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Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act (S.C. 1992, c. 52)

Act current to 2022-09-11 and last amended on 2017-07-12. Previous Versions

Administration (continued)

Marginal note:Disposition by Minister

  •  (1) Where a sample has been taken pursuant to paragraph 14(1)(b) or a thing has been forfeited or abandoned under this Act, it shall be dealt with and disposed of as the Minister may direct.

  • (2) [Repealed, 2009, c. 14, s. 119]

  • 1992, c. 52, s. 20
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 119

Marginal note:Liability for costs

 If a thing is seized under this Act or under a warrant issued under the Criminal Code, the importer or exporter, as the case may be, and the person who owned the thing at the time it was seized, the person who had charge or control of the thing immediately before it was seized and the person who possessed it immediately before it was seized are jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable for all the costs of seizure, detention, maintenance and forfeiture, including any destruction or disposal costs, incurred by Her Majesty in right of Canada in relation to the thing in excess of any proceeds of its disposition, if any.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 120

Marginal note:Regulations

  •  (1) The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying out the purposes of this Act, including regulations

    • (a) respecting the issuance, renewal, revocation and suspension of permits and the circumstances in which persons may be exempted from holding such permits;

    • (b) respecting the exemption of animals and plants, and parts and derivatives of animals and plants, from the operation of any provision of this Act;

    • (c) amending the definitions animal and plant

      • (i) for the purposes of subsection 6(1),

      • (ii) for the purposes of subsection 6(2),

      • (iii) for the purposes of subsection 6(3),

        • (A) in order to protect species that are subject to the legislative authority of Parliament, or

        • (B) at the request of the minister who is responsible for the protection of wild animal or plant species of the government of the province into which the animal or plant is to be transported, where that minister is of the opinion that the transport would be harmful to the environment of that province,

      • (iv) for the purposes of section 7, in order to protect species of animals and plants in a province, other than those species that are subject to the legislative authority of Parliament, at the request of the minister who is responsible for the protection of wild animal or plant species of the government of the province, and

      • (v) for the purposes of section 8;

    • (d) specifying the places and times at which, and the manner in which, animals and plants, classes of animals and plants and parts and derivatives of animals and plants may be imported into Canada and exported from Canada;

    • (e) respecting the marking of animals and plants, and parts and derivatives of animals and plants, and the packaging for animals, plants and parts and derivatives of animals and plants for importation into or exportation from Canada or for transportation from one province to another province;

    • (f) prescribing the documents to be kept by persons mentioned in section 9 and the manner of keeping the documents and the period for which they are to be kept;

    • (g) specifying the terms and conditions under which animals and plants, and parts and derivatives of animals and plants, are to be removed from Canada under section 18;

    • (g.1) designating provisions of the regulations for the purposes of paragraph 22(1)(b);

    • (h) prescribing the manner in which the proceeds resulting from the payment of fines or the execution of orders under this Act shall be distributed;

    • (i) prescribing the fees or charges to be paid in connection with the administration of this Act and the terms and conditions of paying such fees and charges; and

    • (j) generally to implement the Convention.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) The Governor in Council shall make regulations specifying the animals and plants that are listed as “fauna” and “flora”, respectively, in an appendix to the Convention and shall, not later than ninety days after any change to a list in an appendix to the Convention, amend the regulations to reflect that change.

  • 1992, c. 52, s. 21
  • 2002, c. 29, s. 140
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 121

Marginal note:Order

  •  (1) The Governor in Council may, on the recommendation of the Minister, by order, amend the definition animal or plant in section 2 for the purposes of subsection 6(2).

  • Marginal note:Recommendation

    (2) If the Minister is of the opinion that the import of any specimen, living or dead, would be harmful to Canadian ecosystems or to any species in Canada and that urgent action is needed, the Minister may recommend that an order be made under subsection (1).

  • Marginal note:Duration of amendment

    (3) The amendment made by the order applies for the period specified in the order, which period may not be longer than one year from the day the order is made.

  • Marginal note:Exemption

    (4) The order is exempt from the application of section 3 of the Statutory Instruments Act.

