Trust and Loan Companies Act (S.C. 1991, c. 45)
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Act current to 2023-05-17 and last amended on 2022-06-23. Previous Versions
PART VICorporate Governance (continued)
Marginal note:Attendance at meeting
160.06 (1) A person who solicits a proxy and is appointed proxyholder shall attend in person or cause an alternate proxyholder to attend every meeting in respect of which the proxy is valid, and the proxyholder or alternate proxyholder shall comply with the directions of the shareholder who executed the form of proxy.
Marginal note:Rights of proxyholder
(2) A proxyholder or an alternate proxyholder has the same rights as the appointing shareholder to speak at a meeting of shareholders in respect of any matter, to vote by way of ballot at the meeting and, except where a proxyholder or an alternate proxyholder has conflicting instructions from more than one shareholder, to vote at the meeting in respect of any matter by way of a show of hands.
Marginal note:Vote by show of hands
(3) Despite subsections (1) and (2) and unless a shareholder or proxyholder demands a ballot, if the chairperson of a meeting of shareholders declares to the meeting that, if a ballot were conducted, the total number of votes attached to shares represented at the meeting by proxy required to be voted against what, to the knowledge of the chairperson, would be the decision of the meeting on a matter or group of matters is less than 5% of all the votes that might be cast by shareholders in person or by proxy,
(a) the chairperson may conduct the vote in respect of that matter or group of matters by way of a show of hands; and
(b) a proxyholder or alternate proxyholder may vote in respect of that matter or group of matters by way of a show of hands.
- 1997, c. 15, s. 348
- 2005, c. 54, s. 395
Marginal note:Duty of intermediary
160.07 (1) Shares of a company that are registered in the name of an intermediary or an intermediary’s nominee and not beneficially owned by the intermediary may not be voted unless the intermediary sends to the beneficial owner
(a) a copy of the notice of the meeting, annual statement, management proxy circular and dissident’s proxy circular and any other documents, other than the form of proxy, that were sent to shareholders by or on behalf of any person for use in connection with the meeting; and
(b) a written request for voting instructions except if the intermediary has already received written voting instructions from the beneficial owner.
Marginal note:When documents to be sent
(2) The intermediary shall send the documents referred to in subsection (1) without delay after they receive the documents referred to in paragraph (1)(a).
Marginal note:Restriction on voting
(3) An intermediary or a proxyholder appointed by them may not vote shares that the intermediary does not beneficially own and that are registered in the name of the intermediary or their nominee unless the intermediary or proxyholder, as the case may be, receives written voting instructions from the beneficial owner.
(4) A person by or on behalf of whom a solicitation is made shall on request and without delay provide the intermediary, at the person’s expense, with the necessary number of copies of the documents referred to in paragraph (1)(a).
Marginal note:Instructions to intermediary
(5) The intermediary shall vote or appoint a proxyholder to vote in accordance with any written voting instructions received from the beneficial owner.
Marginal note:Beneficial owner as proxyholder
(6) If a beneficial owner so requests and provides an intermediary with the appropriate documentation, the intermediary shall appoint the beneficial owner or a nominee of the beneficial owner as proxyholder.
Marginal note:Effect of intermediary’s failure to comply
(7) The failure of an intermediary to comply with any of subsections (1) to (6) does not render void any meeting of shareholders or any action taken at the meeting.
Marginal note:Intermediary may not vote
(8) Nothing in this Part gives an intermediary the right to vote shares that they are otherwise prohibited from voting.
- 1997, c. 15, s. 348
- 2005, c. 54, s. 396
160.071 The Governor in Council may make regulations
(a) respecting the powers that may be granted by a shareholder in a form of proxy;
(b) respecting proxy circulars and forms of proxy, including the form and content of those documents; and
(c) respecting the conditions under which a company is exempt from any of the requirements of sections 160.02 to 160.07.
- 2005, c. 54, s. 396
- 2022, c. 10, s. 222
Marginal note:Restraining order
160.08 (1) If a form of proxy, management proxy circular or dissident’s proxy circular contains an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact that is required to be contained in it or that is necessary to make a statement contained in it not misleading in light of the circumstances in which the statement is made, an interested person or the Superintendent may apply to a court and the court may make any order it thinks fit, including
(a) an order restraining the solicitation or the holding of the meeting, or restraining any person from implementing or acting on a resolution passed at the meeting, to which the form of proxy, management proxy circular or dissident’s proxy circular relates;
(b) an order requiring correction of any form of proxy or proxy circular and a further solicitation; and
(c) an order adjourning the meeting.
Marginal note:Notice of application
(2) Where a person other than the Superintendent is an applicant under subsection (1), the applicant shall give notice of the application to the Superintendent and the Superintendent is entitled to appear and to be heard in person or by counsel.
- 1997, c. 15, s. 348
Directors and Officers
Marginal note:Duty to manage
161 (1) Subject to this Act, the directors of a company shall manage or supervise the management of the business and affairs of the company.
Marginal note:Specific duties
(2) Without limiting the generality of subsection (1), the directors of a company shall
(a) establish an audit committee to perform the duties referred to in subsections 198(3) and (4);
(b) establish a conduct review committee to perform the duties referred to in subsection 199(3);
(c) establish procedures to resolve conflicts of interest, including techniques for the identification of potential conflict situations and for restricting the use of confidential information;
(d) designate a committee of the board of directors to monitor the procedures referred to in paragraph (c);
(e) establish procedures to provide disclosure of information to customers of the company that is required to be disclosed by this Act and for dealing with complaints as required by subsection 441(1);
(f) designate a committee of the board of directors to monitor the procedures referred to in paragraph (e) and satisfy itself that they are being adhered to by the company; and
(g) establish investment and lending policies, standards and procedures in accordance with section 450.
