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Canada Wildlife Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. W-9)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2022-11-16 and last amended on 2017-12-12. Previous Versions

General (continued)

Marginal note:Regulations

 The Minister may make regulations

  • (a) prescribing the form of reporting to wildlife officers under subparagraph 11.7(2)(f)(ii) and specifying the information required to be contained in or to accompany the report; and

  • (b) of either particular or general application, respecting representations made to wildlife officers under subsection 11.9(1) or 11.95(2).

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 46

Marginal note:Review

 Sections 257 to 271 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 apply, with any modifications that the circumstances require, to a review requested of any order.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 46

Marginal note:Regulations

 The Governor in Council may make regulations

  • (a) respecting the prohibition against entry, generally or for any specified period or purpose, by persons on lands under the administration of the Minister, or on public lands referred to in an order made under subsection 4(3), or on any part of those lands;

  • (b) specifying the measures to be taken, in cooperation with the government of any province having an interest therein, for the protection of any species of wildlife in danger of extinction;

  • (c) for the implementation of the provisions of any agreement under this Act;

  • (d) for the preservation, control and management of lands purchased, acquired or leased pursuant to section 9;

  • (e) specifying the use for any purpose of any lands purchased or acquired pursuant to section 9 if that use is compatible with wildlife research, conservation and interpretation;

  • (f) respecting the closing of lands purchased or acquired pursuant to section 9 to persons who endanger the wildlife thereon;

  • (g) respecting the issuance, renewal, revocation and suspension of permits, leases, stamps and other authorizing instruments required to carry on any activity under this Act or the regulations;

  • (h) for charging fees for the permits, leases, stamps or other authorizing instruments and for determining the amount of the fees and the terms and conditions under which they are to be paid;

  • (i) prescribing measures for the conservation of wildlife

    • (i) on public lands the administration of which has been assigned to the Minister pursuant to any federal law,

    • (ii) on public lands referred to in an order made under subsection 4(3), or

    • (iii) in any protected marine areas established pursuant to subsection 4.1(1);

  • (j)  respecting the establishment of facilities or the construction, maintenance and operation of works for wildlife research, conservation and interpretation

    • (i) on public lands the administration of which has been assigned to the Minister pursuant to any federal law,

    • (ii) on public lands referred to in an order made under subsection 4(3), or

    • (iii) in any protected marine areas established pursuant to subsection 4.1(1); and

  • (k) designating provisions of the regulations for the purposes of paragraph 13(1)(b).

  • R.S., 1985, c. W-9, s. 12
  • 1991, c. 50, s. 48
  • 1994, c. 23, s. 14
  • 2002, c. 29, s. 136
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 47

Offences and Punishment

Marginal note:Offence

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who contravenes

    • (a) subsection 11(6) or 11.91(1);

    • (b) any provision of the regulations designated by regulations made under paragraph 12(k); or

    • (c) an order made by a court under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years, or to both; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subsection (4), who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue corporations

    (4) Every corporation that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 13.02 to be a small revenue corporation is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Relief from minimum fine

    (5) The court may impose a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in this section if it is satisfied, on the basis of evidence submitted to the court, that the minimum fine would cause undue financial hardship. The court shall provide reasons if it imposes a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in this section.

  • R.S., 1985, c. W-9, s. 13
  • 1994, c. 23, s. 15
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Offence

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who contravenes

    • (a) any provision of the Act or the regulations, other than a provision the contravention of which is an offence under subsection 13(1); or

    • (b) an order made under this Act, other than an order the contravention of which is an offence under subsection 13(1).

