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Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act (S.C. 2002, c. 18)

Act current to 2022-09-22 and last amended on 2019-08-28. Previous Versions

Enforcement (continued)

Marginal note:Search and seizure

  •  (1) A marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer may

    • (a) enter and search any place and open and examine any package or receptacle in accordance with a warrant issued under subsection (2) at any time during the day or, if so specified in the warrant, during the night; and

    • (b) seize any thing that the warden or officer believes on reasonable grounds is a thing described in subsection (2).

  • Marginal note:Authority to issue warrant

    (2) If a justice of the peace, on ex parte application, is satisfied by information on oath that there are reasonable grounds to believe that there is in any place, including any building, boat or other conveyance, or in any package or receptacle,

    • (a) any thing in relation to which there are reasonable grounds to believe an offence under this Act or the regulations has been committed, or

    • (b) any thing that there are reasonable grounds to believe will afford evidence with respect to the commission of such an offence,

    the justice of the peace may issue a warrant authorizing a marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer named in the warrant to enter and search the place or to open and examine the package or receptacle, subject to any conditions specified in the warrant.

  • Marginal note:Where warrant not necessary

    (3) A marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer may exercise any powers under subsection (1) without a warrant if the conditions for obtaining a warrant exist but by reason of exigent circumstances it would not be practical to obtain one.

Marginal note:Custody of things seized

  •  (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3) and sections 25 and 26, where a marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer seizes a thing under this Act or under a warrant issued pursuant to the Criminal Code,

    • (a) sections 489.1 and 490 of the Criminal Code apply; and

    • (b) the warden or officer, or any person that the warden or officer may designate, shall retain custody of the thing subject to any order made under section 490 of the Criminal Code.

  • Marginal note:Forfeiture where ownership not ascertainable

    (2) If the lawful ownership of or entitlement to a seized thing cannot be ascertained within 30 days after its seizure, the thing, or any proceeds of its disposition, are forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada, if the thing was seized by a marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer employed in the public service of Canada, or to Her Majesty in right of a province, if the thing was seized by an enforcement officer employed by a provincial, municipal or local authority or an aboriginal government.

  • Marginal note:Perishable things

    (3) Where a seized thing is perishable, the marine conservation area warden or enforcement officer may dispose of it or destroy it, and any proceeds of its disposition shall be paid to the lawful owner or person lawfully entitled to possession of the thing, unless proceedings under this Act are commenced within 90 days after its seizure, or shall be retained by the warden or officer pending the outcome of those proceedings.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 23
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 22(F)

Marginal note:Liability for costs

 If a thing is seized under this Act, the person who owned the thing at the time that it was seized, the person who had charge or control of the thing immediately before it was seized and the person who possessed it immediately before it was seized are jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable for all the costs of seizure, detention, maintenance and forfeiture, including any destruction or disposal costs, incurred by Her Majesty in right of Canada in relation to the thing in excess of any proceeds of its disposition, if any.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 23

Offences and Punishment

Marginal note:Offence

  •  (1) Every person who contravenes any provision of this Act or any provision of the regulations designated by regulations made under paragraph 16(1)(n) is guilty of an offence and liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Contravention of other provisions of regulations or of conditions of permits, etc.

    (1.1) Every person who contravenes any provision of the regulations, other than a provision designated by regulations made under paragraph 16(1)(n), or any condition of a permit or other authorizing instrument issued under this Act is guilty of an offence and liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $200,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $25,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined under section 24.1 to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

  • Marginal note:Continuing offences

    (2) If a contravention of this Act or the regulations is committed or continued on more than one day, it constitutes a separate offence for each day on which it is committed or continued.

  • Marginal note:Offences involving more than one animal, plant or object

    (2.1) If an offence involves more than one animal, plant or object, the fine to be imposed in respect of that offence may, despite subsections (1) and (1.1), be the total of the fines that would have been imposed if each of the animals, plants or objects had been the subject of a separate information.

  • Marginal note:Deeming — second and subsequent offence

    (2.2) For the purposes of this section, a conviction for a particular offence under this Act is deemed to be a conviction for a second or subsequent offence if the court is satisfied that the offender has been previously convicted — under any Act of Parliament, or any Act of the legislature of a province, that relates to environmental or wildlife protection or conservation, or the protection of cultural, historical or archaeological resources — of a substantially similar offence.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2.3) Subsection (2.2) applies only to previous convictions on indictment and to previous convictions on summary conviction, and to previous convictions under any similar procedure under any Act of the legislature of a province.

  • Marginal note:Injunction

    (3) Whether or not proceedings have been commenced with respect to an offence under this Act, Her Majesty in right of Canada may undertake or continue proceedings to prevent conduct that constitutes such an offence.

  • 2002, c. 18, s. 24
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 24

Marginal note:Determination of small revenue corporation status

 For the purpose of section 24, a court may determine a corporation to be a small revenue corporation if the court is satisfied that the corporation’s gross revenues for the 12 months immediately before the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — or, if it arose on more than one day, for the 12 months immediately before the first day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — were not more than $5,000,000.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 25

Marginal note:Relief from minimum fine

 The court may impose a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in subsection 24(1) if it is satisfied, on the basis of evidence submitted to the court, that the minimum fine would cause undue financial hardship. The court shall provide reasons if it imposes a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in that subsection.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 25

Marginal note:Additional fine

 If a person is convicted of an offence under this Act and the court is satisfied that, as a result of the commission of the offence, the person acquired any property, benefit or advantage, the court shall order the person to pay an additional fine in an amount equal to the court’s estimation of the value of that property, benefit or advantage. The additional fine may exceed the maximum amount of any fine that may otherwise be imposed under this Act.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 25

Marginal note:Notice to shareholders

 If a corporation that has shareholders is convicted of an offence under this Act, the court shall make an order directing the corporation to notify its shareholders, in the manner and within the time directed by the court, of the facts relating to the commission of the offence and of the details of the punishment imposed.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 25

Marginal note:Liability of directors, officers, etc., of corporations

  •  (1) If a corporation commits an offence under this Act, any director, officer, agent or mandatary of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence and is liable on conviction to the penalty provided for by this Act for an individual in respect of the offence committed by the corporation, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted.

  • Marginal note:Duties of directors and officers of corporations

    (2) Every director and officer of a corporation shall take all reasonable care to ensure that the corporation complies with

    • (a) this Act and the regulations;

    • (b) orders made by a court, the Minister or the superintendent under this Act; and

    • (c) directions of the superintendent, a marine conservation area warden or an enforcement officer made under this Act.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 25

Marginal note:Fundamental purpose of sentencing

 The fundamental purpose of sentencing for offences under this Act is to contribute to respect for the law establishing and protecting marine conservation areas through the imposition of just sanctions that have as their objectives

  • (a) to deter the offender and any other person from committing offences under this Act;

  • (b) to denounce unlawful conduct that damages or creates a risk of damage to marine conservation areas; and

  • (c) to restore marine conservation area resources.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 25

Marginal note:Sentencing principles

  •  (1) In addition to the principles and factors that the court is otherwise required to consider, including those set out in sections 718.1 to 718.21 of the Criminal Code, the court shall consider the following principles when sentencing a person who is convicted of an offence under this Act:

    • (a) the amount of the fine should be increased to account for every aggravating factor associated with the offence, including the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2); and

    • (b) the amount of the fine should reflect the gravity of each aggravating factor associated with the offence.

  • Marginal note:Aggravating factors

    (2) The aggravating factors are the following:

    • (a) the offence caused damage or risk of damage to any marine conservation area resources;

    • (b) the offence caused damage or risk of damage to any unique, rare, particularly important or vulnerable marine conservation area resources;

    • (c) the damage caused by the offence is extensive, persistent or irreparable;

    • (d) the offender committed the offence intentionally or recklessly;

    • (e) the offender failed to take reasonable steps to prevent the commission of the offence despite having the financial means to do so;

    • (f) by committing the offence or failing to take action to prevent its commission, the offender increased revenue or decreased costs or intended to increase revenue or decrease costs;

    • (g) the offender committed the offence despite having been warned by the superintendent, a marine conservation area warden or an enforcement officer of the circumstances that subsequently became the subject of the offence;

    • (h) the offender has a history of non-compliance with federal or provincial legislation that relates to environmental or wildlife protection or conservation or the protection of cultural, historical or archaeological resources; and

    • (i) after the commission of the offence, the offender

      • (i) attempted to conceal its commission,

      • (ii) failed to take prompt action to prevent, mitigate or remediate its effects, or

      • (iii) failed to take prompt action to reduce the risk of committing similar offences in the future.

  • Marginal note:Absence of aggravating factor

    (3) The absence of an aggravating factor set out in subsection (2) is not a mitigating factor.

  • Marginal note:Meaning of damage

    (4) For the purposes of paragraphs (2)(a) to (c), damage includes loss of use value and non-use value.

  • Marginal note:Reasons

    (5) If the court is satisfied of the existence of one or more of the aggravating factors set out in subsection (2) but decides not to increase the amount of the fine because of that factor, the court shall give reasons for that decision.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 25
 
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