Assented to 2008-06-18
An Act to establish the Specific Claims Tribunal and to make consequential amendments to other Acts
it is in the interests of all Canadians that the specific claims of First Nations be addressed;
resolving specific claims will promote reconciliation between First Nations and the Crown and the development and self-sufficiency of First Nations;
there is a need to establish an independent tribunal that can resolve specific claims and is designed to respond to the distinctive task of adjudicating such claims in accordance with law and in a just and timely manner;
the right of First Nations to choose and have access to a specific claims tribunal will create conditions that are appropriate for resolving valid claims through negotiations;
the Assembly of First Nations and the Government of Canada have worked together on a legislative proposal from the Government of Canada culminating in the introduction of this Act;
Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:
Marginal note:Short title
2 The following definitions apply in this Act.
asset means tangible property. (élément d’actif)
claimant means a First Nation whose specific claim has been filed with the Tribunal. (revendicateur)
- claim limit
claim limit means the maximum amount under paragraph 20(1)(b). (indemnité maximale)
Crown means Her Majesty in right of Canada. (Sa Majesté)
- First Nation
First Nation means
(b) a group of persons that was, but is no longer, a band within the meaning of paragraph (a) and that has, under a land claims agreement, retained the right to bring a specific claim; and
(c) a group of persons that was a band within the meaning of paragraph (a), that is no longer a band by virtue of an Act or agreement mentioned in the schedule and that has not released its right to bring a specific claim. (première nation)
- land claims agreement
land claims agreement has the same meaning as in subsection 35(3) of the Constitution Act, 1982. (accord sur des revendications territoriales)
Minister means the Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations. (ministre)
party, in respect of a specific claim, means any claimant, the Crown or any province or First Nation added as a party under section 23 or 24. (partie)
- specific claim
specific claim means a claim that is filed under section 14. (revendication particulière)
Tribunal means the Specific Claims Tribunal established by subsection 6(1). (Tribunal)
- 2008, c. 22, s. 2
- 2019, c. 29, s. 373
Purpose and Application of Act
3 The purpose of this Act is to establish the Specific Claims Tribunal, the mandate of which is to decide issues of validity and compensation relating to specific claims of First Nations.
Marginal note:Inconsistency or conflict
4 In the event of any inconsistency or conflict between this Act and any other Act of Parliament, this Act prevails to the extent of the inconsistency or conflict.
5 This Act affects the rights of a First Nation only if the First Nation chooses to file a specific claim with the Tribunal and only to the extent that this Act expressly provides.
Specific Claims Tribunal
Marginal note:Establishment of roster
(2) The Governor in Council shall establish a roster of 6 to 18 superior court judges to act as members of the Tribunal.
Marginal note:Chairperson and other members
(3) The Chairperson and other members shall be appointed from the roster referred to in subsection (2) by the Governor in Council.
(4) The Tribunal shall consist of
Marginal note:Reappointment of members
(2) Each member, on the expiry of the first term of office, is eligible to be reappointed for one further term.
Marginal note:Role of Chairperson
Marginal note:Powers of Chairperson
(2) On application by a party, the Chairperson may order that
(a) specific claims be heard together or consecutively if they have issues of law or fact in common;
(b) a specific claim is, together with any other specific claim, subject to one claim limit under subsection 20(4); and
(c) specific claims be decided together if decisions with respect to the claims could be irreconcilable or if the claims are subject to one claim limit.
Marginal note:Absence or incapacity
(3) If the office of Chairperson is vacant, or the Chairperson is absent or is for any reason unable to act, the powers of the Chairperson shall be exercised and the duties performed by the member who is the senior judge and is able and willing to act.
Marginal note:Acting after termination of appointment
9 (1) Subject to subsection (2), a judge who has ceased to be a member, for any reason other than removal, may, with the authorization of the Chairperson, perform and complete any functions or duties that they would otherwise have had if they had not ceased to be a member and that are in connection with any matter in which that judge became engaged while holding office as a member, and a judge so authorized is, for that purpose, deemed to be a member of the Tribunal.
Marginal note:Limitation period
(2) No judge who has ceased to be a member may, after the expiry of 120 days after ceasing to be a member, take part in the disposition of any matter under the authority granted by the Chairperson under subsection (1).
10 [Repealed, 2014, c. 20, s. 469]
Functions, Powers and Duties
(2) A hearing before the Tribunal shall be held before a single member.
(3) A decision of a member of the Tribunal is a decision of the Tribunal.
Marginal note:Rules of the Tribunal
12 (1) A committee of no more than six Tribunal members, appointed by the Chairperson, may make general rules for carrying out the work of the Tribunal and the management of its internal affairs, as well as rules governing its practice and procedures, including rules governing
(a) the giving of notice;
(b) the presentation of the positions of the parties with respect to issues before the Tribunal and of matters of fact or law on which the parties rely in support of their positions;
(c) the summoning of witnesses;
(d) the production and service of documents;
(f) discovery proceedings;
(g) the taking and preservation of evidence before the start of a hearing;
(h) case management, including pre-hearing conferences and the use of mediation;
(i) the introduction of evidence;
(j) the imposition of time limits; and
Marginal note:Advisory committee
(2) The committee referred to in subsection (1) may establish an advisory committee of interested parties to advise it in the development of the Tribunal’s rules of practice and procedure, including efficiencies.
Marginal note:Rules respecting costs
(3) The Tribunal’s rules respecting costs shall accord with the rules of the Federal Court, with any modifications that the Tribunal considers appropriate.
Marginal note:Publication of rules
(4) The Tribunal shall make its rules available to the public and, if possible, publish them in the First Nations Gazette.
Marginal note:Effect of failure to publish
(5) Failure to publish the rules in the First Nations Gazette does not affect the validity of the rules.
- 2008, c. 22, s. 12
- 2014, c. 20, s. 470
- Date modified: