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Patent Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. P-4)

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Act current to 2019-11-19 and last amended on 2019-10-30. Previous Versions

Amendments to Specifications and Drawings (continued)

 [Repealed, 1993, c. 2, s. 3]

Refusal of Patents

Marginal note:Refusal by Commissioner

 Whenever the Commissioner is satisfied that an applicant is not by law entitled to be granted a patent, he shall refuse the application and, by registered letter addressed to the applicant or his registered agent, notify the applicant of the refusal and of the ground or reason therefor.

  • R.S., c. P-4, s. 42

Marginal note:Appeal to Federal Court

 Every person who has failed to obtain a patent by reason of a refusal of the Commissioner to grant it may, at any time within six months after notice as provided for in section 40 has been mailed, appeal from the decision of the Commissioner to the Federal Court and that Court has exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine the appeal.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 41
  • R.S., 1985, c. 33 (3rd Supp.), s. 16

Grant of Patents

Marginal note:Contents of patent

 Every patent granted under this Act shall contain the title or name of the invention, with a reference to the specification, and shall, subject to this Act, grant to the patentee and the patentee’s legal representatives for the term of the patent, from the granting of the patent, the exclusive right, privilege and liberty of making, constructing and using the invention and selling it to others to be used, subject to adjudication in respect thereof before any court of competent jurisdiction.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 42
  • R.S., 1985, c. 33 (3rd Supp.), s. 16

Form and Term of Patents

Marginal note:Form and duration of patents

  •  (1) Subject to section 46, every patent granted under this Act shall be issued under the seal of the Patent Office, and shall bear on its face the filing date of the application for the patent, the date on which the application became open to public inspection under section 10, the date on which the patent is granted and issued and any prescribed information.

  • Marginal note:Validity of patent

    (2) After the patent is issued, it shall, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, be valid and avail the patentee and the legal representatives of the patentee for the term mentioned in section 44 or 45, whichever is applicable.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 43
  • R.S., 1985, c. 33 (3rd Supp.), s. 16
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 42

Marginal note:Term of patents based on applications filed on or after October 1, 1989

 Subject to section 46, where an application for a patent is filed under this Act on or after October 1, 1989, the term limited for the duration of the patent is twenty years from the filing date.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 44
  • R.S., 1985, c. 33 (3rd Supp.), s. 16
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 42

Marginal note:Term of patents based on applications filed before October 1, 1989

  •  (1) Subject to section 46, where an application for a patent is filed under this Act before October 1, 1989, the term limited for the duration of the patent is seventeen years from the date on which the patent is issued.

  • Marginal note:Term from date of issue or filing

    (2) Where the term limited for the duration of a patent referred to in subsection (1) had not expired before the day on which this section came into force, the term is seventeen years from the date on which the patent is issued or twenty years from the filing date, whichever term expires later.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 45
  • R.S., 1985, c. 33 (3rd Supp.), s. 16
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 42
  • 2001, c. 10, s. 1

Marginal note:Maintenance fees

  •  (1) To maintain the rights accorded by a patent issued under this Act in effect, the prescribed fees shall be paid on or before the prescribed dates.

  • Marginal note:Late fee and notice

    (2) If a prescribed fee is not paid on or before the applicable prescribed date,

    • (a) the prescribed late fee shall be paid, in addition to the prescribed fee; and

    • (b) the Commissioner shall send a notice to the patentee stating that the term limited for the duration of the patent will be deemed to have expired if the prescribed fee and late fee are not paid before the later of the end of six months after the applicable prescribed date and the end of two months after the date of the notice.

  • Marginal note:Prescribed fee deemed paid on prescribed date

    (3) If the prescribed fee and late fee are paid before a notice is sent or, if a notice is sent, the prescribed fee and late fee are paid before the later of the end of six months after the applicable prescribed date and the end of two months after the date of the notice, the prescribed fee shall be deemed to have been paid on the applicable prescribed date.

  • Marginal note:Term limited deemed expired on prescribed date

    (4) If the prescribed fee and late fee are not paid before the later of the end of six months after the applicable prescribed date and the end of two months after the date of the notice, the term limited for the duration of the patent shall be deemed to have expired on the applicable prescribed date.

  • Marginal note:Subsection (4) deemed never to have produced its effects

    (5) Subject to the regulations, if the term limited for the duration of a patent is deemed to have expired under subsection (4), that subsection is deemed never to have produced its effects if

    • (a) the patentee, within the prescribed time,

      • (i) makes a request to the Commissioner for the term limited for the duration of the patent to never have been deemed to have expired,

      • (ii) states, in the request, the reasons for the failure to pay the prescribed fee and late fee before the later of the end of six months after the applicable prescribed date and the end of two months after the date of the notice, and

      • (iii) pays the prescribed fee, the late fee and any additional prescribed fee; and

    • (b) the Commissioner determines that the failure occurred in spite of the due care required by the circumstances having been taken and informs the patentee of this determination.

  • Marginal note:Powers of the Federal Court

    (6) If subsection (5) applies, the Federal Court may, by order, declare the term limited for the duration of the patent to have expired on the applicable prescribed date if the Federal Court determines either

    • (a) that the statement of the reasons referred to in subparagraph (5)(a)(ii) contains a material allegation that is untrue, or

    • (b) that, if paragraph (5)(b) applies, the failure referred to in subparagraph (5)(a)(ii) did not occur in spite of the due care required by the circumstances having been taken.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 46
  • R.S., 1985, c. 33 (3rd Supp.), s. 16
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 43
  • 2014, c. 39, s. 132

Reissue of Patents

Marginal note:Issue of new or amended patents

  •  (1) Whenever any patent is deemed defective or inoperative by reason of insufficient description and specification, or by reason of the patentee’s claiming more or less than he had a right to claim as new, but at the same time it appears that the error arose from inadvertence, accident or mistake, without any fraudulent or deceptive intention, the Commissioner may, on the surrender of the patent within four years from its date and the payment of a further prescribed fee, cause a new patent, in accordance with an amended description and specification made by the patentee, to be issued to him for the same invention for the then unexpired term for which the original patent was granted.

  • Marginal note:Certificate of supplementary protection

    (1.1) Subsection (1) also applies in the case where the original patent is set out in a certificate of supplementary protection and the original patent’s term has expired, except that in that case the issuance of the new patent, whose term remains expired, is for the purpose of establishing the rights, privileges and liberties granted under the certificate.

  • Marginal note:Effect of new patent

    (2) The surrender referred to in subsection (1) takes effect only on the issue of the new patent, and the new patent and the amended description and specification have the same effect in law, on the trial of any action thereafter commenced for any cause subsequently accruing, as if the amended description and specification had been originally filed in their corrected form before the issue of the original patent, but, in so far as the claims of the original and reissued patents are identical, the surrender does not affect any action pending at the time of reissue or abate any cause of action then existing, and the reissued patent to the extent that its claims are identical with the original patent constitutes a continuation thereof and has effect continuously from the date of the original patent.

  • Marginal note:Separate patents for separate parts

    (3) The Commissioner may entertain separate applications and cause patents to be issued for distinct and separate parts of the invention patented, on payment of the fee for a reissue for each of the reissued patents.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 47
  • 2017, c. 6, s. 37

Disclaimers

Marginal note:Patentee may disclaim anything included in patent by mistake

  •  (1) Whenever, by any mistake, accident or inadvertence, and without any wilful intent to defraud or mislead the public, a patentee has

    • (a) made a specification too broad, claiming more than that of which the patentee or the person through whom the patentee claims was the inventor, or

    • (b) in the specification, claimed that the patentee or the person through whom the patentee claims was the inventor of any material or substantial part of the invention patented of which the patentee was not the inventor, and to which the patentee had no lawful right,

    the patentee may, on payment of a prescribed fee, make a disclaimer of the parts that the patentee does not claim to hold by virtue of the patent or a transfer of the patent.

  • Marginal note:Form and attestation of disclaimer

    (2) A disclaimer shall be filed in the prescribed form and manner.

  • (3) [Repealed, 1993, c. 15, s. 44]

  • Marginal note:Pending suits not affected

    (4) No disclaimer affects any action pending at the time when it is made, unless there is unreasonable neglect or delay in making it.

  • (5) [Repealed, 2014, c. 39, s. 133]

  • Marginal note:Effect of disclaimer

    (6) A patent shall, after disclaimer as provided in this section, be deemed to be valid for such material and substantial part of the invention, definitely distinguished from other parts thereof claimed without right, as is not disclaimed and is truly the invention of the disclaimant, and the disclaimant is entitled to maintain an action or suit in respect of that part accordingly.

  • R.S., 1985, c. P-4, s. 48
  • R.S., 1985, c. 33 (3rd Supp.), s. 17
  • 1993, c. 15, s. 44
  • 2014, c. 39, s. 133
 
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