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Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2024-02-06 and last amended on 2024-01-14. Previous Versions

PART XVSpecial Procedure and Powers (continued)

Forfeiture of Offence-related Property (continued)

Marginal note:Warrant for transmission data recorder

  •  (1) A justice or judge who is satisfied by information on oath that there are reasonable grounds to suspect that an offence has been or will be committed against this or any other Act of Parliament and that transmission data will assist in the investigation of the offence may issue a warrant authorizing a peace officer or a public officer to obtain the transmission data by means of a transmission data recorder.

  • Marginal note:Scope of warrant

    (2) The warrant authorizes the peace officer or public officer, or a person acting under their direction, to install, activate, use, maintain, monitor and remove the transmission data recorder, including covertly.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (3) No warrant shall be issued under this section for the purpose of obtaining tracking data.

  • Marginal note:Period of validity

    (4) Subject to subsection (5), a warrant is valid for the period specified in it as long as that period ends no more than 60 days after the day on which the warrant is issued.

  • Marginal note:Period of validity — organized crime or terrorism offence

    (5) The warrant is valid for the period specified in it as long as that period ends no more than one year after the day on which the warrant is issued, if the warrant relates to

    • (a) an offence under any of sections 467.11 to 467.13;

    • (b) an offence committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal organization; or

    • (c) a terrorism offence.

  • Marginal note:Execution in Canada

    (5.1) A warrant issued under subsection (1) may be executed at any place in Canada. Any public officer or peace officer who executes the warrant must have authority to act in that capacity in the place where the warrant is executed.

  • Marginal note:Definitions

    (6) The following definitions apply in this section.

    data

    data means representations, including signs, signals or symbols, that are capable of being understood by an individual or processed by a computer system or other device. (données)

    judge

    judge means a judge of a superior court of criminal jurisdiction or a judge of the Court of Quebec. (juge)

    public officer

    public officer means a public officer who is appointed or designated to administer or enforce a federal or provincial law and whose duties include the enforcement of this or any other Act of Parliament. (fonctionnaire public)

    transmission data

    transmission data means data that

    • (a) relates to the telecommunication functions of dialling, routing, addressing or signalling;

    • (b) is transmitted to identify, activate or configure a device, including a computer program as defined in subsection 342.1(2), in order to establish or maintain access to a telecommunication service for the purpose of enabling a communication, or is generated during the creation, transmission or reception of a communication and identifies or purports to identify the type, direction, date, time, duration, size, origin, destination or termination of the communication; and

    • (c) does not reveal the substance, meaning or purpose of the communication. (données de transmission)

    transmission data recorder

    transmission data recorder means a device, including a computer program within the meaning of subsection 342.1(2), that may be used to obtain or record transmission data or to transmit it by a means of telecommunication. (enregistreur de données de transmission)

PART XVICompelling Appearance of Accused Before a Justice and Interim Release

Interpretation

Marginal note:Definitions

 In this Part,

accused

accused includes

  • (a) a person to whom a peace officer has issued an appearance notice under section 497, and

  • (b) a person arrested for a criminal offence; (prévenu)

appearance notice

appearance notice[Repealed, 2019, c. 25, s. 209]

judge

judge means

  • (a) in the Province of Ontario, a judge of the superior court of criminal jurisdiction of the Province,

  • (b) in the Province of Quebec, a judge of the superior court of criminal jurisdiction of the province or three judges of the Court of Quebec,

  • (c) [Repealed, 1992, c. 51, s. 37]

  • (d) in the Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Newfoundland and Labrador, a judge of the superior court of criminal jurisdiction of the Province,

  • (e) in Yukon and the Northwest Territories, a judge of the Supreme Court, and

  • (f) in Nunavut, a judge of the Nunavut Court of Justice; (juge)

officer in charge

officer in charge[Repealed, 2019, c. 25, s. 209]

promise to appear

promise to appear[Repealed, 2019, c. 25, s. 209]

recognizance

recognizance[Repealed, 2019, c. 25, s. 209]

summons

summons[Repealed, 2019, c. 25, s. 209]

undertaking

undertaking[Repealed, 2019, c. 25, s. 209]

warrant

warrant, when used in relation to a warrant for the arrest of a person, means a warrant in Form 7 and, when used in relation to a warrant for the committal of a person, means a warrant in Form 8. (mandat)