  • 2002, c. 29, s. 141

Offence and Punishment

Marginal note:Offence — persons

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who contravenes

    • (a) any provision of this Act;

    • (b) any provision of the regulations designated by regulations made under paragraph 21(1)(g.1); or

    • (c) any order made under this Act by a court.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years, or to both; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue corporations

    (4) Every corporation that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 22.02 to be a small revenue corporation is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Relief from minimum fine

    (5) The court may impose a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in this section if it is satisfied, on the basis of evidence submitted to the court, that the minimum fine would cause undue financial hardship. The court shall provide reasons if it imposes a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in this section.

  • 1992, c. 52, s. 22
  • 1995, c. 22, s. 18
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Offence — persons

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who contravenes any provision of the regulations, other than a provision the contravention of which is an offence under subsection 22(1).

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $200,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $25,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue corporations

    (4) Every corporation that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 22.02 to be a small revenue corporation is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Determination of small revenue corporation status

 For the purpose of sections 22 and 22.01, a court may determine a corporation to be a small revenue corporation if the court is satisfied that the corporation’s gross revenues for the 12 months immediately before the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — or, if it arose on more than one day, for the 12 months immediately before the first day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — were not more than $5,000,000.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Deeming — second and subsequent offence

  •  (1) For the purposes of subsections 22(2) to (4) and 22.01(2) to (4), a conviction for a particular offence under this Act is deemed to be a conviction for a second or subsequent offence if the court is satisfied that the offender has been previously convicted — under any Act of Parliament, or any Act of the legislature of a province, that relates to environmental or wildlife conservation or protection — of a substantially similar offence.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2) Subsection (1) applies only to previous convictions on indictment and to previous convictions on summary conviction, and to previous convictions under any similar procedure under any Act of the legislature of a province, other than a procedure commenced by means of a ticket.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Additional fine

 If a person is convicted of an offence under this Act and the court is satisfied that, as a result of the commission of the offence, the person acquired any property, benefit or advantage, the court shall order the person to pay an additional fine in an amount equal to the court’s estimation of the value of that property, benefit or advantage. The additional fine may exceed the maximum amount of any fine that may otherwise be imposed under this Act.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Notice to shareholders

 If a corporation that has shareholders has been convicted of an offence under this Act, the court shall make an order directing the corporation to notify its shareholders, in the manner and within the time directed by the court, of the facts relating to the commission of the offence and of the details of the punishment imposed.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Contraventions Act

 If an offence under this Act is designated as a contravention under the Contraventions Act, subsection 8(5) of that Act does not apply in respect of the fine that may be established for that contravention.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Fundamental purpose of sentencing

 The fundamental purpose of sentencing for offences under this Act is to contribute, in light of the numerous serious threats to plants and animals and their importance to the environment, to respect for the law regulating international and interprovincial trade in animals and plants through the imposition of just sanctions that have as their objectives

  • (a) to deter the offender and any other person from committing offences under this Act;

  • (b) to denounce the unlawful trade in certain animals and plants and to make it unprofitable; and

  • (c) to recover, if possible, certain species of animals and plants unlawfully traded.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122

Marginal note:Sentencing principles

  •  (1) In addition to the principles and factors that the court is otherwise required to consider, including those set out in sections 718.1 to 718.21 of the Criminal Code, the court shall consider the following principles when sentencing a person who is convicted of an offence under this Act:

    • (a) the amount of the fine should be increased to account for every aggravating factor associated with the offence, including the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2); and

    • (b) the amount of the fine should reflect the gravity of each aggravating factor associated with the offence.

  • Marginal note:Aggravating factors

    (2) The aggravating factors are the following:

    • (a) the offence caused damage or risk of damage, directly or indirectly, to animals or plants;

    • (b) the offence caused damage or risk of damage to a unique, rare, particularly important or vulnerable species of animal or plant or population of animals or plants;

    • (c) the offender committed the offence intentionally or recklessly;

    • (d) the offender profited, or intended to profit, by committing the offence;

    • (e) the offender has a history of non-compliance with federal or provincial legislation that relates to environmental or wildlife conservation or protection; and

    • (f) the offence involved a high degree of planning.

  • Marginal note:Absence of aggravating factor

    (3) The absence of an aggravating factor set out in subsection (2) is not a mitigating factor.

  • Marginal note:Meaning of damage

    (4) For the purposes of paragraphs (2)(a) and (b), damage includes loss of use value and non-use value.

  • Marginal note:Reasons

    (5) If the court is satisfied of the existence of one or more of the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2) but decides not to increase the amount of the fine because of that factor, the court shall give reasons for that decision.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 122
 
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