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Heavy-duty Vehicle and Engine Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations (SOR/2013-24)

Regulations are current to 2020-09-09 and last amended on 2018-11-16. Previous Versions

Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards (continued)

Class 2B and Class 3 Heavy-duty Vehicles (continued)

CO2 Emissions (continued)

Marginal note:Calculation of average values

  •  (1) A company must calculate the fleet average CO2 emission value for a given model year, expressed in grams of CO2 per mile for its fleet of Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — by using the formula

    (Σ (A × B)) ÷ C

    where

    A
    is the CO2 emission value for each vehicle configuration calculated in accordance with section 24 and taking into account subsection (2);
    B
    is the number of vehicles of that vehicle configuration in the fleet; and
    C
    is the number of vehicles in the fleet used for the purposes of subsection (2).
  • Marginal note:Representative data

    (2) When a company calculates the fleet average CO2 emission value in accordance with this section, it must use the data and values from one or more vehicle configurations that represent at least 90% of its number of vehicles for the fleet.

  • SOR/2018-98, s. 60

Test Methods and Calculations

Marginal note:General

  •  (1) The N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values for Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles and the vehicles referred to in subsection (2) — must be determined in accordance with subsection (3) or (4), as the case may be, and

    • (a) using

      • (i) the test procedures, fuels and calculation methods set out for the FTP-based city test and the HFET-based highway test, and

      • (ii) the adjusted loaded vehicle weight and the deterioration factors determined using the durability procedures and method prescribed in section 1823(m) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR; and

    • (b) taking into account

      • (i) sections 1819(d)(4) and (5) and 1819(k)(6) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR, and

      • (ii) the altitude testing conditions set out in sections 1819(a)(5) and 1865(h)(3) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR.

  • Marginal note:Electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles

    (2) In the case of Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — that are electric vehicles or fuel cell vehicles, the N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values are considered to be 0 grams per mile.

  • Marginal note:Multi-fuel, dual fuel or flexible fuel

    (3) In the case of Class 2B or Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — that are designed to operate on two or more different fuel types, either separately or simultaneously, the N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values for a given vehicle or vehicle configuration, as the case may be, must be determined using

    • (a) in the case of N2O and CH4 emissions, the highest of the following averages:

      • (i) the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on gasoline or diesel fuel, and

      • (ii) the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on the alternative fuel; and

    • (b) in the case of CO2 emissions, the formula

      (F × A) + ((1 – F) × B)

      where

      F
      is 0.00 unless the company provides the Minister with evidence demonstrating that an alternative value determined for F is more representative for that vehicle configuration,
      A
      is the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on the alternative fuel, and
      B
      is the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on gasoline or diesel fuel.
  • Marginal note:Other cases

    (4) In the case of other Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — the N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values must be determined as follows:

    • (a) in the case of N2O and CH4 emissions, by calculating the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively; and

    • (b) in the case of CO2 emissions,

      • (i) by making the calculation set out in paragraph (a), or

      • (ii) by calculating the CO2 emission rate in accordance with section 1819(g) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR.

  • SOR/2018-98, ss. 25, 60

Special Grouping — Vehicles and Engines

[SOR/2018-98, s. 26]

Marginal note:Spark-ignition engines

 A company may elect to include heavy-duty engines of the 2023 model year or an earlier model year that are spark-ignition engines in a fleet of Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — if the following conditions are met:

  • (a) the fleet is composed of vehicles equipped with engines of the same model year, design and hardware;

  • (b) the engines are

    • (i) installed in emergency vehicles, motor homes or heavy-duty incomplete vehicles that are not cab-complete vehicles, or

    • (ii) sold without being installed in a vehicle;

  • (c) the number of engines referred to in paragraph (b) represent not more than 10% of the number of engines — whether they are installed in vehicles or not — that are of the same model year, design and hardware in the fleet;

  • (d) instead of conforming to sections 29 and 30, the engines referred to in paragraph (b) conform to

    • (i) the N2O and CH4 emission standards and the calculations of the emission values referred to in section 20, and

    • (ii) the CO2 emission target value and test result determined in accordance with section 1819(k)(8)(vii) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR; and

  • (e) the company reports its election in its end of model year report.

  • SOR/2018-98, s. 27

Vocational Vehicles

Marginal note:CO2 emission standards — 2014 to 2020 model years

  •  (1) Subject to subsections (3) and (5) to (7) and section 28, for the 2014 to 2020 model years, every vocational vehicle and incomplete vocational vehicle of a service class referred to in column 1 of the table to this subsection must, for the duration of its useful life, have a CO2 emission rate that does not exceed the CO2 emission standard set out in column 2 or 3 for the model year in question.

    TABLE

    Column 1Column 2Column 3
    ItemVehicle Service ClassCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2014 to 2016 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2017 to 2020 Model Years
    1Light heavy-duty vehicles388373
    2Medium heavy-duty vehicles234225
    3Heavy heavy-duty vehicles226222
  • Marginal note:CO2 emission standards — 2021 model year and subsequent model years

    (1.1) Subject to subsections (1.2), (1.3), (3) and (5) to (7) and section 28, for the 2021 model year and subsequent model years, every vocational vehicle and incomplete vocational vehicle that is referred to in this subsection and that is of a service class referred to in column 1 of the table to one of following subparagraphs must, for the duration of its useful life, have a CO2 emission rate that does not exceed the CO2 emission standard set out in column 2, 3 or 4 of that table for the model year in question:

    • (a) for multi-purpose vocational vehicles that are equipped with

      • (i) a spark-ignition engine, or

        TABLE

        Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4
        ItemVehicle Service ClassCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2021 to 2023 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2024 to 2026 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
        1Light heavy-duty vehicles407385372
        2Medium heavy-duty vehicles293279268
      • (ii) a compression-ignition engine;

        TABLE

        Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4
        ItemVehicle Service ClassCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2021 to 2023 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2024 to 2026 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
        1Light heavy-duty vehicles373344330
        2Medium heavy-duty vehicles265246235
        3Heavy heavy-duty vehicles261242230
    • (b) for regional vocational vehicles that are equipped with

      • (i) a spark-ignition engine, or

        TABLE

        Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4
        ItemVehicle Service ClassCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2021 to 2023 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2024 to 2026 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
        1Light heavy-duty vehicles335324319
        2Medium heavy-duty vehicles261251247
      • (ii) a compression-ignition engine; and

        TABLE

        Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4
        ItemVehicle Service ClassCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2021 to 2023 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2024 to 2026 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
        1Light heavy-duty vehicles311296291
        2Medium heavy-duty vehicles234221218
        3Heavy heavy-duty vehicles205194189
    • (c) for urban vocational vehicles that are equipped with

      • (i) a spark-ignition engine, or

        TABLE

        Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4
        ItemVehicle Service ClassCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2021 to 2023 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2024 to 2026 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
        1Light heavy-duty vehicles461432413
        2Medium heavy-duty vehicles328310297
      • (ii) a compression-ignition engine.

        TABLE

        Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4
        ItemVehicle Service ClassCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2021 to 2023 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2024 to 2026 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
        1Light heavy-duty vehicles424385367
        2Medium heavy-duty vehicles296271258
        3Heavy heavy-duty vehicles308283269
  • Marginal note:Alternative standards for certain vehicles

    (1.2) Subject to subsection (1.3), for the 2021 model year and subsequent model years, a company may elect to have one or more of its vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles that are of a type referred to in column 1 of the table to this subsection conform, for the duration of their useful life, to the CO2 emission standard set out in column 2 or 3 for the model year in question instead of the CO2 emission standards set out in subsection (1.1).

    TABLE

    Column 1Column 2Column 3
    ItemTypeCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2021 to 2026 Model YearsCO2 Emission Standard (grams of CO2 per short ton-mile) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
    1Motor home228226
    2School bus291271
    3Coach bus210205
    4Other bus300286
    5Waste collection vehicle (see note)313298
    6Concrete mixer319316
    7Mixed-use vocational vehicle319316
    8Emergency vehicle324319
    • Note: For the purposes of item 5, waste collection vehicle means a vocational vehicle designed primarily to collect, compact and transport solid waste or recyclable materials.

  • Marginal note:Alternative standards for certain vehicles — tires

    (1.3) For the 2021 model year and subsequent model years, a company may elect to have one or more of its motor homes, concrete mixers, mixed-use vocational vehicles and emergency vehicles conform to the following standards instead of the CO2 emission standards set out in subsection (1.1) or (1.2):

    • (a) in the case of motor homes, the vehicles must be equipped with an automatic tire inflation system or tire pressure monitoring system for each wheel that is mounted on an axle; and

    • (b) in the case of vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles that are of a type referred to in column 1 of the table to this paragraph, the vehicles must be equipped with tires that have a tire rolling resistance level that is not more than the maximum level set out in column 2 or 3 for the model year in question.

      TABLE

      Column 1Column 2Column 3
      ItemTypeMaximum Tire Rolling Resistance Level (kilograms per tonne) for 2021 to 2026 Model YearsMaximum Tire Rolling Resistance Level (kilograms per tonne) for 2027 and Subsequent Model Years
      1Motor home6.76.0
      2Concrete mixer7.67.1
      3Mixed-use vocational vehicle7.67.1
      4Emergency vehicle8.78.4
  • Marginal note:Modelling CO2 emissions to demonstrate compliance

    (2) The CO2 emission rate must be determined in accordance with sections 501 and 520 of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter U, part 1037, subpart F, of the CFR,

    • (a) using the version of the GEM computer simulation model that is applicable to the model year in question;

    • (b) in the case of vocational vehicles and incomplete vocational vehicles of the 2021 model year or a subsequent model year, using the applicable duty cycle in accordance with section 150(z) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter U, part 1037, subpart B, of the CFR; and

    • (c) in the case of vocational vehicles and incomplete vocational vehicles of the 2021 model year or a subsequent model year that are plug-in hybrid vehicles or fuel cell vehicles powered by any fuel other than hydrogen, taking into account the powertrain testing procedure set out in section 550 of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter U, part 1037, subpart F, of the CFR.

  • Marginal note:Reference in CFR — interpretation

    (2.1) For the purposes of subsection (2),

    • (a) a reference in the CFR to “regulatory subcategory” is to be read as a reference to the fleet referred to in one of subparagraphs 18(3)(a)(ii) to (viii) that includes the same type of vehicles as those to which the simulation model is being applied; and

    • (b) motor homes and coach buses are to be treated as regional vocational vehicles and the other types of vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles referred to in column 1 of the table to subsection (1.2) are to be treated as urban vocational vehicles.

  • Marginal note:Electric vehicles

    (2.2) For the purposes of this section and sections 34 to 47, the CO2 emission rate of vocational vehicles and incomplete vocational vehicles of the 2021 model year or a subsequent model year that are electric vehicles is zero grams of CO2 per short ton-mile.

  • Marginal note:Exemption for certain vocational vehicles

    (3) The vocational vehicles and incomplete vocational vehicles referred to in subsections (1) and (1.1) do not include

    • (a) vehicles whose main assembly is completed before January 1, 2021 and that are equipped with tires with a maximum speed rating of not more than 88 km/h (55 miles per hour); and

    • (b) vehicles

      • (i) that are designed to operate at low speeds unsuitable for normal highway operation or that have affixed components designed to operate in an off-road environment, and

      • (ii) that

        • (A) have an axle that has a GAWR of 13 154 kg (29,000 pounds) or more,

        • (B) cannot attain a speed of more than 53 km/h (33 miles per hour) over 3.2 km (2 miles),

        • (C) cannot attain a speed of more than 72 km/h (45 miles per hour) over 3.2 km (2 miles), have an unloaded vehicle weight that is not less than 95% of their GVWR and cannot carry occupants other than the driver and operating crew, or

        • (D) cannot attain a speed of more than 87 km/h (54 miles per hour)

          • (I) due to parameters that are not adjustable parameters as defined in subsection 15(1), or

          • (II) without the engine with which it is equipped being at 95% or more of its maximum test speed in the highest available gear ratio.

  • Marginal note:Non-eligible vehicles

    (4) The vehicles referred to in subsections (1.3) and (3) are not eligible for participation in the CO2 emission credit system set out in sections 34 to 47.

  • Marginal note:Weight reduction technologies

    (4.1) For greater certainty, CO2 emission credits for weight reduction technologies other than those that are referred to in section 520(e) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter U, part 1037, subpart F, of the CFR may be obtained under section 41.

  • Marginal note:Election to conform to standards for heavier vehicles

    (5) For any given vehicle referred to in subsection (1) or (1.1), a company may elect to have the vehicle conform to the emission standards set out in subsection (1) or (1.1) that are applicable to a vehicle service class that includes vehicles that are heavier than those included in the vehicle service class to which the vehicle belongs, for a period that is equivalent to the useful life of those heavier vehicles, instead of the standards set out in subsection (1) or (1.1) that are applicable to the vehicle service class to which the vehicle belongs.

  • Marginal note:Alternative standards

    (6) In the case of vocational vehicles and cab-complete vocational vehicles that are equipped with a spark-ignition engine, a company may elect to have one or more of its vehicles conform to the standards referred to in sections 20 to 23 that are applicable to Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles, taking into account section 1819(j) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR, instead of the standards set out in subsection (1) or (1.1) and sections 29 and 30, if the following conditions are met:

    • (a) those vehicles are grouped into the fleet referred to in subparagraph 18(3)(a)(i);

    • (b) the company participates in the CO2 emission credit system set out in sections 34 to 47 as if the vocational vehicles and cab-complete vocational vehicles were Class 2B or Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles that are subject to the standards referred to in sections 20 to 23; and

    • (c) the company reports its election in its end of model year report.

  • Marginal note:Calculation using fleets and subfleets

    (7) A company may, instead of complying with subsection (1), (1.1) or (1.2) for all of its vocational vehicles and incomplete vocational vehicles of a given model year, elect to group those vocational vehicles and incomplete vocational vehicles into fleets or subfleets, as the case may be, in accordance with section 18 and participate in the CO2 emission credit system set out in sections 34 to 47.

  • Marginal note:Calculation — election under subsection (5)

    (7.1) If a company makes an election under subsection (5) in respect of a vocational vehicle or incomplete vocational vehicle, the company may group all of its vocational vehicles and incomplete vocational vehicles of a given model year into fleets or subfleets, as the case may be, in accordance with section 18 and participate in the CO2 emission credit system set out in sections 34 to 47, but must not obtain any credits or additional credits in respect of the vehicles that conform to that standard, except in accordance with sections 34 to 41 in the following cases:

    • (a) if the company elects to have all of its vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles of a given service class and model year conform to the standards that apply in respect of a vehicle service class that includes vehicles that are heavier than those included in the vehicle service class to which the vehicles belong, for a period that is equivalent to the useful life of those heavier vehicles, the vehicles must be grouped in the same fleet or subfleet, as the case may be, as those heavier vehicles; or

    • (b) if the company elects to have one or more of its medium heavy-duty vehicles that are or are to become Class 8 hybrid vehicles equipped with a light heavy-duty engine or medium heavy-duty engine conform to the compression-ignition engine standards that apply in respect of vehicles of the heavy heavy-duty vehicle service class, for a period that is equivalent to the useful life of those heavier vehicles, the vehicles must be grouped in the same fleet or subfleet, as the case may be, as those heavier vehicles.

  • Marginal note:Vehicles exceeding standard under subsection (5)

    (7.2) If a company makes an election under subsection (5) in respect of one or more of its vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles and the CO2 emission rate of one or more of those vehicles exceeds the CO2 emission standard that applies in respect of the vehicle service class that includes vehicles that are heavier than those included in the vehicle service class to which the vehicles belong, the vehicles must be grouped in the same fleet or subfleet, as the case may be, as those heavier vehicles in accordance with section 18 and the company must participate in the CO2 emission credit system set out in sections 34 to 47.

  • Marginal note:Family emission limit

    (8) For the purposes of subsections (7) to (7.2), every vocational vehicle and incomplete vocational vehicle included within a fleet or subfleet must conform to the CO2 family emission limit for the fleet or subfleet, as the case may be.

  • (9) [Repealed, SOR/2018-98, s. 28]

  • SOR/2018-98, s. 28
 
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