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Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.))

Act current to 2022-06-01 and last amended on 2019-12-18. Previous Versions

PART IForeign Investigations or Other Proceedings in Respect of Offences (continued)

Search and Seizure (continued)

Marginal note:Terms and conditions

 No record or thing seized that has been ordered under section 15 to be sent to the state or entity mentioned in subsection 11(1) shall be so sent until the Minister is satisfied that the state or entity has agreed to comply with any terms or conditions imposed in respect of the sending abroad of the record or thing.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 16
  • 1999, c. 18, s. 106

Marginal note:Other warrants

  •  (1) A judge of the province to whom an application is made under subsection 11(2) may, in the manner provided for by the Criminal Code, issue a warrant, other than a warrant referred to in section 12, to use any device or investigative technique or do anything described in the warrant that would, if not authorized, constitute an unreasonable search or seizure in respect of a person or a person’s property.

  • Marginal note:Criminal Code applies

    (2) Subject to subsection (3), a warrant issued under subsection (1) may be obtained, issued and executed in the manner provided for by the Criminal Code, with any necessary modifications.

  • Marginal note:Exception — certain warrants

    (3) Subsections 12(3) and (4) and sections 14 to 16 apply in respect of a warrant issued under subsection (1)  —  other than a warrant issued in the manner provided for by section 492.1 or 492.2 of the Criminal Code  —  and prevail over any provisions of the Criminal Code that are inconsistent with them.

  • 2014, c. 31, s. 39

Marginal note:Sending abroad —  certain warrants

  •  (1) If a judge referred to in subsection 16.1(1) issues a warrant in the manner provided for under section 492.1 or 492.2 of the Criminal Code, the judge must also order

    • (a) that the peace officer who executes the warrant send a record containing the data obtained under the warrant directly to the state or entity that made the request under subsection 11(1); or

    • (b) that sections 20 and 21 apply to the warrant with any necessary modifications.

  • Marginal note:Report

    (2) The peace officer who executes the warrant must

    • (a) make a report concerning the execution of the warrant to the judge who issued the warrant or to another judge of the same court, accompanied by a general description of the data obtained under the warrant and, if the judge requires it, a record containing the data; and

    • (b) send a copy of the report to the Minister without delay.

  • Marginal note:Timing of report and sending abroad

    (3) If the judge makes an order under paragraph (1)(a), the peace officer must make the report to the judge and send a record containing the data to the state or entity that made the request no later than five days after the day on which all of the data is obtained under the warrant.

  • 2014, c. 31, s. 39

Production Orders

Marginal note:Approval of request to obtain evidence

  •  (1) When the Minister approves a request of a state or entity to obtain, by means of an order of a judge, evidence regarding an offence, the Minister shall provide a competent authority with any documents or information necessary to apply for the order.

  • Marginal note:Application for order

    (2) The competent authority who is provided with the documents or information shall apply ex parte for an order for the gathering of evidence to a judge of the province in which the competent authority believes part or all of the evidence may be found.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 17
  • 1999, c. 18, s. 107
  • 2000, c. 24, s. 62

Marginal note:Evidence-gathering order

  •  (1) A judge to whom an application is made under subsection 17(2) may make an order for the gathering of evidence, where he is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to believe that

    • (a) an offence has been committed; and

    • (b) evidence of the commission of the offence or information that may reveal the whereabouts of a person who is suspected of having committed the offence will be found in Canada.

  • Marginal note:Provisions of order

    (2) An order made under subsection (1) must provide for the manner in which the evidence is to be obtained in order to give effect to the request mentioned in subsection 17(1) and may

    • (a) order the examination, on oath or otherwise, of a person named therein, order the person to attend at the place fixed by the person designated under paragraph (c) for the examination and to remain in attendance until he is excused by the person so designated, order the person so named, where appropriate, to make a copy of a record or to make a record from data and to bring the copy or record with him, and order the person so named to bring with him any record or thing in his possession or control, in order to produce them to the person before whom the examination takes place;

    • (b) order a person named therein to make a copy of a record or to make a record from data and to produce the copy or record to the person designated under paragraph (c), order the person to produce any record or thing in his possession or control to the person so designated and provide, where appropriate, for any affidavit or certificate that, pursuant to the request, is to accompany any copy, record or thing so produced;

    • (c) designate a person before whom the examination referred to in paragraph (a) is to take place or to whom the copies, records, things, affidavits and certificates mentioned in paragraph (b) are to be produced; and

    • (d) order a person named in it to answer any question and to produce any record or thing to the person designated under paragraph (c) in accordance with the laws of evidence and procedure in the state or entity that presented the request.

