PART VCapital Structure (continued)
Security Certificates and Transfers (continued)
Marginal note:Right to reclaim possession
Marginal note:Recovery where unauthorized endorsement
(2) If the transfer of a security is wrongful by reason of an unauthorized endorsement, the owner may reclaim possession of the security or a new security even from a bona fide purchaser if the ineffectiveness of the purported endorsement is asserted against the purchaser under section 120.
(3) The right to reclaim possession of a security may be specially enforced, its transfer may be restrained and the security may be impounded pending litigation.
Marginal note:Right to requisites for registration
126 (1) Unless otherwise agreed, a transferor shall, on demand, supply a purchaser with proof of the transferor’s authority to transfer a security or with any other requisite that is necessary to obtain registration of the transfer of a security, but if the transfer is not for value, it is not necessary for a transferor to prove authority to transfer unless the purchaser pays the reasonable and necessary costs of the proof and transfer.
Marginal note:Rescission of transfer
(2) If a transferor fails to comply with a demand under subsection (1) within a reasonable time, the purchaser may reject or rescind the transfer.
Marginal note:Seizure of security
127 No seizure of a security or other interest evidenced thereby is effective until the person making the seizure obtains possession of the security.
Marginal note:No conversion if good faith delivery
128 An agent or bailee who in good faith, including observance of reasonable commercial standards if the agent or bailee is in the business of buying, selling or otherwise dealing with securities of a company, has received securities and sold, pledged or delivered them according to the instructions of the agent’s or bailee’s principal is not liable for conversion or for participation in breach of fiduciary duty even though the principal has no right to dispose of the securities.
Marginal note:Duty to register transfer
(a) the security is endorsed by an appropriate person;
(b) reasonable assurance is given that the endorsement is genuine and effective;
(c) the issuer has no duty to inquire into adverse claims or has discharged any such duty;
(d) all applicable laws relating to the collection of taxes have been complied with;
(e) the transfer is rightful or is to a bona fide purchaser; and
(f) the fee, if any, referred to in subsection 88(2) has been paid.
Marginal note:Liability for delay
(2) Where an issuer has a duty to register a transfer of a security, the issuer is liable to the person presenting it for registration for any loss resulting from any unreasonable delay in registration or from the failure or refusal to register the transfer.
Marginal note:Assurance of endorsements
130 (1) An issuer may require an assurance that each necessary endorsement on a security is genuine and effective by requiring a guarantee of the signature of the person endorsing the security and by requiring
(a) if the endorsement is by an agent, reasonable assurance of authority to sign;
(b) if the endorsement is by a fiduciary, evidence of appointment or incumbency;
(c) if there is more than one fiduciary, reasonable assurance that all who are required to sign have done so; and
(d) in any other case, assurance that corresponds as closely as practicable to the foregoing.
Definition of guarantee of the signature
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), guarantee of the signature means a guarantee signed by or on behalf of a person whom the issuer believes, on reasonable grounds, to be a responsible person.
(3) An issuer may adopt reasonable standards to determine responsible persons for the purposes of subsection (2).
Definition of evidence of appointment or incumbency
(4) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b), evidence of appointment or incumbency means
(a) in the case of a fiduciary appointed by a court and referred to in subsection 99(1), a copy of the certified court order referred to in subsection 99(1) and dated not earlier than sixty days before the day a security is presented for transfer; or
(b) in the case of any other fiduciary, a copy of a document showing the appointment or other evidence believed by the issuer to be appropriate.
(5) An issuer may adopt reasonable standards with respect to evidence referred to in paragraph (4)(b).
Marginal note:No notice to issuer
(6) An issuer is deemed not to have notice of the contents of any document referred to in subsection (4) that is obtained by the issuer except to the extent that the contents relate directly to appointment or incumbency.
Marginal note:Notice from additional documentation
131 If an issuer, in relation to a transfer, demands assurance other than an assurance specified in subsection 130(1) and obtains a copy of a will, trust or partnership agreement or a by-law or similar document, the issuer is deemed to have notice of all matters contained therein affecting the transfer.
Marginal note:Limited duty of inquiry
(a) the issuer receives written notice of an adverse claim at a time and in a manner that provides the issuer with a reasonable opportunity to act on it before the issue of a new, reissued or re-registered security and the notice discloses the name and address of the claimant, the registered owner and the issue of which the security is a part; or
(b) the issuer is deemed to have notice of an adverse claim from a document that it obtained under section 131.
Marginal note:Discharge of duty
(2) An issuer may discharge a duty of inquiry by any reasonable means, including notifying an adverse claimant by registered mail sent to the address provided by the adverse claimant or, if no such address has been provided, to the adverse claimant’s residence or regular place of business, that a security has been presented for registration of transfer by a named person and that the transfer will be registered unless, within thirty days after the date of mailing of the notice, either
(a) the issuer is served with a restraining order or other order of a court, or
(b) the issuer is provided with an indemnity bond sufficient in the issuer’s judgment to protect the issuer and any registrar, transfer agent or other agent of the issuer from any loss that may be incurred by any of them as a result of complying with the adverse claim.
Marginal note:Inquiry into adverse claims
133 Unless an issuer is deemed to have notice of an adverse claim from a document that it obtained under section 131 or has received notice of an adverse claim under subsection 132(1), if a security presented for registration is endorsed by the appropriate person, the issuer has no duty to inquire into adverse claims and, in particular,
(a) an issuer registering a security in the name of a person who is a fiduciary or who is described as a fiduciary is not bound to inquire into the existence, extent or correct description of the fiduciary relationship and thereafter the issuer may assume without inquiry that the newly registered owner continues to be the fiduciary until the issuer receives written notice that the fiduciary is no longer acting as such with respect to the particular security;
(b) an issuer registering a transfer on an endorsement by a fiduciary has no duty to inquire into whether the transfer is made in compliance with the document or with the law of the jurisdiction governing the fiduciary relationship; and
(c) an issuer is deemed not to have notice of the contents of any court record or any registered document even if the record or document is in the issuer’s possession and even if the transfer is made on the endorsement of a fiduciary to the fiduciary specifically or to the fiduciary’s nominee.
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