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Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-36)

Act current to 2022-11-16 and last amended on 2019-11-01. Previous Versions

PART IIJurisdiction of Courts (continued)

Marginal note:Disclosure of financial information

  •  (1) A court may, on any application under this Act in respect of a debtor company, by any person interested in the matter and on notice to any interested person who is likely to be affected by an order made under this section, make an order requiring that person to disclose any aspect of their economic interest in respect of a debtor company, on any terms that the court considers appropriate.

  • Marginal note:Factors to be considered

    (2) In deciding whether to make an order, the court is to consider, among other things,

    • (a) whether the monitor approved the proposed disclosure;

    • (b) whether the disclosed information would enhance the prospects of a viable compromise or arrangement being made in respect of the debtor company; and

    • (c) whether any interested person would be materially prejudiced as a result of the disclosure.

  • Marginal note:Meaning of economic interest

    (3) In this section, economic interest includes

    • (a) a claim, an eligible financial contract, an option or a mortgage, hypothec, pledge, charge, lien or any other security interest;

    • (b) the consideration paid for any right or interest, including those referred to in paragraph (a); or

    • (c) any other prescribed right or interest.

Marginal note:Fixing deadlines

 The court may fix deadlines for the purposes of voting and for the purposes of distributions under a compromise or arrangement.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-36, s. 12
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 90
  • 1996, c. 6, s. 167
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 195
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 130
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 68

Marginal note:Leave to appeal

 Except in Yukon, any person dissatisfied with an order or a decision made under this Act may appeal from the order or decision on obtaining leave of the judge appealed from or of the court or a judge of the court to which the appeal lies and on such terms as to security and in other respects as the judge or court directs.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-36, s. 13
  • 2002, c. 7, s. 134

Marginal note:Court of appeal

  •  (1) An appeal under section 13 lies to the highest court of final resort in or for the province in which the proceeding originated.

  • Marginal note:Practice

    (2) All appeals under section 13 shall be regulated as far as possible according to the practice in other cases of the court appealed to, but no appeal shall be entertained unless, within twenty-one days after the rendering of the order or decision being appealed, or within such further time as the court appealed from, or, in Yukon, a judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, allows, the appellant has taken proceedings therein to perfect his or her appeal, and within that time he or she has made a deposit or given sufficient security according to the practice of the court appealed to that he or she will duly prosecute the appeal and pay such costs as may be awarded to the respondent and comply with any terms as to security or otherwise imposed by the judge giving leave to appeal.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-36, s. 14
  • 2002, c. 7, s. 135

Marginal note:Appeals

  •  (1) An appeal lies to the Supreme Court of Canada on leave therefor being granted by that Court from the highest court of final resort in or for the province or territory in which the proceeding originated.

  • Marginal note:Jurisdiction of Supreme Court of Canada

    (2) The Supreme Court of Canada shall have jurisdiction to hear and to decide according to its ordinary procedure any appeal under subsection (1) and to award costs.

  • Marginal note:Stay of proceedings

    (3) No appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada shall operate as a stay of proceedings unless and to the extent ordered by that Court.

  • Marginal note:Security for costs

    (4) The appellant in an appeal under subsection (1) shall not be required to provide any security for costs, but, unless he provides security for costs in an amount to be fixed by the Supreme Court of Canada, he shall not be awarded costs in the event of his success on the appeal.

  • Marginal note:Decision final

    (5) The decision of the Supreme Court of Canada on any appeal under subsection (1) is final and conclusive.

  • R.S., c. C-25, s. 15
  • R.S., c. 44(1st Supp.), s. 10

Marginal note:Order of court of one province

 Every order made by the court in any province in the exercise of jurisdiction conferred by this Act in respect of any compromise or arrangement shall have full force and effect in all the other provinces and shall be enforced in the court of each of the other provinces in the same manner in all respects as if the order had been made by the court enforcing it.

  • R.S., c. C-25, s. 16

Marginal note:Courts shall aid each other on request

 All courts that have jurisdiction under this Act and the officers of those courts shall act in aid of and be auxiliary to each other in all matters provided for in this Act, and an order of a court seeking aid with a request to another court shall be deemed sufficient to enable the latter court to exercise in regard to the matters directed by the order such jurisdiction as either the court that made the request or the court to which the request is made could exercise in regard to similar matters within their respective jurisdictions.

  • R.S., c. C-25, s. 17

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 131]

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 131]

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 131]

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 131]

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 131]

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 131]

PART IIIGeneral

Duty of Good Faith

Marginal note:Good faith

  •  (1) Any interested person in any proceedings under this Act shall act in good faith with respect to those proceedings.

  • Marginal note:Good faith — powers of court

    (2) If the court is satisfied that an interested person fails to act in good faith, on application by an interested person, the court may make any order that it considers appropriate in the circumstances.

Claims

Marginal note:Claims that may be dealt with by a compromise or arrangement

  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), the only claims that may be dealt with by a compromise or arrangement in respect of a debtor company are

    • (a) claims that relate to debts or liabilities, present or future, to which the company is subject on the earlier of

      • (i) the day on which proceedings commenced under this Act, and

      • (ii) if the company filed a notice of intention under section 50.4 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or commenced proceedings under this Act with the consent of inspectors referred to in section 116 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, the date of the initial bankruptcy event within the meaning of section 2 of that Act; and

    • (b) claims that relate to debts or liabilities, present or future, to which the company may become subject before the compromise or arrangement is sanctioned by reason of any obligation incurred by the company before the earlier of the days referred to in subparagraphs (a)(i) and (ii).

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (2) A compromise or arrangement in respect of a debtor company may not deal with any claim that relates to any of the following debts or liabilities unless the compromise or arrangement explicitly provides for the claim’s compromise and the creditor in relation to that debt has voted for the acceptance of the compromise or arrangement:

    • (a) any fine, penalty, restitution order or other order similar in nature to a fine, penalty or restitution order, imposed by a court in respect of an offence;

    • (b) any award of damages by a court in civil proceedings in respect of

      • (i) bodily harm intentionally inflicted, or sexual assault, or

      • (ii) wrongful death resulting from an act referred to in subparagraph (i);

    • (c) any debt or liability arising out of fraud, embezzlement, misappropriation or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity or, in Quebec, as a trustee or an administrator of the property of others;

    • (d) any debt or liability resulting from obtaining property or services by false pretences or fraudulent misrepresentation, other than a debt or liability of the company that arises from an equity claim; or

    • (e) any debt for interest owed in relation to an amount referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (d).

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-36, s. 19
  • 1996, c. 6, s. 167
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 131
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 69

Marginal note:Determination of amount of claims

  •  (1) For the purposes of this Act, the amount represented by a claim of any secured or unsecured creditor is to be determined as follows:

    • (a) the amount of an unsecured claim is the amount

      • (i) in the case of a company in the course of being wound up under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act, proof of which has been made in accordance with that Act,

      • (ii) in the case of a company that has made an authorized assignment or against which a bankruptcy order has been made under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, proof of which has been made in accordance with that Act, or

      • (iii) in the case of any other company, proof of which might be made under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, but if the amount so provable is not admitted by the company, the amount is to be determined by the court on summary application by the company or by the creditor; and

    • (b) the amount of a secured claim is the amount, proof of which might be made under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act if the claim were unsecured, but the amount if not admitted by the company is, in the case of a company subject to pending proceedings under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act or the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, to be established by proof in the same manner as an unsecured claim under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act or the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, as the case may be, and, in the case of any other company, the amount is to be determined by the court on summary application by the company or the creditor.

  • Marginal note:Admission of claims

    (2) Despite subsection (1), the company may admit the amount of a claim for voting purposes under reserve of the right to contest liability on the claim for other purposes, and nothing in this Act, the Winding-up and Restructuring Act or the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act prevents a secured creditor from voting at a meeting of secured creditors or any class of them in respect of the total amount of a claim as admitted.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-36, s. 20
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 131
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 70

Marginal note:Law of set-off or compensation to apply

 The law of set-off or compensation applies to all claims made against a debtor company and to all actions instituted by it for the recovery of debts due to the company in the same manner and to the same extent as if the company were plaintiff or defendant, as the case may be.

  • 1997, c. 12, s. 126
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 131

Classes of Creditors

Marginal note:Company may establish classes

  •  (1) A debtor company may divide its creditors into classes for the purpose of a meeting to be held under section 4 or 5 in respect of a compromise or arrangement relating to the company and, if it does so, it is to apply to the court for approval of the division before the meeting is held.

  • Marginal note:Factors

    (2) For the purpose of subsection (1), creditors may be included in the same class if their interests or rights are sufficiently similar to give them a commonality of interest, taking into account

    • (a) the nature of the debts, liabilities or obligations giving rise to their claims;

    • (b) the nature and rank of any security in respect of their claims;

    • (c) the remedies available to the creditors in the absence of the compromise or arrangement being sanctioned, and the extent to which the creditors would recover their claims by exercising those remedies; and

    • (d) any further criteria, consistent with those set out in paragraphs (a) to (c), that are prescribed.

  • Marginal note:Related creditors

    (3) A creditor who is related to the company may vote against, but not for, a compromise or arrangement relating to the company.

  • 1997, c. 12, s. 126
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 131
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 71

Marginal note:Class — creditors having equity claims

 Despite subsection 22(1), creditors having equity claims are to be in the same class of creditors in relation to those claims unless the court orders otherwise and may not, as members of that class, vote at any meeting unless the court orders otherwise.

  • 2005, c. 47, s. 131
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 71

Monitors

Marginal note:Duties and functions

  •  (1) The monitor shall

    • (a) except as otherwise ordered by the court, when an order is made on the initial application in respect of a debtor company,

      • (i) publish, without delay after the order is made, once a week for two consecutive weeks, or as otherwise directed by the court, in one or more newspapers in Canada specified by the court, a notice containing the prescribed information, and

      • (ii) within five days after the day on which the order is made,

        • (A) make the order publicly available in the prescribed manner,

        • (B) send, in the prescribed manner, a notice to every known creditor who has a claim against the company of more than $1,000 advising them that the order is publicly available, and

        • (C) prepare a list, showing the names and addresses of those creditors and the estimated amounts of those claims, and make it publicly available in the prescribed manner;

    • (b) review the company’s cash-flow statement as to its reasonableness and file a report with the court on the monitor’s findings;

    • (c) make, or cause to be made, any appraisal or investigation the monitor considers necessary to determine with reasonable accuracy the state of the company’s business and financial affairs and the cause of its financial difficulties or insolvency and file a report with the court on the monitor’s findings;

    • (d) file a report with the court on the state of the company’s business and financial affairs — containing the prescribed information, if any —

      • (i) without delay after ascertaining a material adverse change in the company’s projected cash-flow or financial circumstances,

      • (ii) not later than 45 days, or any longer period that the court may specify, after the day on which each of the company’s fiscal quarters ends, and

      • (iii) at any other time that the court may order;

    • (d.1) file a report with the court on the state of the company’s business and financial affairs — containing the monitor’s opinion as to the reasonableness of a decision, if any, to include in a compromise or arrangement a provision that sections 38 and 95 to 101 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act do not apply in respect of the compromise or arrangement and containing the prescribed information, if any — at least seven days before the day on which the meeting of creditors referred to in section 4 or 5 is to be held;

    • (e) advise the company’s creditors of the filing of the report referred to in any of paragraphs (b) to (d.1);

    • (f) file with the Superintendent of Bankruptcy, in the prescribed manner and at the prescribed time, a copy of the documents specified in the regulations;

    • (f.1) for the purpose of defraying the expenses of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy incurred in performing his or her functions under this Act, pay the prescribed levy at the prescribed time to the Superintendent for deposit with the Receiver General;

    • (g) attend court proceedings held under this Act that relate to the company, and meetings of the company’s creditors, if the monitor considers that his or her attendance is necessary for the fulfilment of his or her duties or functions;

    • (h) if the monitor is of the opinion that it would be more beneficial to the company’s creditors if proceedings in respect of the company were taken under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, so advise the court without delay after coming to that opinion;

    • (i) advise the court on the reasonableness and fairness of any compromise or arrangement that is proposed between the company and its creditors;

    • (j) make the prescribed documents publicly available in the prescribed manner and at the prescribed time and provide the company’s creditors with information as to how they may access those documents; and

    • (k) carry out any other functions in relation to the company that the court may direct.

  • Marginal note:Monitor not liable

    (2) If the monitor acts in good faith and takes reasonable care in preparing the report referred to in any of paragraphs (1)(b) to (d.1), the monitor is not liable for loss or damage to any person resulting from that person’s reliance on the report.

  • 2005, c. 47, s. 131
  • 2007, c. 36, s. 72
 
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