  • Marginal note:Designation of judge

    (3) For greater certainty, under paragraph (2)(c), a judge who makes an order under subsection (1) may designate himself or herself — either alone or with another person, including another judge — or may designate another person, including another judge.

  • Marginal note:Order effective throughout Canada

    (4) An order made under subsection (1) may be executed anywhere in Canada.

  • Marginal note:Terms and conditions of order

    (5) An order made under subsection (1) may include any terms or conditions that the judge considers desirable, including those relating to the protection of the interests of the person named therein and of third parties.

  • Marginal note:Variation

    (6) The judge who made the order under subsection (1) or another judge of the same court may vary its terms and conditions.

  • Marginal note:Refusal to comply

    (7) A person named in an order made under subsection (1) may refuse to answer any question or to produce a record or thing to the person designated under paragraph (2)(c) if

    • (a) answering the question or producing the record or thing would disclose information that is protected by the Canadian law of non-disclosure of information or privilege;

    • (b) requiring the person to answer the question or to produce the record or thing would constitute a breach of a privilege recognized by a law in force in the state or entity that presented the request; or

    • (c) answering the question or producing the record or thing would constitute the commission by the person of an offence against a law in force in the state or entity that presented the request.

  • Marginal note:Execution of order to be completed

    (8) If a person refuses to answer a question or to produce a record or thing, the person designated under paragraph (2)(c)

    • (a) may, if he or she is a judge of a Canadian or foreign court, make immediate rulings on any objections or issues within his or her jurisdiction; or

    • (b) shall, in any other case, continue the examination and ask any other question or request the production of any other record or thing mentioned in the order.

  • Marginal note:Statement of reasons for refusal

    (9) A person named in an order made under subsection (1) who, under subsection (7), refuses to answer one or more questions or to produce certain records or things shall, within seven days, give to the person designated under paragraph (2)(c), unless that person has already ruled on the objection under paragraph (8)(a), a detailed statement in writing of the reasons on which the person bases the refusal to answer each question that the person refuses to answer or to produce each record or thing that the person refuses to produce.

  • Marginal note:Expenses

    (10) A person named in an order made under subsection (1) is entitled to be paid the travel and living expenses to which the person would be entitled if the person were required to attend as a witness before the judge who made the order.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 18
  • 1999, c. 18, s. 108
  • 2000, c. 24, s. 63
  • 2001, c. 32, s. 66

Marginal note:Report

  •  (1) A person designated pursuant to paragraph 18(2)(c) in an order made under subsection 18(1) shall make a report to the judge who made the order or another judge of the same court, accompanied by

    • (a) a transcript of every examination held pursuant to the order;

    • (b) a general description of every record or thing produced to the person pursuant to the order and, if the judge so requires, a record or thing itself; and

    • (c) a copy of every statement given under subsection 18(9) of the reasons for a refusal to answer any question or to produce any record or thing.

  • Marginal note:Copy to Minister

    (2) The person designated pursuant to paragraph 18(2)(c) shall send a copy of the report to the Minister forthwith after it is made.

  • Marginal note:Refusals

    (3) If any reasons contained in a statement given under subsection 18(9) are based on the Canadian law of non-disclosure of information or privilege, a judge to whom a report is made shall determine whether those reasons are well-founded, and, if the judge determines that they are, that determination shall be mentioned in any order that the judge makes under section 20, but if the judge determines that they are not, the judge shall order that the person named in the order made under subsection 18(1) answer the questions or produce the records or things.

  • Marginal note:Refusals based on foreign law

    (4) A copy of every statement given under subsection 18(9) that contains reasons that purport to be based on a law that applies to the state or entity shall be appended to any order that the judge makes under section 20.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 19
  • 1999, c. 18, s. 109
  • 2000, c. 24, s. 64

Marginal note:Sending abroad

  •  (1) A judge to whom a report is made under subsection 19(1) may order that there be sent to the state or entity the report and any record or thing produced, as well as a copy of the order accompanied by a copy of any statement given under subsection 18(9) that contains reasons that purport to be based on a law that applies to the state or entity, as well as any determination of the judge made under subsection 19(3) that the reasons contained in a statement given under subsection 18(9) are well-founded.

  • Marginal note:Terms and conditions

    (2) An order made under subsection (1) may include any terms or conditions that the judge considers desirable, after having considered any representations of the Minister, the competent authority, the person who produced any record or thing to the person designated under paragraph 18(2)(c) and any person who claims to have an interest in any record or thing so produced, including terms and conditions

    • (a) necessary to give effect to the request mentioned in subsection 17(1);

    • (b) with respect to the preservation and return to Canada of any record or thing so produced; and

    • (c) with respect to the protection of the interests of third parties.

  • Marginal note:Further execution

    (3) The execution of an order made under subsection 18(1) that was not completely executed because of a refusal, by reason of a law that applies to the state or entity, to answer one or more questions or to produce certain records or things to the person designated under paragraph 18(2)(c) may be continued, unless a ruling has already been made on the objection under paragraph 18(8)(a), if a court of the state or entity or a person designated by the state or entity determines that the reasons are not well-founded and the state or entity so advises the Minister.

  • Marginal note:Leave of judge required

    (4) No person named in an order made under subsection 18(1) whose reasons for refusing to answer a question or to produce a record or thing are determined, in accordance with subsection (3), not to be well-founded, or whose objection has been ruled against under paragraph 18(8)(a), shall, during the continued execution of the order or ruling, refuse to answer that question or to produce that record or thing to the person designated under paragraph 18(2)(c), except with the permission of the judge who made the order or ruling or another judge of the same court.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 20
  • 1999, c. 18, s. 110
  • 2000, c. 24, s. 65

Marginal note:Terms and conditions

 No record or thing that has been ordered under section 20 to be sent to the state or entity mentioned in subsection 17(1) shall be so sent until the Minister is satisfied that the state or entity has agreed to comply with any terms or conditions imposed in respect of the sending abroad of the record or thing.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 21
  • 1999, c. 18, s. 111

Marginal note:Contempt of court

  •  (1) A person named in an order made under subsection 18(1) commits a contempt of court if the person refuses to answer a question or to produce a record or thing to the person designated under paragraph 18(2)(c) after a judge has ruled against the objection under paragraph 18(8)(a).

  • Marginal note:Contempt of court

    (2) If no ruling has been made under paragraph 18(8)(a), a person named in an order made under subsection 18(1) commits a contempt of court if the person refuses to answer a question or to produce a record or thing to the person designated under paragraph 18(2)(c)

    • (a) without giving the detailed statement required by subsection 18(9); or

    • (b) if the person so named was already asked the same question or requested to produce the same record or thing and the reasons on which that person based the earlier refusal were determined not to be well-founded by

      • (i) a judge, if the reasons were based on the Canadian law of non-disclosure of information or privilege, or

      • (ii) a court of the state or entity or by a person designated by the state or entity, if the reasons were based on a law that applies to the state or entity.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 22
  • 1999, c. 18, s. 112
  • 2000, c. 24, s. 66

Marginal note:Application of Criminal Code

 The Criminal Code applies, with any necessary modifications, in respect of an order made under subsection 22.03(1) in the manner provided for under any of sections 487.015 to 487.018 and 487.0191 of the Criminal Code, except to the extent that that Act is inconsistent with this Act.

  • 2014, c. 31, s. 41

Marginal note:Approval of request to obtain production

  •  (1) If the Minister approves a request of a state or entity to obtain an order under this Act made in the manner provided for under any of sections 487.015 to 487.018 of the Criminal Code to require the production of a record containing data, the Minister must provide a competent authority with any documents or information necessary to apply for the order.

  • Marginal note:Application for orders

    (2) The competent authority must apply ex parte for an order made in the manner provided for under any of sections 487.015 to 487.018 and 487.0191 of the Criminal Code to a justice as defined in section 2 of the Criminal Code, a judge of a superior court of criminal jurisdiction as defined in that section or a judge of the Court of Quebec.

  • 2014, c. 31, s. 41
 
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