an insurance business (referred to in this subsection as the “discontinued business”), and none of subsections 12.5(4) to (6) apply, there shall be deducted in computing the insurer’s income from the discontinued business for the insurer’s taxation year that includes the time that is immediately before that time, the amount determined by the formula

    A – B

    where

    A
    is any amount included under subsection 12.5(2) in computing the insurer’s income from the discontinued business for its transition year; and
    B
    is the total of all amounts each of which is an amount deducted under subsection (3) in computing the insurer’s income from the discontinued business for a taxation year that began before that time.
  • [NOTE: Application provisions are not included in the consolidated text
  • see relevant amending Acts and regulations.]
  • 2009, c. 2, s. 8

Marginal note:Cost of borrowed money

  •  (1) Where in a taxation year a taxpayer has acquired depreciable property, if the taxpayer elects under this subsection in the taxpayer’s return of income under this Part for the year,

    • (a) in computing the taxpayer’s income for the year and for such of the 3 immediately preceding taxation years as the taxpayer had, paragraphs 20(1)(c), 20(1)(d), 20(1)(e) and 20(1)(e.1) do not apply to the amount or to the part of the amount specified in the taxpayer’s election that, but for an election under this subsection in respect thereof, would be deductible in computing the taxpayer’s income (other than exempt income) for any such year in respect of borrowed money used to acquire the depreciable property or the amount payable for the depreciable property; and

    • (b) the amount or the part of the amount, as the case may be, described in paragraph 21(1)(a) shall be added to the capital cost to the taxpayer of the depreciable property so acquired by the taxpayer.

  • Marginal note:Borrowed money used for exploration or development

    (2) Where in a taxation year a taxpayer has used borrowed money for the purpose of exploration, development or the acquisition of property and the expenses incurred by the taxpayer in respect of those activities are Canadian exploration and development expenses, Canadian exploration expenses, Canadian development expenses, Canadian oil and gas property expenses, foreign resource expenses in respect of a country, or foreign exploration and development expenses, as the case may be, if the taxpayer so elects under this subsection in the taxpayer’s return of income for the year,

    • (a) in computing the taxpayer’s income for the year and for such of the three immediately preceding taxation years as the taxpayer had, paragraphs 20(1)(c), (d), (e) and (e.1) do not apply to the amount or to the part of the amount specified in the taxpayer’s election that, but for that election, would be deductible in computing the taxpayer’s income (other than exempt income or income that is exempt from tax under this Part) for any such year in respect of the borrowed money used for the exploration, development or acquisition of property, as the case may be; and

    • (b) the amount or the part of the amount, as the case may be, described in paragraph (a) is deemed to be Canadian exploration and development expenses, Canadian exploration expenses, Canadian development expenses, Canadian oil and gas property expenses, foreign resource expenses in respect of a country, or foreign exploration and development expenses, as the case may be, incurred by the taxpayer in the year.

  • Marginal note:Borrowing for depreciable property

    (3) In computing the income of a taxpayer for a particular taxation year, where the taxpayer

    • (a) in any preceding taxation year

      • (i) made an election under subsection 21(1) in respect of borrowed money used to acquire depreciable property or an amount payable for depreciable property acquired by the taxpayer, or

      • (ii) was, by virtue of subsection 18(3.1), required to include an amount in respect of the construction of a depreciable property in computing the capital cost to the taxpayer of the depreciable property, and

    • (b) in each taxation year, if any, after that preceding taxation year and before the particular year, made an election under this subsection covering the total amount that, but for an election under this subsection in respect thereof, would have been deductible in computing the taxpayer’s income (other than exempt income) for each such year in respect of the borrowed money used to acquire the depreciable property or the amount payable for the depreciable property acquired by the taxpayer,

    if an election under this subsection is made in the taxpayer’s return of income under this Part for the particular year, paragraphs 20(1)(c), 20(1)(d), 20(1)(e) and 20(1)(e.1) do not apply to the amount or to the part of the amount specified in the election that, but for an election under this subsection in respect thereof, would be deductible in computing the taxpayer’s income (other than exempt income) for the particular year in respect of the borrowed money used to acquire the depreciable property or the amount payable for the depreciable property acquired by the taxpayer, and the amount or part of the amount, as the case may be, shall be added to the capital cost to the taxpayer of the depreciable property.

  • Marginal note:Borrowing for exploration, etc.

    (4) In computing the income of a taxpayer for a particular taxation year, where the taxpayer

    • (a) in any preceding taxation year made an election under subsection 21(2) in respect of borrowed money used for the purpose of exploration, development or acquisition of property,

    • (b) in each taxation year, if any, after that preceding taxation year and before the particular year, made an election under this subsection covering the total amount that, but for that election, would have been deductible in computing the taxpayer’s income (other than exempt income or income that is exempt from tax under this Part) for each such year in respect of the borrowed money used for the exploration, development or acquisition of property, as the case may be, and

    • (c) so elects in the taxpayer’s return of income for the particular year,

    the following rules apply:

    • (d) paragraphs 20(1)(c), (d), (e) and (e.1) do not apply to the amount or to the part of the amount specified in the election that, but for the election, would be deductible in computing the taxpayer’s income (other than exempt income or income that is exempt from tax under this Part) for the particular year in respect of the borrowed money used for the exploration, development or acquisition of property, and

    • (e) the amount or part of the amount, as the case may be, is deemed to be Canadian exploration and development expenses, Canadian exploration expenses, Canadian development expenses, Canadian oil and gas property expenses, foreign resource expenses in respect of a country, or foreign exploration and development expenses, as the case may be, incurred by the taxpayer in the particular year.

  • Marginal note:Reassessments

    (5) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, where a taxpayer has made an election in accordance with the provisions of subsection 21(1) or 21(2), such reassessments of tax, interest or penalties shall be made as are necessary to give effect thereto.

  • [NOTE: Application provisions are not included in the consolidated text
  • see relevant amending Acts and regulations.]
  • R.S., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.), s. 21
  • 1994, c. 7, Sch. II, s. 16
  • 2001, c. 17, s. 15
Ceasing to carry on business

Marginal note:Sale of accounts receivable

  •  (1) Where a person who has been carrying on a business has, in a taxation year, sold all or substantially all the property used in carrying on the business, including the debts that have been or will be included in computing the person’s income for that year or a previous year and that are still outstanding, and including the debts arising from loans made in the ordinary course of the person’s business if part of the person’s ordinary business was the lending of money and that are still outstanding, to a purchaser who proposes to continue the business which the vendor has been carrying on, if the vendor and the purchaser have executed jointly an election in prescribed form to have this section apply, the following rules are applicable:

    • (a) there may be deducted in computing the vendor’s income for the taxation year an amount equal to the difference between the face value of the debts so sold (other than debts in respect of which the vendor has made deductions under paragraph 20(1)(p)), and the consideration paid by the purchaser to the vendor for the debts so sold;

    • (b) an amount equal to the difference described in paragraph 22(1)(a) shall be included in computing the purchaser’s income for the taxation year;

    • (c) the debts so sold shall be deemed, for the purposes of paragraphs 20(1)(l) and 20(1)(p), to have been included in computing the purchaser’s income for the taxation year or a previous year but no deduction may be made by the purchaser under paragraph 20(1)(p) in respect of a debt in respect of which the vendor has previously made a deduction; and

    • (d) each amount deducted by the vendor in computing income for a previous year under paragraph 20(1)(p) in respect of any of the debts so sold shall be deemed, for the purpose of paragraph 12(1)(i), to have been so deducted by the purchaser.

  • Marginal note:Statement by vendor and purchaser

    (2) An election executed for the purposes of subsection 22(1) shall contain a statement by the vendor and the purchaser jointly as to the consideration paid for the debts sold by the vendor to the purchaser and that statement shall, subject to subsection 69(1), as against the Minister, be binding on the vendor and the purchaser in so far as it may be relevant in respect of any matter arising under this Act.

  • [NOTE: Application provisions are not included in the consolidated text
  • see relevant amending Acts and regulations.]
  • 1970-71-72, c. 63, s. 1“22”
  • 1974-75-76, c. 26, s. 10
 
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