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $200,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $25,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue corporations

    (4) Every corporation that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 13.02 to be a small revenue corporation is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Determination of small revenue corporation status

 For the purpose of sections 13 and 13.01, a court may determine a corporation to be a small revenue corporation if the court is satisfied that the corporation’s gross revenues for the 12 months immediately before the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — or, if it arose on more than one day, for the 12 months immediately before the first day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — were not more than $5,000,000.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Deeming — second and subsequent offence

  •  (1) For the purposes of subsections 13(2) to (4) and 13.01(2) to (4), a conviction for a particular offence under this Act is deemed to be a conviction for a second or subsequent offence if the court is satisfied that the offender has been previously convicted — under any Act of Parliament, or any Act of the legislature of a province, that relates to environmental or wildlife conservation or protection — of a substantially similar offence.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2) Subsection (1) applies only to previous convictions on indictment and to previous convictions on summary conviction, and to previous convictions under any similar procedure under any Act of the legislature of a province.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Additional fine

 If a person is convicted of an offence under this Act and the court is satisfied that, as a result of the commission of the offence, the person acquired any property, benefit or advantage, the court shall order the person to pay an additional fine in an amount equal to the court’s estimation of the value of that property, benefit or advantage. The additional fine may exceed the maximum amount of any fine that may otherwise be imposed under this Act.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Notice to shareholders

 If a corporation that has shareholders is convicted of an offence under this Act, the court shall make an order directing the corporation to notify its shareholders, in the manner and within the time directed by the court, of the facts relating to the commission of the offence and of the details of the punishment imposed.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Liability of directors and officers, etc., of corporation

 If a corporation commits an offence under this Act, any director, officer, agent or mandatary of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence and is liable on conviction to the penalty provided for by this Act for an individual in respect of the offence committed by the corporation, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Directors’ duties

 Every director and officer of a corporation shall take all reasonable care to ensure that the corporation complies with the provisions of this Act and the regulations and obligations and prohibitions arising from this Act or the regulations.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Fundamental purpose of sentencing

 The fundamental purpose of sentencing for offences under this Act is to contribute, in light of the significant and many threats to wildlife and the importance of wildlife to the well-being of Canadians, to respect for the law protecting wildlife through the imposition of just sanctions that have as their objectives

  • (a) to deter the offender and any other person from committing offences under this Act;

  • (b) to denounce unlawful conduct that damages or creates a risk of damage to wildlife; and

  • (c) to recover wildlife and restore wildlife habitat.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48

Marginal note:Sentencing principles

  •  (1) In addition to the principles and factors that the court is otherwise required to consider, including those set out in sections 718.1 to 718.21 of the Criminal Code, the court shall consider the following principles when sentencing a person who is convicted of an offence under this Act:

    • (a) the amount of the fine should be increased to account for every aggravating factor associated with the offence, including the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2); and

    • (b) the amount of the fine should reflect the gravity of each aggravating factor associated with the offence.

  • Marginal note:Aggravating factors

    (2) The aggravating factors are the following:

    • (a) the offence caused damage or risk of damage to wildlife or wildlife habitat;

    • (b) the offence caused damage or risk of damage to any unique, rare, particularly important or vulnerable wildlife or wildlife habitat;

    • (c) the damage caused by the offence is extensive, persistent or irreparable;

    • (d) the offender committed the offence intentionally or recklessly;

    • (e) the offender failed to take reasonable steps to prevent the commission of the offence despite having the financial means to do so;

    • (f) by committing the offence or failing to take action to prevent its commission, the offender increased revenue or decreased costs or intended to increase revenue or decrease costs;

    • (g) the offender committed the offence despite having been warned by a wildlife officer of the circumstances that subsequently became the subject of the offence;

    • (h) the offender has a history of non-compliance with federal or provincial legislation that relates to environmental or wildlife conservation or protection; and

    • (i) after the commission of the offence, the offender

      • (i) attempted to conceal its commission,

      • (ii) failed to take prompt action to prevent, mitigate or remediate its effects, or

      • (iii) failed to take prompt action to reduce the risk of committing similar offences in the future.

  • Marginal note:Absence of aggravating factor

    (3) The absence of an aggravating factor set out in subsection (2) is not a mitigating factor.

  • Marginal note:Meaning of damage

    (4) For the purposes of paragraphs (2)(a) to (c), damage includes loss of use value and non-use value.

  • Marginal note:Reasons

    (5) If the court is satisfied of the existence of one or more of the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2) but decides not to increase the amount of the fine because of that factor, the court shall give reasons for that decision.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 48
 
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