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Cannabis Act (S.C. 2018, c. 16)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2019-11-19 and last amended on 2019-10-17. Previous Versions

PART 9Disposition of Seized Things (continued)

DIVISION 1Non-chemical Offence-related Property (continued)

Forfeiture (continued)

Marginal note:Power to set aside transfers

 A court may, before ordering that property be forfeited under subsection 94(1) or 95(2), set aside any transfer of the property that occurred after the seizure of the property, or the making of a restraint order in respect of the property, unless the transfer was for valuable consideration to a person acting in good faith.

Marginal note:Notice

  •  (1) Before making an order under subsection 94(1) or 95(2) in relation to any property, a court must require a notice in accordance with subsection (2) to be given to, and may hear, any person that, in the opinion of the court, appears to have a valid interest in or right to the property.

  • Marginal note:Manner of giving notice

    (2) The notice must

    • (a) be given in the manner that the court directs or that may be specified in the rules of the court;

    • (b) specify the period that the court considers reasonable or that may be set out in the rules of the court during which a person may make an application to the court asserting their interest in or right to the property; and

    • (c) set out the designated offence charged and a description of the property.

  • Marginal note:Order of restoration

    (3) If a court is satisfied that any person, other than one referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), is the owner of, or is entitled to possession of, any property or any part of any property that would otherwise be forfeited under an order made under subsection 94(1) or 95(2) and that the person appears innocent of any complicity in a designated offence or of any collusion in relation to such an offence, the court may order that the property or part be returned to that person:

    • (a) a person that was charged with a designated offence; or

    • (b) a person that acquired title to, ownership of or a right of possession of the property from a person referred to in paragraph (a) under circumstances that give rise to a reasonable inference that the title or right was transferred for the purpose of avoiding the forfeiture of the property.

Marginal note:Notice

  •  (1) If all or part of the property that would otherwise be forfeited under subsection 94(1) or 95(2) is a dwelling-house, before making an order of forfeiture, a court must require notice in accordance with subsection (2) to be given to, and may hear, any individual who resides in the dwelling-house and is a member of the immediate family of the person charged with or convicted or discharged under section 730 of the Criminal Code of the indictable offence under this Act in relation to which the property would be forfeited.

  • Marginal note:Manner of giving notice

    (2) The notice must

    • (a) be given in the manner that the court directs or that may be specified in the rules of the court;

    • (b) specify the period that the court considers reasonable or that may be set out in the rules of the court during which a member of the immediate family who resides in the dwelling-house may make themselves known to the court; and

    • (c) set out the offence charged and a description of the property.

  • Marginal note:Non-forfeiture of real property or immovables

    (3) Subject to an order made under subsection 97(3), if a court is satisfied that the impact of an order of forfeiture made under subsection 94(1) or 95(2) in respect of real property or immovables would be disproportionate to the nature and gravity of the offence, the circumstances surrounding the commission of the offence and the criminal record, if any, of the person charged with or convicted or discharged under section 730 of the Criminal Code of the offence, it may decide not to order the forfeiture of the property or part of the property and may revoke any restraint order made in respect of that property or part.

  • Marginal note:Factors in relation to dwelling-house

    (4) If all or part of the property that would otherwise be forfeited under subsection 94(1) or 95(2) is a dwelling-house, when making a decision under subsection (3), the court must also consider

    • (a) the impact of an order of forfeiture on any member of the immediate family of the person charged with or convicted or discharged of the offence, if the dwelling-house was the family member’s principal residence at the time the charge was laid and continues to be the family member’s principal residence; and

    • (b) whether the family member appears innocent of any complicity in the offence or of any collusion in relation to the offence.

Marginal note:Application of claimants

  •  (1) If any property is forfeited to Her Majesty under an order made under subsection 94(1) or 95(2), any person that claims an interest in or right to the property, other than any of the following persons, may, within 30 days after the forfeiture, apply by notice in writing to a judge for an order under subsection (4):

    • (a) in the case of property forfeited under an order made under subsection 94(1), a person that was convicted or discharged under section 730 of the Criminal Code of the designated offence in relation to which the property was forfeited;

    • (b) in the case of property forfeited under an order made under subsection 95(2), a person that was charged with the designated offence in relation to which the property was forfeited; or

    • (c) a person that acquired title to, ownership of or a right of possession of the property from a person referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) under circumstances that give rise to a reasonable inference that the title or right was transferred from that person for the purpose of avoiding the forfeiture of the property.

  • Marginal note:Fixing day for hearing

    (2) The judge to whom the application is made must fix a day that is not less than 30 days after the date of the filing of the application for the hearing of the application.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (3) The applicant must serve a notice of the application and of the hearing of it on the Attorney General at least 15 days before the day fixed for the hearing.

  • Marginal note:Order declaring interest or right not affected by forfeiture

    (4) The judge to whom the application is made may make an order declaring that the interest or right of the applicant is not affected by the forfeiture and declaring the nature and the extent or value of the interest or right if the judge is satisfied that the applicant

    • (a) is not a person referred to in paragraph (1)(a), (b) or (c) and appears innocent of any complicity in any designated offence that resulted in the forfeiture of the property or of any collusion in relation to such an offence; and

    • (b) exercised all reasonable care to be satisfied that the property was not likely to have been used in connection with the commission of an unlawful act by

      • (i) the person that was permitted by the applicant to obtain possession of the property or from which the applicant obtained possession,

      • (ii) the mortgagor or hypothecary debtor, if the applicant is a mortgagee or hypothecary creditor,

      • (iii) the person that is subject to the charge, if the applicant is a chargee,

      • (iv) the person that is subject to the prior claim, if the applicant is the holder of a prior claim,

      • (v) the person that is subject to the lien, if the applicant is a lienholder, or

      • (vi) the giver of a security interest, if the applicant is the creditor in relation to the security interest.

  • Marginal note:Appeal — subsection (4)

    (5) An applicant or the Attorney General may appeal to the court of appeal from an order made under subsection (4), and the provisions of Part XXI of the Criminal Code with respect to procedure on appeals apply, with any necessary modifications, in respect of appeals under this subsection.

  • Marginal note:Return of property

    (6) The Minister must, on application made to the Minister by any person in respect of which a judge has made an order under subsection (4), and if the periods with respect to the taking of appeals from that order have expired or any appeal from that order taken under subsection (5) has been determined, direct that

    • (a) the property, or the part of it to which the interest or right of the applicant relates, be returned to the applicant; or

    • (b) an amount equal to the value of the interest or right of the applicant, as declared in the order, be paid to the applicant.

Marginal note:Appeal — subsection 95(2)

 Any person that, in their opinion, is aggrieved by an order made under subsection 95(2) may appeal from the order as if the order were an appeal against conviction or against a judgment or verdict of acquittal, as the case may be, under Part XXI of the Criminal Code, and that Part applies, with any necessary modifications, in respect of such an appeal.

Marginal note:Suspension of order pending appeal

 Despite anything in this Act, the operation of an order made in respect of property under subsection 94(1), 95(2) or 99(4) is suspended pending

  • (a) any application made in respect of the property under any of those provisions or any other provision of this Act or any other Act of Parliament that provides for restoration or forfeiture of the property; or

  • (b) any appeal taken from an order of forfeiture or restoration in respect of the property.

The property must not be disposed of or otherwise dealt with until the expiry of the 30th day after the day an order is made under any of those provisions.

 
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