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Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act (S.C. 2002, c. 18)

Act current to 2022-01-12 and last amended on 2019-08-28. Previous Versions

Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act

S.C. 2002, c. 18

Assented to 2002-06-13

An Act respecting the national marine conservation areas of Canada

Preamble

Whereas the protection of natural, self-regulating marine ecosystems is important for the maintenance of biological diversity;

Whereas the Government of Canada is committed to adopting the precautionary principle in the conservation and management of the marine environment so that, where there are threats of environmental damage, lack of scientific certainty is not used as a reason for postponing preventive measures;

And whereas Parliament wishes to affirm the need to

establish a system of marine conservation areas that are representative of the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific Oceans and the Great Lakes and are of sufficient extent and such configuration as to maintain healthy marine ecosystems,

ensure that Canada contributes to international efforts for the establishment of a worldwide network of representative marine protected areas,

consider implications for ecosystems in the planning and management of marine conservation areas so established,

provide opportunities for the people of Canada and of the world to appreciate and enjoy Canada’s natural and cultural marine heritage,

recognize that the marine environment is fundamental to the social, cultural and economic well-being of people living in coastal communities,

provide opportunities, through the zoning of marine conservation areas, for the ecologically sustainable use of marine resources for the lasting benefit of coastal communities,

promote an understanding of the marine environment and provide opportunities for research and monitoring,

consider traditional ecological knowledge in the planning and management of marine conservation areas, and

involve federal and provincial ministers and agencies, affected coastal communities, aboriginal organizations, aboriginal governments, bodies established under land claims agreements and other appropriate persons and bodies in the effort to establish and maintain the representative system of marine conservation areas;

NOW, THEREFORE, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:

Short Title

Marginal note:Short title

 This Act may be cited as the Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act.

Interpretation

Marginal note:Definitions

  •  (1) The definitions in this subsection apply in this Act.

    disposal

    disposal has the same meaning as in section 122 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, read without reference to the sea. (immersion)

    ecosystem

    ecosystem means a dynamic complex of animal, plant and microorganism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. (écosystème)

    enforcement officer

    enforcement officer means a person designated under section 19 or belonging to a class of persons so designated. (agent de l’autorité)

    fishing

    fishing has the meaning given to that expression in the Fisheries Act. (pêche)

    marine conservation area

    marine conservation area means a national marine conservation area of Canada named and described in Schedule 1. (aire marine de conservation)

    marine conservation area warden

    marine conservation area warden means a person designated under section 18. (garde d’aire marine de conservation)

    Minister

    Minister means the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency. (ministre)

    public lands

    public lands means lands, including submerged lands, that belong to Her Majesty in right of Canada or that the Government of Canada has the power to dispose of, whether or not subject to the terms of any agreement between the Government of Canada and the government of a province. (terres domaniales)

    reserve

    reserve means a national marine conservation area reserve of Canada named and described in Schedule 2. (réserve)

    superintendent

    superintendent means a person appointed under the Parks Canada Agency Act who holds the office of superintendent of a marine conservation area, and includes any other person appointed under that Act who is authorized by that person to act on that person’s behalf. (directeur)

    waste or other matter

    waste or other matter means waste or other matter listed in Schedule 5 to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. (déchets ou autres matières)

  • Marginal note:Aboriginal rights

    (2) For greater certainty, nothing in this Act shall be construed so as to abrogate or derogate from the protection provided for existing aboriginal or treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada by the recognition and affirmation of those rights in section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

  • Marginal note:Exclusive economic zone

    (3) The establishment of a marine conservation area within the exclusive economic zone of Canada does not constitute a claim to any rights, jurisdiction or duties beyond those set out in section 14 of the Oceans Act.

  • Marginal note:Application of Act to reserves

    (4) This Act applies to a reserve as if it were a marine conservation area.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 2
  • 2005, c. 2, s. 6

Her Majesty

Marginal note:Binding on Her Majesty

 This Act is binding on Her Majesty in right of Canada or of a province.

Marine Conservation Areas

Marginal note:Purpose

  •  (1) Marine conservation areas are established in accordance with this Act for the purpose of protecting and conserving representative marine areas for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people of Canada and the world.

  • Marginal note:Purpose of reserves

    (2) Reserves are established in accordance with this Act for the purpose referred to in subsection (1) where an area or a portion of an area proposed for a marine conservation area is subject to a claim in respect of aboriginal rights that has been accepted for negotiation by the Government of Canada.

  • Marginal note:Management and use

    (3) Marine conservation areas shall be managed and used in a sustainable manner that meets the needs of present and future generations without compromising the structure and function of the ecosystems, including the submerged lands and water column, with which they are associated.

  • Marginal note:Zones

    (4) Each marine conservation area shall be divided into zones, which must include at least one zone that fosters and encourages ecologically sustainable use of marine resources and at least one zone that fully protects special features or sensitive elements of ecosystems, and may include other types of zones.

Marginal note:Establishment or enlargement

  •  (1) Subject to section 7, for the purpose of establishing or enlarging a marine conservation area, consisting of submerged lands and waters within the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of Canada and any coastal lands or islands within Canada, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 1 by adding the name and a description of the area or by altering the description of the area.

  • Marginal note:Title to lands

    (2) An amendment to Schedule 1 under this section or subsection 6(2) may be made only if

    • (a) the Governor in Council is satisfied that Her Majesty in right of Canada has clear title to or an unencumbered right of ownership in the lands to be included in the marine conservation area, other than such lands situated within the exclusive economic zone of Canada;

    • (b) in a case where Her Majesty in right of a province had the administration and control of any of the lands to be included in the marine conservation area, the government of the province agreed to the use of those lands as a marine conservation area and transferred their administration and control to Her Majesty in right of Canada for that purpose; and

    • (c) the requirements of any applicable land claim agreement respecting the establishment of the marine conservation area have been fulfilled.

  • Marginal note:Judicial finding as to title

    (3) If a court of competent jurisdiction finds that Her Majesty in right of Canada does not have clear title to or an unencumbered right of ownership in lands within a marine conservation area, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 1 by removing the name and description of the area or by altering the description of the area.

  • Marginal note:No reduction of area

    (4) Except as provided by subsection (3), no amendment may be made by the Governor in Council to Schedule 1 for the purpose of removing any portion of a marine conservation area.

Marginal note:Establishment or enlargement of reserves

  •  (1) Subject to section 7, for the purpose of establishing or enlarging a reserve, consisting of submerged lands and waters within the internal waters or territorial sea of Canada and any coastal lands or islands within Canada, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 2 by adding the name and a description of the reserve or by altering the description of the reserve.

  • Marginal note:Reserve becoming marine conservation area

    (2) Where a claim described in subsection 4(2) is settled, the Governor in Council may, by order,

    • (a) amend Schedule 2 by removing the name and description of the reserve or by altering the description of the reserve; and

    • (b) if the settlement provides that the reserve or part of it is to become a marine conservation area or part of one, amend Schedule 1 by adding the name and a description of the area or by altering the description of the area.

  • Marginal note:Judicial finding as to title

    (3) If a court of competent jurisdiction finds that Her Majesty in right of Canada does not have clear title to or an unencumbered right of ownership in lands within a reserve, the Governor in Council may, by order, amend Schedule 2 by removing the name and description of the reserve or by altering the description of the reserve.

  • Marginal note:No reduction of area

    (4) Except as provided by subsections (2) and (3), no amendment may be made by the Governor in Council to Schedule 2 for the purpose of removing any portion of a reserve.

Marginal note:Amendment to be tabled in Parliament

  •  (1) Before an amendment is made to Schedule 1 or 2 for a purpose referred to in subsection 5(1) or 6(1), respectively, the proposed amendment shall be laid before each House of Parliament together with a report on the proposed marine conservation area or reserve, which report shall include

    • (a) information on consultations undertaken, including a list of the names of organizations and persons consulted, the dates of the consultation and a summary of their comments,

    • (b) any agreements reached respecting the establishment of the area or reserve,

    • (c) the results of any assessments of mineral and energy resources undertaken, and

    • (d) an interim management plan that sets out management objectives and a zoning plan,

    and an amendment so laid stands referred to the standing committee of each House that normally considers matters relating to marine conservation areas or to such other committee as that House may designate for the purposes of this section.

  • Marginal note:Disapproval by committee

    (2) The committee of each House may, within 30 sitting days after the amendment is tabled, report to the House that it disapproves the amendment, in which case a motion to concur in the report shall be put to the House in accordance with its procedures.

  • Marginal note:Amendment allowed

    (3) A proposed amendment to Schedule 1 or 2 may be made if 31 sitting days have elapsed after the tabling of the amendment in both Houses and no motion referred to in subsection (2) has been proposed in either House.

  • Marginal note:Amendment not allowed

    (4) A proposed amendment to Schedule 1 or 2 may not be made if either House passes a motion referred to in subsection (2).

Marine Conservation Areas in Ontario

Marginal note:Definitions

  •  (1) The following definitions apply in this section.

    Ontario Water Resources Act

    Ontario Water Resources Act means the Ontario Water Resources Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. O.40, as amended from time to time. (Loi sur les ressources en eau de l’Ontario)

    water taking

    water taking means the taking of water within the meaning of the Ontario Water Resources Act or any regulations made under it, as those regulations are amended from time to time, however the reference to the taking of water is expressed grammatically in that Act or those regulations. (prélèvement d’eau)

    water transfer

    water transfer means the transfer of water within the meaning of the Ontario Water Resources Act or any regulations made under it, as those regulations are amended from time to time, however the reference to the transfer of water is expressed grammatically in that Act or those regulations. (transfert d’eau)

  • Marginal note:Marine conservation areas in Ontario

    (2) The provisions concerning water taking and water transfer of the laws of Ontario, as those provisions are amended from time to time, apply within a marine conservation area in Ontario.

  • Marginal note:Laws of Ontario

    (3) For greater certainty, the laws of Ontario whose provisions concerning water taking and water transfer apply within a marine conservation area in Ontario include the Ontario Water Resources Act, the Environmental Bill of Rights, 1993, S.O. 1993, c. 28, as amended from time to time, and any regulations made under either of them, as those regulations are amended from time to time.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (4) The provisions of the laws of Ontario that relate to the following matters, as those provisions are amended from time to time, apply within a marine conservation area in Ontario with regard to water taking and water transfer:

    • (a) the administration and enforcement of the laws referred to in subsections (2) and (3);

    • (b) orders by provincial officers, as defined in the Ontario Water Resources Act, and the review of those orders;

    • (c) orders by Directors, as defined in the Ontario Water Resources Act; and

    • (d) hearings held by the Environmental Review Tribunal, within the meaning assigned by the definition Tribunal” in the Ontario Water Resources Act, and appeals from its decisions.

  • Marginal note:Sections 18 and 19

    (5) Despite sections 18 and 19, the duties of marine conservation area wardens and enforcement officers do not include the administration or enforcement of the provisions of the laws of Ontario referred to in subsections (2) to (4).

  • Marginal note:Administration and enforcement

    (6) Persons who are authorized under the laws of Ontario to administer and enforce the provisions of the laws of Ontario referred to in subsections (2) to (4) outside a marine conservation area in Ontario are authorized to administer and enforce those provisions within a marine conservation area in Ontario.

  • Marginal note:Ontario Provincial Offences Act

    (7) The Provincial Offences Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. P.33, as amended from time to time, applies to contraventions of the provisions of the laws of Ontario referred to in subsections (2) to (4).

  • Marginal note:Statutory Instruments Act

    (8) The Statutory Instruments Act does not apply to any instrument that is made or issued under any of the provisions of the laws of Ontario referred to in subsections (2) to (4).

  • Marginal note:Permits and authorizations

    (9) The superintendent of a marine conservation area in Ontario shall not issue a permit or other authorizing instrument relating to water taking or water transfer within the marine conservation area, or amend a permit or other authorizing instrument so as to allow water taking or water transfer within the area.

  • Marginal note:Section 12

    (10) Section 12 does not apply in respect of any activity that is carried out in conformity with a permit or other authorizing instrument relating to water taking or water transfer within a marine conservation area in Ontario that is made or issued under any of the laws of Ontario referred to in subsections (2) to (4).

  • 2015, c. 38, s. 2

Administration

Marginal note:Management by Minister

  •  (1) The Minister is responsible for the administration, management and control of marine conservation areas in relation to matters not assigned by law to any other Minister of the Crown.

  • Marginal note:Administration of lands

    (2) The Minister has the administration of public lands in marine conservation areas.

  • Marginal note:Facilities and research

    (3) The Minister may maintain and operate facilities and carry out operations and activities to achieve the purposes of this Act, and may conduct scientific research and monitoring and carry out studies based on traditional ecological knowledge, including traditional aboriginal ecological knowledge, in relation to marine conservation areas.

  • Marginal note:Agreements

    (4) The Minister may enter into agreements with other federal and provincial ministers and agencies, local and aboriginal governments, bodies established under land claims agreements and other persons and organizations for carrying out the purposes of this Act.

 
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