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Competition Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-34)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2022-06-01 and last amended on 2020-07-01. Previous Versions

PART VIIOther Offences (continued)

Procedure (continued)

Marginal note:Statistics collected by sampling methods

 A collection, compilation, analysis, abstract or other record or report of statistics collected by sampling methods by or on behalf of the Commissioner or any other party to proceedings before the Tribunal, or to a prosecution or proceedings before a court under or pursuant to this Act, is admissible in evidence in that prosecution or those proceedings.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-34, s. 71
  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 42
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 37

Marginal note:Notice

  •  (1) No record, report or statement of statistical information or statistics referred to in section 70 or 71 shall be received in evidence before the Tribunal or court unless the person intending to produce the record, report or statement in evidence has given to the person against whom it is intended to be produced reasonable notice together with a copy of the record, report or statement and, in the case of a record or report of statistics referred to in section 71, together with the names and qualifications of those persons who participated in the preparation thereof.

  • Marginal note:Attendance of statistician

    (2) Any person against whom a record or report of statistics referred to in section 70 is produced may require, for the purposes of cross-examination, the attendance of any person under whose supervision the record or report was prepared.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (3) Any person against whom a record or report of statistics referred to in section 71 is produced may require, for the purposes of cross-examination, the attendance of any person who participated in the preparation of the record or report.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-34, s. 72
  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (2nd Supp.), s. 43

Marginal note:Jurisdiction of Federal Court

  •  (1) Subject to this section, the Attorney General of Canada may institute and conduct any prosecution or other proceedings under section 34, any of sections 45 to 49 or, if the proceedings are on indictment, under section 52, 52.1, 53, 55, 55.1 or 66, in the Federal Court, and for the purposes of the prosecution or other proceedings, the Federal Court has all the powers and jurisdiction of a superior court of criminal jurisdiction under the Criminal Code and under this Act.

  • Marginal note:No jury

    (2) The trial of an offence under Part VI or section 66 in the Federal Court shall be without a jury.

  • Marginal note:Appeal

    (3) An appeal lies from the Federal Court to the Federal Court of Appeal and from the Federal Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada in any prosecution or proceedings under Part VI or section 66 of this Act as provided in Part XXI of the Criminal Code for appeals from a trial court and from a court of appeal.

  • Marginal note:Proceedings optional

    (4) Proceedings under subsection 34(2) may in the discretion of the Attorney General of Canada be instituted in either the Federal Court or a superior court of criminal jurisdiction in the province but no prosecution shall be instituted against an individual in the Federal Court in respect of an offence under Part VI or section 66 without the consent of the individual.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-34, s. 73
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 21
  • 2002, c. 8, ss. 183, 198, c. 16, s. 8
  • 2009, c. 2, s. 421

 [Repealed, 1999, c. 2, s. 22]

PART VII.1Deceptive Marketing Practices

Reviewable Matters

Marginal note:Misrepresentations to public

  •  (1) A person engages in reviewable conduct who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, the supply or use of a product or for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest, by any means whatever,

    • (a) makes a representation to the public that is false or misleading in a material respect;

    • (b) makes a representation to the public in the form of a statement, warranty or guarantee of the performance, efficacy or length of life of a product that is not based on an adequate and proper test thereof, the proof of which lies on the person making the representation; or

    • (c) makes a representation to the public in a form that purports to be

      • (i) a warranty or guarantee of a product, or

      • (ii) a promise to replace, maintain or repair an article or any part thereof or to repeat or continue a service until it has achieved a specified result,

      if the form of purported warranty or guarantee or promise is materially misleading or if there is no reasonable prospect that it will be carried out.

  • Marginal note:Ordinary price: suppliers generally

    (2) Subject to subsection (3), a person engages in reviewable conduct who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, the supply or use of a product or for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest, by any means whatever, makes a representation to the public concerning the price at which a product or like products have been, are or will be ordinarily supplied where suppliers generally in the relevant geographic market, having regard to the nature of the product,

    • (a) have not sold a substantial volume of the product at that price or a higher price within a reasonable period of time before or after the making of the representation, as the case may be; and

    • (b) have not offered the product at that price or a higher price in good faith for a substantial period of time recently before or immediately after the making of the representation, as the case may be.

  • Marginal note:Ordinary price: supplier’s own

    (3) A person engages in reviewable conduct who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, the supply or use of a product or for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest, by any means whatever, makes a representation to the public as to price that is clearly specified to be the price at which a product or like products have been, are or will be ordinarily supplied by the person making the representation where that person, having regard to the nature of the product and the relevant geographic market,

    • (a) has not sold a substantial volume of the product at that price or a higher price within a reasonable period of time before or after the making of the representation, as the case may be; and

    • (b) has not offered the product at that price or a higher price in good faith for a substantial period of time recently before or immediately after the making of the representation, as the case may be.

  • Marginal note:References to time in subsections (2) and (3)

    (4) For greater certainty, whether the period of time to be considered in paragraphs (2)(a) and (b) and (3)(a) and (b) is before or after the making of the representation depends on whether the representation relates to

    • (a) the price at which products have been or are supplied; or

    • (b) the price at which products will be supplied.

  • Marginal note:Saving

    (5) Subsections (2) and (3) do not apply to a person who establishes that, in the circumstances, a representation as to price is not false or misleading in a material respect.

  • (6) [Repealed, 2009, c. 2, s. 422]

  • 1999, c. 2, s. 22
  • 2009, c. 2, s. 422

Marginal note:False or misleading representation — sender or subject matter information

  •  (1) A person engages in reviewable conduct who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest or the supply or use of a product, sends or causes to be sent a false or misleading representation in the sender information or subject matter information of an electronic message.

  • Marginal note:False or misleading representation — electronic message

    (2) A person engages in reviewable conduct who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest or the supply or use of a product, sends or causes to be sent in an electronic message a representation that is false or misleading in a material respect.

  • Marginal note:False or misleading representation — locator

    (3) A person engages in reviewable conduct who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest or the supply or use of a product, makes or causes to be made a false or misleading representation in a locator.

  • Marginal note:General impression to be considered

    (4) In proceedings under this section, the general impression conveyed by a representation as well as its literal meaning shall be taken into account in determining whether or not the person who made the representation engaged in the reviewable conduct.

  • Marginal note:Interpretation

    (5) For the purposes of this section,

    • (a) an electronic message is considered to have been sent once its transmission has been initiated; and

    • (b) it is immaterial whether the electronic address to which an electronic message is sent exists or whether an electronic message reaches its intended destination.

  • 2010, c. 23, s. 77

Marginal note:Assisting foreign states

  •  (1) The Commissioner may, for the purpose of assisting an investigation or proceeding in respect of the laws of a foreign state, an international organization of states or an international organization established by the governments of states that address conduct that is substantially similar to conduct that is reviewable under section 74.01, 74.011, 74.02, 74.04, 74.05 or 74.06,

    • (a) conduct any investigation that the Commissioner considers necessary to collect relevant information, using any powers that the Commissioner may use under this Act to investigate conduct that is reviewable under any of those sections; and

    • (b) disclose the information to the government of the foreign state or to the international organization, or to any institution of any such government or organization responsible for conducting investigations or initiating proceedings in respect of the laws in respect of which the assistance is being provided, if the government, organization or institution declares in writing that

      • (i) the use of the information will be restricted to purposes relevant to the investigation or proceeding, and

      • (ii) the information will be treated in a confidential manner and, except for the purposes mentioned in subparagraph (i), will not be further disclosed without the Commissioner’s express consent.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (2) Subsection (1) does not apply if the contravention of the laws of the foreign state has consequences that would be considered penal under Canadian law.

  • Marginal note:Mutual assistance

    (3) In deciding whether to provide assistance under subsection (1), the Commissioner shall consider whether the government, organization or institution agrees to provide assistance for investigations or proceedings in respect of any of the sections mentioned in subsection (1).

  • 2010, c. 23, s. 77

Marginal note:Representation as to reasonable test and publication of testimonials

 A person engages in reviewable conduct who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, the supply or use of any product, or for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest, makes a representation to the public that a test has been made as to the performance, efficacy or length of life of a product by any person, or publishes a testimonial with respect to a product, unless the person making the representation or publishing the testimonial can establish that

  • (a) such a representation or testimonial was previously made or published by the person by whom the test was made or the testimonial was given, or

  • (b) such a representation or testimonial was, before being made or published, approved and permission to make or publish it was given in writing by the person by whom the test was made or the testimonial was given,

and the representation or testimonial accords with the representation or testimonial previously made, published or approved.

  • 1999, c. 2, s. 22

Marginal note:Representations accompanying products

  •  (1) For the purposes of sections 74.01 and 74.02, a representation that is

    • (a) expressed on an article offered or displayed for sale or its wrapper or container,

    • (b) expressed on anything attached to, inserted in or accompanying an article offered or displayed for sale, its wrapper or container, or anything on which the article is mounted for display or sale,

    • (c) expressed on an in-store or other point-of-purchase display,

    • (d) made in the course of in-store or door-to-door selling to a person as ultimate user, or by communicating orally by any means of telecommunication to a person as ultimate user, or

    • (e) contained in or on anything that is sold, sent, delivered, transmitted or made available in any other manner to a member of the public,

    is deemed to be made to the public by and only by the person who causes the representation to be so expressed, made or contained, subject to subsection (2).

  • Marginal note:Representations from outside Canada

    (2) Where a person referred to in subsection (1) is outside Canada, a representation described in paragraph (1)(a), (b), (c) or (e) is, for the purposes of sections 74.01 and 74.02, deemed to be made to the public by the person who imports into Canada the article, thing or display referred to in that paragraph.

  • Marginal note:Deemed representation to public

    (3) Subject to subsection (1), a person who, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, the supply or use of a product or any business interest, supplies to a wholesaler, retailer or other distributor of a product any material or thing that contains a representation of a nature referred to in section 74.01 is deemed to make that representation to the public.

  • Marginal note:Certain matters need not be established

    (4) For greater certainty, in proceedings under sections 74.01 and 74.02, it is not necessary to establish that

    • (a) any person was deceived or misled;

    • (b) any member of the public to whom the representation was made was within Canada; or

    • (c) the representation was made in a place to which the public had access.

  • Marginal note:General impression to be considered

    (5) In proceedings under sections 74.01 and 74.02, the general impression conveyed by a representation as well as its literal meaning shall be taken into account in determining whether or not the person who made the representation engaged in the reviewable conduct.

  • 1999, c. 2, s. 22
  • 2009, c. 2, s. 423
  • 2010, c. 23, s. 78
  • 2014, c. 31, s. 35

Marginal note:Definition of bargain price

  •  (1) For the purposes of this section, bargain price means

    • (a) a price that is represented in an advertisement to be a bargain price by reference to an ordinary price or otherwise; or

    • (b) a price that a person who reads, hears or sees the advertisement would reasonably understand to be a bargain price by reason of the prices at which the product advertised or like products are ordinarily supplied.

  • Marginal note:Bait and switch selling

    (2) A person engages in reviewable conduct who advertises at a bargain price a product that the person does not supply in reasonable quantities having regard to the nature of the market in which the person carries on business, the nature and size of the person’s business and the nature of the advertisement.

  • Marginal note:Saving

    (3) Subsection (2) does not apply to a person who establishes that

    • (a) the person took reasonable steps to obtain in adequate time a quantity of the product that would have been reasonable having regard to the nature of the advertisement, but was unable to obtain such a quantity by reason of events beyond the person’s control that could not reasonably have been anticipated;

    • (b) the person obtained a quantity of the product that was reasonable having regard to the nature of the advertisement, but was unable to meet the demand therefor because that demand surpassed the person’s reasonable expectations; or

    • (c) after becoming unable to supply the product in accordance with the advertisement, the person undertook to supply the same product or an equivalent product of equal or better quality at the bargain price and within a reasonable time to all persons who requested the product and who were not supplied with it during the time when the bargain price applied, and the person fulfilled the undertaking.

  • 1999, c. 2, s. 22
 
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