Trust and Loan Companies Act (S.C. 1991, c. 45)
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Act current to 2023-05-17 and last amended on 2022-06-23. Previous Versions
PART IInterpretation and Application (continued)
Marginal note:Application of Act
12 This Act applies to every body corporate
(a) that is incorporated or continued under this Act,
(b) to which the Trust Companies Act applied immediately before the coming into force of this section, or
(c) to which the Loan Companies Act applied immediately before the coming into force of this section,
and that is not discontinued under this Act.
Marginal note:Conflicting provisions
13 Where there is a conflict or inconsistency between a provision of this Act and a provision of the incorporating instrument of a former-Act company, the provision of this Act prevails.
PART IIStatus and Powers
Marginal note:Corporate powers
14 (1) A company has the capacity of a natural person and, subject to this Act, the rights, powers and privileges of a natural person.
Marginal note:Powers restricted
(2) A company shall not carry on any business or exercise any power that it is restricted by this Act from carrying on or exercising, or exercise any of its powers in a manner contrary to this Act.
Marginal note:Business in Canada
(3) A company may carry on business throughout Canada.
Marginal note:Powers outside Canada
(4) Subject to this Act, a company has the capacity to carry on its business, conduct its affairs and exercise its powers in any jurisdiction outside Canada to the extent and in the manner that the laws of that jurisdiction permit.
Marginal note:No invalidity
15 No act of a company, including any transfer of property to or by a company, is invalid by reason only that the act or transfer is contrary to the company’s incorporating instrument or this Act.
Marginal note:By-law not necessary
16 It is not necessary for a company to pass a by-law in order to confer any particular power on the company or its directors.
Marginal note:No personal liability
17 The shareholders of a company are not, as shareholders, liable for any liability, act or default of the company except as otherwise provided by this Act.
Marginal note:No constructive notice
18 No person is affected by or is deemed to have notice or knowledge of the contents of a document concerning a company by reason only that the document has been filed with the Superintendent or the Minister or is available for inspection at a branch of the company.
Marginal note:Authority of directors and officers
19 (1) No company and no guarantor of an obligation of a company may assert against a person dealing with the company or against a person who has acquired rights from the company that
(a) the company’s incorporating instrument or any by-laws of the company have not been complied with;
(b) the persons named as directors of the company in the most recent return sent to the Superintendent under section 499 are not the directors of the company;
(c) the place named in the incorporating instrument or by-laws of the company is not the place where the head office of the company is situated;
(d) a person held out by the company as a director, officer or representative of the company has not been duly appointed or has no authority to exercise the powers and perform the duties that are customary in the business of the company or usual for a director, officer or representative; or
(e) a document issued by any director, officer or representative of the company with actual or usual authority to issue the document is not valid or not genuine.
Marginal note:Exception — knowledge
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of a person who has or ought to have knowledge of a situation described in that subsection by virtue of their relationship to the company.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 19
- 2005, c. 54, s. 371
Marginal note:Sunset provision
20 (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (4), companies shall not carry on business after June 30, 2025.
(2) The Governor in Council may, by order, extend by up to six months the time during which companies may continue to carry on business. No more than one order may be made under this subsection.
Marginal note:Order not a regulation
(3) The order is not a regulation for the purposes of the Statutory Instruments Act. However, it shall be published in Part II of the Canada Gazette.
Marginal note:Exception — dissolution
(4) If Parliament dissolves on the day set out in subsection (1) or on any day within the six-month period before that day or on any day within an extension ordered under subsection (2), companies may continue to carry on business until the end of the 180th day after the first day of the first session of the next Parliament.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 20
- 1997, c. 15, s. 341
- 2001, c. 9, s. 484
- 2006, c. 4, s. 202
- 2007, c. 6, s. 338
- 2012, c. 5, s. 163
- 2016, c. 7, s. 117
- 2018, c. 12, s. 354
- 2021, c. 23, s. 153
PART IIIIncorporation, Continuance and Discontinuance
Formalities of Incorporation
Marginal note:Incorporation of company
21 On the application of one or more persons made in accordance with this Act, the Minister may, subject to this Part, issue letters patent incorporating a company.
Marginal note:Restrictions on incorporation
22 Letters patent incorporating a company may not be issued if the application therefor is made by or on behalf of
(a) Her Majesty in right of Canada or in right of a province, an agency of Her Majesty in either of those rights, or an entity controlled by Her Majesty in either of those rights;
(b) the government of a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof;
(c) an agency of the government of a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof; or
(d) an entity, other than a foreign institution or any subsidiary of a foreign institution, that is controlled by the government of a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof.
Marginal note:Subsidiary of foreign institution
23 If a proposed company would be a subsidiary of a foreign institution that is engaged in trust or loan business and the application for letters patent to incorporate the company is made by a non-WTO Member foreign institution, letters patent to incorporate the company may not be issued unless the Minister is satisfied that treatment as favourable for companies to which this Act applies exists or will be provided in the jurisdiction in which the foreign institution principally carries on business, either directly or through a subsidiary.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 23
- 1999, c. 28, s. 138
- 2001, c. 9, s. 485
Marginal note:Application for incorporation
24 (1) An application for letters patent to incorporate a company setting out the names of the first directors of the company shall be filed with the Superintendent, together with such other information, material and evidence as the Superintendent may require.
Marginal note:Publishing notice of intent
(2) Before filing an application referred to in subsection (1), the applicant or one of the applicants, as the case may be, shall, at least once a week for a period of four consecutive weeks, publish, in a form satisfactory to the Superintendent, a notice of intention to make the application in the Canada Gazette and in a newspaper in general circulation at or near the place where the head office of the company is to be situated.
Marginal note:Objections to incorporation
25 (1) Any person who objects to the proposed incorporation of a company may, within thirty days after the date of the last publication under subsection 24(2) in respect of the proposed company, submit the objection in writing to the Superintendent.
Marginal note:Minister to be informed
(2) On receipt of an objection under subsection (1), the Superintendent shall inform the Minister of the objection.
Marginal note:Inquiry into objection and report
(3) On receipt of an objection under subsection (1), and if the application for the issuance of the letters patent to which the objection relates has been received, the Superintendent shall, if satisfied that it is necessary and in the public interest to do so, hold or cause to be held a public inquiry into the objection as it relates to the application and, on completion of the inquiry, the Superintendent shall report the findings of the inquiry to the Minister.
Marginal note:Report to be made available
(4) Within thirty days after receiving a report under subsection (3), the Minister shall make the report available to the public.
Marginal note:Rules governing proceedings
(5) Subject to the approval of the Governor in Council, the Superintendent may make rules governing the proceedings at public inquiries held under this section.
Marginal note:Matters for consideration
26 Before issuing letters patent to incorporate a company, the Minister shall take into account all matters that the Minister considers relevant to the application, including
(a) the nature and sufficiency of the financial resources of the applicant or applicants as a source of continuing financial support for the company;
(b) the soundness and feasibility of the plans of the applicant or applicants for the future conduct and development of the business of the company;
(c) the business record and experience of the applicant or applicants;
(d) the character and integrity of the applicant or applicants or, if the applicant or any of the applicants is a body corporate, its reputation for being operated in a manner that is consistent with the standards of good character and integrity;
(e) whether the company will be operated responsibly by persons with the competence and experience suitable for involvement in the operation of a financial institution;
(f) the impact of any integration of the businesses and operations of the applicant or applicants with those of the company on the conduct of those businesses and operations; and
(g) the best interests of the financial system in Canada.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 26
- 2001, c. 9, s. 486
Marginal note:Contents of letters patent
27 (1) There shall be set out in the letters patent incorporating a company
(a) the name of the company;
(b) the province in which the head office of the company is to be situated; and
(c) the date that the company came, or is to come, into existence.
Marginal note:Provisions in letters patent
(2) The Minister may set out in the letters patent incorporating a company any provision not contrary to this Act that the Minister considers advisable in order to take into account the particular circumstances of the proposed company.
Marginal note:Terms and conditions
(3) The Minister may impose such terms and conditions in respect of the issuance of letters patent incorporating a company as the Minister considers necessary or appropriate.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 27
- 2005, c. 54, s. 372
Marginal note:Notice of issue of letters patent
28 The Superintendent shall cause to be published in the Canada Gazette a notice of the issuance of letters patent incorporating a company.
Marginal note:First directors
29 The first directors of a company are the directors named in the application for letters patent to incorporate the company.
Marginal note:Effect of letters patent
30 A company comes into existence on the date provided therefor in its letters patent.
Marginal note:Federal corporations
31 (1) A body corporate incorporated under the Canada Business Corporations Act or any other Act of Parliament, other than a federal credit union, may apply to the Minister for letters patent continuing the body corporate as a company under this Act.
Marginal note:Other corporations
(2) A body corporate incorporated otherwise than by or under an Act of Parliament may, if so authorized by the laws of the jurisdiction where it is incorporated, apply to the Minister for letters patent continuing the body corporate as a company under this Act.
- 1991, c. 45, s. 31
- 1994, c. 24, s. 34(F)
- 2010, c. 12, s. 2124
Marginal note:Application for continuance
32 (1) Where a body corporate applies for letters patent under subsection 31(1) or (2), sections 22 to 26 apply in respect of the application, with such modifications as the circumstances require.
Marginal note:Special resolution approval
(2) Where a body corporate applies for letters patent under subsection 31(1) or (2), the application must be duly authorized by a special resolution.
Marginal note:Copy of special resolution
(3) A copy of the special resolution referred to in subsection (2) shall be filed with the application.
Marginal note:Power to issue letters patent
33 (1) On the application of a body corporate under subsection 31(1) or (2), the Minister may, subject to this Part, issue letters patent continuing the body corporate as a company under this Act.
Marginal note:Issue of letters patent
(2) Where letters patent are issued to a body corporate under subsection (1), section 27 applies in respect of the issue of letters patent, with such modifications as the circumstances require.
Marginal note:Effect of letters patent
34 On the day set out in the letters patent continuing a body corporate as a company under subsection 33(1),
(a) the body corporate becomes a company as if it had been incorporated under this Act; and
(b) the letters patent are deemed to be the incorporating instrument of the continued company.
Marginal note:Copy of letters patent
35 (1) Where a body corporate is continued as a company under this Part, the Superintendent shall forthwith send a copy of the letters patent to the appropriate official or public body in the jurisdiction in which the body corporate was authorized to apply to be continued under this Act.
Marginal note:Notice of issuance of letters patent
(2) The Superintendent shall cause to be published in the Canada Gazette a notice of the issuance of letters patent continuing a body corporate as a company under this Act.
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