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 493
  • R.S., 1985, c. 11 (1st Supp.), s. 2, c. 27 (2nd Supp.), s. 10, c. 40 (4th Supp.), s. 2
  • 1990, c. 16, s. 5, c. 17, s. 12
  • 1992, c. 51, s. 37
  • 1994, c. 44, s. 39
  • 1999, c. 3, s. 30
  • 2002, c. 7, s. 143
  • 2015, c. 3, s. 51
  • 2019, c. 25, s. 209

Principle and Considerations

Marginal note:Principle of restraint

 In making a decision under this Part, a peace officer, justice or judge shall give primary consideration to the release of the accused at the earliest reasonable opportunity and on the least onerous conditions that are appropriate in the circumstances, including conditions that are reasonably practicable for the accused to comply with, while taking into account the grounds referred to in subsection 498(1.1) or 515(10), as the case may be.

Marginal note:Aboriginal accused or vulnerable populations

 In making a decision under this Part, a peace officer, justice or judge shall give particular attention to the circumstances of

  • (a) Aboriginal accused; and

  • (b) accused who belong to a vulnerable population that is overrepresented in the criminal justice system and that is disadvantaged in obtaining release under this Part.

Arrest without Warrant and Release from Custody

Marginal note:Arrest without warrant by any person

  •  (1) Any one may arrest without warrant

    • (a) a person whom he finds committing an indictable offence; or

    • (b) a person who, on reasonable grounds, he believes

      • (i) has committed a criminal offence, and

      • (ii) is escaping from and freshly pursued by persons who have lawful authority to arrest that person.

  • Marginal note:Arrest by owner, etc., of property

    (2) The owner or a person in lawful possession of property, or a person authorized by the owner or by a person in lawful possession of property, may arrest a person without a warrant if they find them committing a criminal offence on or in relation to that property and

    • (a) they make the arrest at that time; or

    • (b) they make the arrest within a reasonable time after the offence is committed and they believe on reasonable grounds that it is not feasible in the circumstances for a peace officer to make the arrest.

  • Marginal note:Delivery to peace officer

    (3) Any one other than a peace officer who arrests a person without warrant shall forthwith deliver the person to a peace officer.

  • Marginal note:For greater certainty

    (4) For greater certainty, a person who is authorized to make an arrest under this section is a person who is authorized by law to do so for the purposes of section 25.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 494
  • 2012, c. 9, s. 3

Marginal note:Arrest without warrant by peace officer

  •  (1) A peace officer may arrest without warrant

    • (a) a person who has committed an indictable offence or who, on reasonable grounds, he believes has committed or is about to commit an indictable offence;

    • (b) a person whom he finds committing a criminal offence; or

    • (c) a person in respect of whom he has reasonable grounds to believe that a warrant of arrest or committal, in any form set out in Part XXVIII in relation thereto, is in force within the territorial jurisdiction in which the person is found.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (2) A peace officer shall not arrest a person without warrant for

    • (a) an indictable offence mentioned in section 553,

    • (b) an offence for which the person may be prosecuted by indictment or for which he is punishable on summary conviction, or

    • (c) an offence punishable on summary conviction,

    in any case where

    • (d) he believes on reasonable grounds that the public interest, having regard to all the circumstances including the need to

      • (i) establish the identity of the person,

      • (ii) secure or preserve evidence of or relating to the offence, or

      • (iii) prevent the continuation or repetition of the offence or the commission of another offence,

      may be satisfied without so arresting the person, and

    • (e) he has no reasonable grounds to believe that, if he does not so arrest the person, the person will fail to attend court in order to be dealt with according to law.

  • Marginal note:Consequences of arrest without warrant

    (3) Notwithstanding subsection (2), a peace officer acting under subsection (1) is deemed to be acting lawfully and in the execution of his duty for the purposes of

    • (a) any proceedings under this or any other Act of Parliament; and

    • (b) any other proceedings, unless in any such proceedings it is alleged and established by the person making the allegation that the peace officer did not comply with the requirements of subsection (2).

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 495
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 75

Marginal note:Arrest without warrant – application of section 524

 Despite any other provision in this Act, if a peace officer has reasonable grounds to believe that an accused has contravened or is about to contravene a summons, appearance notice, undertaking or release order that was issued or given to the accused or entered into by the accused, or has committed an indictable offence while being subject to a summons, appearance notice, undertaking or release order, the peace officer may arrest the accused without a warrant for the purpose of taking them before a judge or justice to be dealt with under section 524.

Marginal note:Appearance notice for judicial referral hearing

 If a peace officer has reasonable grounds to believe that a person has failed to comply with a summons, appearance notice, undertaking or release order or to attend court as required and that the failure did not cause a victim physical or emotional harm, property damage or economic loss, the peace officer may, without laying a charge, issue an appearance notice to the person to appear at a judicial referral hearing under section 523.1.

Marginal note:Issue of appearance notice by peace officer

 If, by virtue of subsection 495(2), a peace officer does not arrest a person, they may issue an appearance notice to the person if the offence is

  • (a) an indictable offence mentioned in section 553;

  • (b) an offence for which the person may be prosecuted by indictment or for which they are punishable on summary conviction; or

  • (c) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Marginal note:Release from custody — arrest without warrant

  •  (1) Subject to subsection (1.1), if a person has been arrested without warrant for an offence, other than one listed in section 469, and has not been taken before a justice or released from custody under any other provision of this Part, a peace officer shall, as soon as practicable, release the person, if

    • (a) the peace officer intends to compel the person’s appearance by way of summons;

    • (b) the peace officer issues an appearance notice to the person; or

    • (c) the person gives an undertaking to the peace officer.

  • Marginal note:Person delivered or detained

    (1.01) Subsection (1) also applies in respect of a person who has been arrested without warrant and delivered to a peace officer under subsection 494(3) or placed in the custody of a peace officer under subsection 163.5(3) of the Customs Act and who is detained in custody for an offence other than one listed in section 469 and who has not been taken before a justice or released from custody under any other provision of this Part.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (1.1) The peace officer shall not release the person if the peace officer believes, on reasonable grounds,

    • (a) that it is necessary in the public interest that the person be detained in custody or that the matter of their release from custody be dealt with under another provision of this Part, having regard to all the circumstances including the need to

      • (i) establish the identity of the person,

      • (ii) secure or preserve evidence of or relating to the offence,

      • (iii) prevent the continuation or repetition of the offence or the commission of another offence, or

      • (iv) ensure the safety and security of any victim of or witness to the offence; or

    • (b) that, if the person is released from custody, the person will fail to attend court in order to be dealt with according to law.

  • Marginal note:When subsections (1) and (1.01) do not apply

    (2) Subsections (1) and (1.01) do not apply in respect of a person who has been arrested without warrant by a peace officer for an offence described in subsection 503(3).

  • Marginal note:Consequences of non-release

    (3) A peace officer who has arrested a person without a warrant, or who has been given the custody of a person arrested without a warrant, for an offence described in subsection (1), and who does not release the person from custody as soon as practicable in the manner described in that subsection shall be deemed to be acting lawfully and in the execution of the officer’s duty for the purposes of

    • (a) any proceedings under this or any other Act of Parliament; or

    • (b) any other proceedings, unless in any such proceedings it is alleged and established by the person making the allegation that the peace officer did not comply with the requirements of subsection (1).

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 498
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 186
  • 1997, c. 18, s. 52
  • 1998, c. 7, s. 2
  • 1999, c. 25, ss. 4, 30(Preamble)
  • 2019, c. 25, s. 213
 

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