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Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act (S.C. 2018, c. 12, s. 186)

Act current to 2022-05-02 and last amended on 2022-01-01. Previous Versions

PART 2Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions (continued)

DIVISION 3Administration and Enforcement (continued)

Application for Investigation of Offences (continued)

Marginal note:Investigation by Minister

 The Minister must acknowledge receipt of the application within 20 days after the receipt and must investigate all matters that he or she considers necessary to determine the facts relating to the alleged offence.

Marginal note:Progress reports

 Starting on the day on which the Minister acknowledges receipt of the application, he or she must report to the applicant every 90 days on the progress of the investigation and the action, if any, that the Minister has taken or proposes to take, and the Minister must include in the report an estimate of the time required to complete the investigation or to implement the action. A report is not however required if the investigation is discontinued before the end of the 90 days.

Marginal note:Sending evidence to Attorney General of Canada

 At any stage of an investigation, the Minister may send any documents or other evidence to the Attorney General of Canada for consideration of whether an offence has been or is about to be committed under this Part and for any action that the Attorney General may wish to take.

Marginal note:Discontinuation of investigation

  •  (1) The Minister may discontinue an investigation if he or she is of the opinion that

    • (a) the alleged offence does not require further investigation; or

    • (b) the investigation does not substantiate the alleged offence.

  • Marginal note:Report

    (2) If an investigation is discontinued, the Minister must prepare a report in writing that describes the information obtained during the investigation and states the reasons for its discontinuation and he or she must send a copy of the report to the applicant and to any person whose conduct was investigated. A copy of the report that is sent to a person whose conduct was investigated must not disclose the name or address of the applicant or any other personal information about them.

Injunctions

Marginal note:Injunctions

  •  (1) If, on the application of the Minister, it appears to a court of competent jurisdiction that a person has done or is about to do or is likely to do any act or thing constituting or directed toward the commission of an offence under this Part, the court may issue an injunction ordering any person named in the application

    • (a) to refrain from doing any act or thing that it appears to the court may constitute or be directed toward the commission of an offence under this Part; or

    • (b) to do any act or thing that it appears to the court may prevent the commission of an offence under this Part.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (2) At least 48 hours before the injunction is issued, notice of the application must be served on persons named in the application, unless the urgency of the situation is such that the delay involved in serving the notice would not be in the public interest.

DIVISION 4Offences and Punishment

Offences

Marginal note:Offences

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who

    • (a) contravenes section 208 or subsection 217(1) or 225(4);

    • (b) knowingly contravenes section 209;

    • (c) contravenes any provision of a regulation that is designated by regulations made under section 246;

    • (d) contravenes an order of a court made under this Part;

    • (e) knowingly, with respect to any matter related to this Part, provides any person with any false or misleading information or samples;

    • (f) knowingly, with respect to any matter related to this Part, files a document that contains false or misleading information; or

    • (g) knowingly, destroys, alters, mutilates, conceals or otherwise disposes of any records that are kept and retained under this Part.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than three years, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than three years, or to both; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or an organization referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue organizations

    (4) Every organization that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 234 to be a small revenue organization is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

Marginal note:Offences

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who

    • (a) contravenes any provision of this Part, other than a provision the contravention of which is an offence under paragraph 232(1)(a);

    • (b) contravenes any provision of a regulation made under this Part, other than a provision the contravention of which is an offence under paragraph 232(1)(c);

    • (c) with respect to any matter related to this Part, provides any person with any false or misleading information or samples; or

    • (d) with respect to any matter related to this Part, files a document that contains false or misleading information.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $200,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $25,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a organization referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue organizations

    (4) Every organization that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 234 to be a small revenue organization is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

  • Marginal note:Order — provision of compensation

    (5) If a person is found guilty of contravening subsection 174(1) or paragraph 178(1)(a), the court must, in addition to any penalty that may be imposed under this section, order the offender to provide compensation, at the rates set out in subsection 174(4), for the excess emissions for which no compensation was provided and for which no compliance units were withdrawn.

Marginal note:Determination of small revenue organization status

 For the purposes of sections 232 and 233, a court may determine an organization to be a small revenue organization if the court is satisfied that the organization’s gross revenues for the 12 months immediately before the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — or, if it arose on more than one day, for the 12 months immediately before the first day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — were not more than $5,000,000.

Marginal note:Relief from minimum fine

 The court may impose a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in subsection 232(2), (3) or (4) if it is satisfied, on the basis of evidence submitted to the court, that the minimum fine would cause undue financial hardship. The court must provide reasons if it imposes a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in any of those subsections.

Marginal note:Deeming — second and subsequent offence

  •  (1) For the purposes of subsections 232(2) to (4) and 233(2) to (4), a conviction for a particular offence under this Part is deemed to be a conviction for a second or subsequent offence if the court is satisfied that the offender has been previously convicted — under any Act of Parliament, or any Act of the legislature of a province, that relates to the control or pricing of greenhouse gas emissions — of a substantially similar offence.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (2) Subsection (1) applies only to previous convictions on indictment and to previous convictions on summary conviction, and to previous convictions under any similar procedure under any Act of the legislature of a province.

Marginal note:Additional fine

 If a person is convicted of an offence and the court is satisfied that, as a result of the commission of the offence, the person acquired any property, benefit or advantage, the court must order the offender to pay an additional fine in an amount equal to the court’s estimation of the value of that property, benefit or advantage. The additional fine may exceed the maximum amount of any fine that may otherwise be imposed under this Part.

Marginal note:Notice to shareholders

 If a corporation that has shareholders is convicted of an offence under this Part, the court must make an order directing the corporation to notify its shareholders, in the manner and within the time directed by the court, of the facts relating to the commission of the offence and of the details of the punishment imposed.

Marginal note:Limitation period

 No proceedings by way of summary conviction in respect of an offence under this Part may be instituted more than five years after the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose, unless the prosecutor and the defendant agree that they may be instituted after the five years.

Marginal note:Offence for each tonne

 If the offence of contravening subsection 174(1) or paragraph 178(1)(a) is committed, the person that committed the offence is liable to be convicted for a separate offence for each CO2e tonne of a greenhouse gas that is emitted over the applicable emissions limit for which no compensation is provided by the increased-rate compensation deadline.

Marginal note:Regulations

 The Governor in Council may, by regulation, prescribe the manner in which the proceeds or any part of the proceeds resulting from the payment of a fine or the execution of an order in relation to an offence under this Part must be distributed in order to reimburse any person, government or body that has commenced the proceedings in respect of the offence for costs incurred by that person, government or body in respect of the prosecution of the offence.

Marginal note:Liability of senior officers

  •  (1) If an organization commits an offence under this Part, a senior officer of the organization who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence, and is liable on conviction to the penalty provided for by this Part for an individual in respect of the offence committed by the organization, whether or not the organization has been prosecuted.

  • Marginal note:Definition of senior officer

    (2) In this section, senior officer means a director, partner, employee, member, agent, mandatary or contractor who plays an important role in the establishment of an organization’s policies or is responsible for managing an important aspect of its activities and, in the case of a corporation, includes its chief executive officer and its chief financial officer.

Marginal note:Proof of offence

 In any prosecution of an offence under this Part, other than an offence of contravening section 208 or subsection 225(4) or an offence under any of paragraphs 232(1)(b) and (e) to (g), it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that it was committed by a director, partner, employee, member, agent, mandatary or contractor of the accused organization, whether or not they are identified or prosecuted for the offence.

Marginal note:Defence

 A person must not be found guilty of an offence under this Part, other than an offence of contravening section 208 or subsection 225(4) or an offence under any of paragraphs 232(1)(b) and (e) to (g), if the person establishes that they exercised all due diligence to prevent its commission.

Marginal note:Certificate of analyst

  •  (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), a certificate of an analyst that states the result of an analysis or examination and includes any related statement is admissible in evidence in any prosecution for an offence under this Part and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, is proof of the statements contained in the certificate without proof of the signature or the official character of the person appearing to have signed the certificate.

  • Marginal note:Attendance of analyst

    (2) The party against whom a certificate of an analyst is produced may, with leave of the court, require the attendance of the analyst for the purposes of cross-examination.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (3) A certificate of an analyst must not be received in evidence unless the party intending to produce it has given to the party against whom it is intended to be produced reasonable notice of that intention together with a copy of the certificate.

 
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