(3) Paragraphs (2)(a) and (b) do not apply to the directors of a company if
(a) all the voting shares of the company, other than directors’ qualifying shares, if any, are beneficially owned by a Canadian financial institution described by any of paragraphs (a) to (d) of the definition “financial institution” in section 2; and
(b) the audit committee or the conduct review committee of the Canadian financial institution performs for and on behalf of the company all the functions that would otherwise be required to be performed by the audit committee or conduct review committee of the company under this Act.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 161
- 1997, c. 15, s. 349
- 2001, c. 9, s. 497(F)
Marginal note:Duty of care
162 (1) Every director and officer of a company in exercising any of the powers of a director or an officer and discharging any of the duties of a director or an officer shall
(a) act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company; and
(b) exercise the care, diligence and skill that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in comparable circumstances.
Marginal note:Duty to comply
(2) Every director, officer and employee of a company shall comply with this Act, the regulations, the company’s incorporating instrument and the by-laws of the company.
Marginal note:No exculpation
(3) No provision in any contract, in any resolution or in the by-laws of a company relieves any director, officer or employee of the company from the duty to act in accordance with this Act and the regulations or relieves a director, officer or employee from liability for a breach thereof.
Qualification and Number — Directors
Marginal note:Minimum number of directors
163 (1) A company shall have at least seven directors.
Marginal note:Residency requirement
(2) At least one half of the directors of a company that is a subsidiary of a foreign institution or of a prescribed holding body corporate of a foreign institution and a majority of the directors of any other company must be, at the time of each director’s election or appointment, resident Canadians.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 163
- 2001, c. 9, s. 498
- 2007, c. 6, s. 346
Marginal note:Disqualified persons
164 The following persons are disqualified from being directors of a company:
(a) a person who is less than eighteen years of age;
(b) a person who is of unsound mind and has been so found by a court in Canada or elsewhere;
(c) a person who has the status of a bankrupt;
(d) a person who is not a natural person;
(e) a person who is prohibited by section 386 or 399 from exercising voting rights attached to shares of the company;
(f) a person who is an officer, director or full time employee of an entity that is prohibited by section 386 or 399 from exercising voting rights attached to shares of the company;
(f.1) a person who is an officer, director, employee or agent of — or any other person acting on behalf of — an eligible agent within the meaning of section 374.1;
(g) [Repealed, 2013, c. 40, s. 160]
(h) a minister of Her Majesty in right of Canada or in right of a province; and
(i) a person who is an agent or employee of the government of a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 164
- 1994, c. 47, s. 203
- 1997, c. 15, s. 350
- 2012, c. 19, s. 326, c. 31, s. 99
- 2013, c. 40, s. 160
Marginal note:No shareholder requirement
165 A director of a company is not required to hold shares of the company.
Marginal note:Affiliated person
166 The Governor in Council may make regulations specifying the circumstances under which a natural person is affiliated with a company for the purposes of this Act.
Marginal note:Affiliated director determination
166.1 (1) Notwithstanding section 166, the Superintendent may determine that a particular director is affiliated with a company for the purposes of this Act if, in the opinion of the Superintendent, the director has a significant or sufficient commercial, business or financial relationship with the company or with an affiliate of the company to the extent that the relationship can be construed as being material to the director and can reasonably be expected to affect the exercise of the director’s best judgment.
Marginal note:Notification by Superintendent
(2) A determination by the Superintendent under subsection (1)
(a) becomes effective on the day of the next annual meeting of the shareholders unless a notice in writing by the Superintendent revoking the determination is received by the company prior to that day; and
(b) ceases to be in effect on the day of the next annual meeting of the shareholders after a notice in writing by the Superintendent revoking the determination is received by the company.
- 1996, c. 6, s. 117
Marginal note:Unaffiliated directors
167 (1) At the election of directors at each annual meeting of a company and at all times until the day of the next annual meeting, no more than two thirds of the directors may be persons affiliated with the company.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply where all the voting shares of a company, other than directors’ qualifying shares, if any, are beneficially owned by a Canadian financial institution incorporated by or under an Act of Parliament.
Marginal note:Determination of affiliation
(3) For the purposes of subsection (1), whether or not a person is affiliated with a company shall be determined as at the day the notice of the annual meeting is sent to shareholders pursuant to section 141 and that determination becomes effective on the day of that meeting, and a person shall be deemed to continue to be affiliated or unaffiliated, as the case may be, until the next annual meeting of the shareholders.
Marginal note:Limit on directors
168 No more than 15 per cent of the directors of a company may, at each director’s election or appointment, be employees of the company or a subsidiary of the company, except that up to four persons who are employees of the company or a subsidiary of the company may be directors of the company if those directors constitute not more than one half of the directors of the company.
Election and Tenure — Directors
Marginal note:Number of directors
169 (1) Subject to subsection 163(1) and sections 172 and 222, the directors of a company shall, by by-law, determine the number of directors or the minimum and maximum number of directors, but no by-law that decreases the number of directors shortens the term of an incumbent director.
Marginal note:Election at annual meeting
(2) A by-law made pursuant to subsection (1) that provides for a minimum and maximum number of directors may provide that the number of directors to be elected at any annual meeting of the shareholders be such number as is fixed by the directors prior to the annual meeting.
Marginal note:Election or appointment as director
169.1 The election or appointment of a person as a director is subject to the following:
(a) the person was present at the meeting when the election or appointment took place and did not refuse to hold office as a director; or
(b) the person was not present at the meeting when the election or appointment took place but
(i) consented in writing to hold office as a director before the election or appointment or within 10 days after it, or
(ii) acted as a director after the election or appointment.
- 2005, c. 54, s. 397
- Date modified: