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Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

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Act current to 2019-08-28 and last amended on 2019-08-15. Previous Versions

PART VIIIOffences Against the Person and Reputation (continued)

Kidnapping, Trafficking in Persons, Hostage Taking and Abduction (continued)

Marginal note:Trafficking of a person under the age of eighteen years

  •  (1) Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person under the age of eighteen years, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person under the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

    • (a) to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of six years if they kidnap, commit an aggravated assault or aggravated sexual assault against, or cause death to, the victim during the commission of the offence; or

    • (b) to imprisonment for a term of not more than fourteen years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of five years, in any other case.

  • Marginal note:Consent

    (2) No consent to the activity that forms the subject-matter of a charge under subsection (1) is valid.

  • 2010, c. 3, s. 2

Marginal note:Material benefit — trafficking

  •  (1) Everyone who receives a financial or other material benefit, knowing that it is obtained by or derived directly or indirectly from the commission of an offence under subsection 279.01(1), is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years.

  • Marginal note:Material benefit — trafficking of person under 18 years

    (2) Everyone who receives a financial or other material benefit, knowing that it is obtained by or derived directly or indirectly from the commission of an offence under subsection 279.011(1), is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 14 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years.

  • 2005, c. 43, s. 3
  • 2010, c. 3, s. 3
  • 2014, c. 25, s. 19

Marginal note:Withholding or destroying documents — trafficking

  •  (1) Everyone who, for the purpose of committing or facilitating an offence under subsection 279.01(1), conceals, removes, withholds or destroys any travel document that belongs to another person or any document that establishes or purports to establish another person’s identity or immigration status  — whether or not the document is of Canadian origin or is authentic  —  is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years.

  • Marginal note:Withholding or destroying documents — trafficking of person under 18 years

    (2) Everyone who, for the purpose of committing or facilitating an offence under subsection 279.011(1), conceals, removes, withholds or destroys any travel document that belongs to another person or any document that establishes or purports to establish another person’s identity or immigration status  — whether or not the document is of Canadian origin or is authentic  —  is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of one year.

  • 2005, c. 43, s. 3
  • 2010, c. 3, s. 3
  • 2014, c. 25, s. 19

Marginal note:Exploitation

  •  (1) For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them to provide, or offer to provide, labour or a service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances, could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe that their safety or the safety of a person known to them would be threatened if they failed to provide, or offer to provide, the labour or service.

  • Marginal note:Factors

    (2) In determining whether an accused exploits another person under subsection (1), the Court may consider, among other factors, whether the accused

    • (a) used or threatened to use force or another form of coercion;

    • (b) used deception; or

    • (c) abused a position of trust, power or authority.

  • Marginal note:Organ or tissue removal

    (3) For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them, by means of deception or the use or threat of force or of any other form of coercion, to have an organ or tissue removed.

  • 2005, c. 43, s. 3
  • 2012, c. 15, s. 2
  • 2015, c. 16, s. 2(F)

Marginal note:Hostage taking

  •  (1) Everyone takes a person hostage who — with intent to induce any person, other than the hostage, or any group of persons or any state or international or intergovernmental organization to commit or cause to be committed any act or omission as a condition, whether express or implied, of the release of the hostage —

    • (a) confines, imprisons, forcibly seizes or detains that person; and

    • (b) in any manner utters, conveys or causes any person to receive a threat that the death of, or bodily harm to, the hostage will be caused or that the confinement, imprisonment or detention of the hostage will be continued.

  • Marginal note:Hostage-taking

    (2) Every person who takes a person hostage is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

    • (a) if a restricted firearm or prohibited firearm is used in the commission of the offence or if any firearm is used in the commission of the offence and the offence is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal organization, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of

      • (i) in the case of a first offence, five years, and

      • (ii) in the case of a second or subsequent offence, seven years;

    • (a.1) in any other case where a firearm is used in the commission of the offence, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of four years; and

    • (b) in any other case, to imprisonment for life.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent offences

    (2.1) In determining, for the purpose of paragraph (2)(a), whether a convicted person has committed a second or subsequent offence, if the person was earlier convicted of any of the following offences, that offence is to be considered as an earlier offence:

    • (a) an offence under this section;

    • (b) an offence under subsection 85(1) or (2) or section 244 or 244.2; or

    • (c) an offence under section 220, 236, 239, 272 or 273, subsection 279(1) or section 344 or 346 if a firearm was used in the commission of the offence.

    However, an earlier offence shall not be taken into account if 10 years have elapsed between the day on which the person was convicted of the earlier offence and the day on which the person was convicted of the offence for which sentence is being imposed, not taking into account any time in custody.

  • Marginal note:Sequence of convictions only

    (2.2) For the purposes of subsection (2.1), the only question to be considered is the sequence of convictions and no consideration shall be given to the sequence of commission of offences or whether any offence occurred before or after any conviction.

  • (3) [Repealed, 2018, c. 29, s. 27]

  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 40
  • 1995, c. 39, s. 148
  • 2008, c. 6, s. 31
  • 2009, c. 22, s. 13
  • 2018, c. 29, s. 27

Marginal note:Abduction of person under sixteen

  •  (1) Every one who, without lawful authority, takes or causes to be taken an unmarried person under the age of sixteen years out of the possession of and against the will of the parent or guardian of that person or of any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

  • Definition of guardian

    (2) In this section and sections 281 to 283, guardian includes any person who has in law or in fact the custody or control of another person.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 249
  • 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20

Marginal note:Abduction of person under fourteen

 Every one who, not being the parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a person under the age of fourteen years, unlawfully takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours that person with intent to deprive a parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person, of the possession of that person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 250
  • 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20
 
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