Canada Labour Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. L-2)
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Act current to 2023-03-06 and last amended on 2022-12-18. Previous Versions
PART IIIStandard Hours, Wages, Vacations and Holidays (continued)
DIVISION XIIIMedical Leave (continued)
239.01 [Repealed, 2021, c. 26, s. 24]
DIVISION XIII.1Work-related Illness and Injury
239.1 (1) Subject to subsection (4) and to the regulations made under this Division, no employer shall dismiss, suspend, lay off, demote or discipline an employee because of absence from work due to work-related illness or injury.
Marginal note:Employer’s obligation
(2) Every employer shall subscribe to a plan that provides an employee who is absent from work due to work-related illness or injury with wage replacement, payable at an equivalent rate to that provided for under the applicable workers’ compensation legislation in the employee’s province of permanent residence.
Marginal note:Return to work
(3) Subject to the regulations, the employer shall, where reasonably practicable, return an employee to work after the employee’s absence due to work-related illness or injury.
(4) An employer may assign to a different position, with different terms and conditions of employment, any employee who, after an absence due to work-related illness or injury, is unable to perform the work performed by the employee prior to the absence.
Marginal note:Benefits continue
(5) The pension, health and disability benefits and the seniority of an employee who is absent from work due to work-related illness or injury shall accumulate during the entire period of the absence.
Marginal note:Contributions by employee
(6) Where contributions are required from an employee in order for the employee to be entitled to a benefit referred to in subsection (5), the employee is responsible for and must, within a reasonable time, pay those contributions for the period of any absence due to work-related illness or injury unless, at the beginning of the absence or within a reasonable time thereafter, the employee notifies the employer of the employee’s intention to discontinue contributions during that period.
Marginal note:Contributions by employer
(7) An employer who pays contributions in respect of a benefit referred to in subsection (5) shall continue to pay those contributions during an employee’s absence due to work-related illness or injury in at least the same proportion as if the employee were not absent, unless the employee does not pay the employee’s contributions, if any, within a reasonable time.
Marginal note:Failure to pay contributions
(8) For the purposes of calculating the pension, health and disability benefits of an employee in respect of whom contributions have not been paid as required by subsections (6) and (7), the benefits shall not accumulate during the absence, and employment on the employee’s return to work shall be deemed to be continuous with employment before the employee’s absence.
Marginal note:Deemed continuous employment
(9) For the purposes of calculating benefits, other than benefits referred to in subsection (5), of an employee who is absent from work due to work-related illness or injury, employment on the employee’s return to work shall be deemed to be continuous with employment before the employee’s absence.
(10) The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying out the purposes of this Division and, without restricting the generality of the foregoing, may make regulations
(a) for determining the duration of the employer’s obligation under subsection (3);
(b) providing terms and conditions applicable to the employer under subsections (1) and (3) in the event of any termination of employment, lay-off or discontinuance of a function in an industrial establishment; and
(c) providing for any other terms and conditions respecting the application of subsection (3).
Marginal note:Application of section 189
(11) Section 189 applies for the purposes of this Division.
- 1993, c. 42, s. 33
- 2001, c. 34, s. 23(F)
DIVISION XIII.2Long-term Disability Plans
Marginal note:Employer’s obligation
239.2 (1) Every employer that provides benefits to its employees under a long-term disability plan must insure the plan with an entity that is licensed to provide insurance under the laws of a province.
(2) However, an employer may provide those benefits under a long-term disability plan that is not insured, in the circumstances and subject to the conditions provided for in the regulations.
- 2012, c. 19, s. 434
239.3 The Governor in Council may make regulations respecting long-term disability plans, including regulations
(a) specifying what constitutes a long-term disability plan; and
(b) specifying the circumstances and conditions referred to in subsection 239.2(2).
- 2012, c. 19, s. 434
DIVISION XIVUnjust Dismissal
240 (1) Subject to subsections (2) and 242(3.1), a person who has been dismissed and considers the dismissal to be unjust may make a complaint in writing to the Head if the employee
(a) has completed 12 consecutive months of continuous employment by an employer; and
(b) is not a member of a group of employees subject to a collective agreement.
(1.1) A person shall not make a complaint under subsection (1) if they have made a complaint that is based on substantially the same facts under either subsection 246.1(1) or 247.99(1), unless that complaint has been withdrawn.
Marginal note:Time for making complaint
(2) Subject to subsection (3), a complaint under subsection (1) shall be made within ninety days from the date on which the person making the complaint was dismissed.
Marginal note:Extension of time
(3) The Head may extend the period set out in subsection (2)
(a) if the Head is satisfied that a complaint was made in that period to a government official who had no authority to deal with the complaint but that the person making the complaint believed the official had that authority; or
(b) in any circumstances that are prescribed by regulation.
- R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 240
- R.S., 1985, c. 9 (1st Supp.), s. 15
- 2018, c. 27, s. 488
- 2018, c. 27, s. 579
Marginal note:Reasons for dismissal
241 (1) If an employer dismisses a person described in subsection 240(1), the person who was dismissed or the Head may make a request in writing to the employer to provide a written statement giving the reasons for the dismissal, and any employer who receives such a request must provide the person who made the request with such a statement within 15 days after the request is made.
Marginal note:Head to assist parties
(2) On receipt of a complaint made under subsection 240(1), the Head must endeavour to assist the parties to the complaint to settle the complaint.
Marginal note:Complaint not settled within reasonable time
(3) If a complaint is not settled under subsection (2) within the period that the Head considers to be reasonable in the circumstances, the Head must, on the written request of the person who made the complaint that the complaint be referred to the Board, deliver to the Board the complaint made under subsection 240(1), any written statement giving the reasons for the dismissal provided under subsection (1) and any other statements or documents that the Head has that relate to the complaint.
(4) If the person who made the complaint does not reply to a written communication from the Head within a period that the Head considers to be reasonable in the circumstances and a period of at least 30 days, or any longer period that may be prescribed by regulation, have elapsed from the day on which the complaint was made, the Head may give written notice to the person who made the complaint that they have the period of 30 days, or any longer period that may be prescribed by regulation, set out in the notice to make a written request that the complaint be referred to the Board.
Marginal note:Time limit
(5) Subject to the regulations, if the person who made the complaint does not, within the period set out in the notice, make a written request that the complaint be referred to the Board, the Head may deem the complaint to be withdrawn.
- R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 241
- 2017, c. 20, s. 353
- 2018, c. 27, s. 489
- 2018, c. 27, s. 580
Marginal note:Suspension of complaint
241.1 (1) If the Board is satisfied that the complainant must take measures before the Board may continue to deal with the complaint referred to it under subsection 241(3), it may, at any time, suspend consideration of the complaint, in whole or in part.
(2) If the Board suspends consideration of a complaint, the Board shall notify the complainant in writing and specify in the notice
(a) the measures that the complainant must take; and
(b) the period within which they must take those measures.
Marginal note:End of suspension
(3) The suspension ends when, in the Board’s opinion, the measures specified in the notice have been taken.
Marginal note:Rejection of complaint
241.2 (1) The Board may reject a complaint referred to it under subsection 241(3), in whole or in part,
(a) if the Board is satisfied that
(i) the complaint is not within its jurisdiction,
(ii) the complaint is frivolous, vexatious or not made in good faith,
(iii) the complaint has been settled in writing between the employer and the complainant,
(iv) there are other means available to the complainant to resolve the subject matter of the complaint that the Board considers should be pursued, or
(v) the subject matter of the complaint has been adequately dealt with through recourse obtained before a court, tribunal, arbitrator or adjudicator; or
(b) if consideration of the complaint was suspended under subsection 241.1(1) and if, in the Board’s opinion, the measures specified in the notice under subsection 241.1(2) were not taken within the specified period.
Marginal note:Notice of rejection of complaint
(2) If the Board rejects a complaint, it shall notify the complainant in writing, with reasons.
242 (1) [Repealed, 2017, c. 20, s. 354]
(2) [Repealed, 2017, c. 20, s. 354]
Marginal note:Decision of the Board
(3) Subject to subsection (3.1), the Board, after a complaint has been referred to it, shall
(a) consider whether the dismissal of the person who made the complaint was unjust and render a decision thereon; and
(b) send a copy of the decision with the reasons therefor to each party to the complaint and to the Minister.
Marginal note:Limitation on complaints
(3.1) No complaint shall be considered by the Board under subsection (3) in respect of a person if
(a) that person has been laid off because of lack of work or because of the discontinuance of a function; or
(b) a procedure for redress has been provided under Part I or Part II of this Act or under any other Act of Parliament.
Marginal note:Unjust dismissal
(4) If the Board decides under subsection (3) that a person has been unjustly dismissed, the Board may, by order, require the employer who dismissed the person to
(a) pay the person compensation not exceeding the amount of money that is equivalent to the remuneration that would, but for the dismissal, have been paid by the employer to the person;
(b) reinstate the person in his employ; and
(c) do any other like thing that it is equitable to require the employer to do in order to remedy or counteract any consequence of the dismissal.
- R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 242
- R.S., 1985, c. 9 (1st Supp.), s. 16
- 1998, c. 26, s. 58
- 2017, c. 20, s. 354
- 2018, c. 27, s. 491
Marginal note:Order final
243 (1) Every order of the Board is final and shall not be questioned or reviewed in any court.
Marginal note:No review by certiorari, etc.
(2) No order shall be made, process entered or proceeding taken in any court, whether by way of injunction, certiorari, prohibition, quo warranto or otherwise, to question, review, prohibit or restrain the Board in any proceedings under section 242.
- R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 243
- 2017, c. 20, s. 355
Marginal note:Enforcement of orders
244 (1) Any person affected by an order of the Board under subsection 242(4), or the Head on the request of such a person, may, after 14 days from the day on which the order is made, or from the day provided in the order for compliance, whichever is later, file in the Federal Court a copy of the order, exclusive of reasons.
(2) On filing in the Federal Court under subsection (1), an order of the Board shall be registered in the Court and, when registered, has the same force and effect, and all proceedings may be taken in respect of it, as if the order were a judgment obtained in that Court.
- R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 244
- 1993, c. 42, s. 34(F)
- 2017, c. 20, s. 355
- 2018, c. 27, s. 581
245 For the purposes of this Division, the Governor in Council may make regulations
(a) defining the absences from employment that shall be deemed not to have interrupted continuity of employment;
(b) prescribing circumstances for the purposes of paragraph 240(3)(b);
(c) prescribing periods for the purposes of subsection 241(4);
(d) prescribing the circumstances under which a complaint is not to be deemed to be withdrawn under subsection 241(5); and
(e) prescribing the conditions that are to be met before a complaint may be deemed to be withdrawn under subsection 241(5).
- R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 245
- 2018, c. 27, s. 492
- Date modified: