Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

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Act current to 2018-12-12 and last amended on 2018-10-17. Previous Versions

PART XFraudulent Transactions Relating to Contracts and Trade (continued)

Fraud

Marginal note:Fraud

  •  (1) Every one who, by deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means, whether or not it is a false pretence within the meaning of this Act, defrauds the public or any person, whether ascertained or not, of any property, money or valuable security or any service,

    • (a) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years, where the subject-matter of the offence is a testamentary instrument or the value of the subject-matter of the offence exceeds five thousand dollars; or

    • (b) is guilty

      • (i) of an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or

      • (ii) of an offence punishable on summary conviction,

      where the value of the subject-matter of the offence does not exceed five thousand dollars.

  • Marginal note:Minimum punishment

    (1.1) When a person is prosecuted on indictment and convicted of one or more offences referred to in subsection (1), the court that imposes the sentence shall impose a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years if the total value of the subject-matter of the offences exceeds one million dollars.

  • Marginal note:Affecting public market

    (2) Every one who, by deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means, whether or not it is a false pretence within the meaning of this Act, with intent to defraud, affects the public market price of stocks, shares, merchandise or anything that is offered for sale to the public is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 380;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 54;
  • 1994, c. 44, s. 25;
  • 1997, c. 18, s. 26;
  • 2004, c. 3, s. 2;
  • 2011, c. 6, s. 2.

Marginal note:Sentencing — aggravating circumstances

  •  (1) Without limiting the generality of section 718.2, where a court imposes a sentence for an offence referred to in section 380, 382, 382.1 or 400, it shall consider the following as aggravating circumstances:

    • (a) the magnitude, complexity, duration or degree of planning of the fraud committed was significant;

    • (b) the offence adversely affected, or had the potential to adversely affect, the stability of the Canadian economy or financial system or any financial market in Canada or investor confidence in such a financial market;

    • (c) the offence involved a large number of victims;

    • (c.1) the offence had a significant impact on the victims given their personal circumstances including their age, health and financial situation;

    • (d) in committing the offence, the offender took advantage of the high regard in which the offender was held in the community;

    • (e) the offender did not comply with a licensing requirement, or professional standard, that is normally applicable to the activity or conduct that forms the subject-matter of the offence; and

    • (f) the offender concealed or destroyed records related to the fraud or to the disbursement of the proceeds of the fraud.

  • Marginal note:Aggravating circumstance — value of the fraud

    (1.1) Without limiting the generality of section 718.2, when a court imposes a sentence for an offence referred to in section 382, 382.1 or 400, it shall also consider as an aggravating circumstance the fact that the value of the fraud committed exceeded one million dollars.

  • Marginal note:Non-mitigating factors

    (2) When a court imposes a sentence for an offence referred to in section 380, 382, 382.1 or 400, it shall not consider as mitigating circumstances the offender’s employment, employment skills or status or reputation in the community if those circumstances were relevant to, contributed to, or were used in the commission of the offence.

  • Marginal note:Record of proceedings

    (3) The court shall cause to be stated in the record the aggravating and mitigating circumstances it took into account when determining the sentence.

  • 2004, c. 3, s. 3;
  • 2011, c. 6, s. 3.

Marginal note:Prohibition order

  •  (1) When an offender is convicted, or is discharged on the conditions prescribed in a probation order under section 730, of an offence referred to in subsection 380(1), the court that sentences or discharges the offender, in addition to any other punishment that may be imposed for that offence or any other condition prescribed in the order of discharge, may make, subject to the conditions or exemptions that the court directs, an order prohibiting the offender from seeking, obtaining or continuing any employment, or becoming or being a volunteer in any capacity, that involves having authority over the real property, money or valuable security of another person.

  • Marginal note:Duration

    (2) The prohibition may be for any period that the court considers appropriate, including any period to which the offender is sentenced to imprisonment.

  • Marginal note:Court may vary order

    (3) A court that makes an order of prohibition or, if the court is for any reason unable to act, another court of equivalent jurisdiction in the same province, may, on application of the offender or the prosecutor, require the offender to appear before it at any time and, after hearing the parties, that court may vary the conditions prescribed in the order if, in the opinion of the court, the variation is desirable because of changed circumstances.

  • Marginal note:Offence

    (4) Every person who is bound by an order of prohibition and who does not comply with the order is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • 2011, c. 6, s. 4.

 [Repealed, 2015, c. 13, s. 11]

 [Repealed, 2015, c. 13, s. 11]

Marginal note:Using mails to defraud

 Every one who makes use of the mails for the purpose of transmitting or delivering letters or circulars concerning schemes devised or intended to deceive or defraud the public, or for the purpose of obtaining money under false pretences, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 339.

Marginal note:Fraudulent manipulation of stock exchange transactions

 Every one who, through the facility of a stock exchange, curb market or other market, with intent to create a false or misleading appearance of active public trading in a security or with intent to create a false or misleading appearance with respect to the market price of a security,

  • (a) effects a transaction in the security that involves no change in the beneficial ownership thereof,

  • (b) enters an order for the purchase of the security, knowing that an order of substantially the same size at substantially the same time and at substantially the same price for the sale of the security has been or will be entered by or for the same or different persons, or

  • (c) enters an order for the sale of the security, knowing that an order of substantially the same size at substantially the same time and at substantially the same price for the purchase of the security has been or will be entered by or for the same or different persons,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 382;
  • 2004, c. 3, s. 4.

Marginal note:Prohibited insider trading

  •  (1) A person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years who, directly or indirectly, buys or sells a security, knowingly using inside information that they

    • (a) possess by virtue of being a shareholder of the issuer of that security;

    • (b) possess by virtue of, or obtained in the course of, their business or professional relationship with that issuer;

    • (c) possess by virtue of, or obtained in the course of, a proposed takeover or reorganization of, or amalgamation, merger or similar business combination with, that issuer;

    • (d) possess by virtue of, or obtained in the course of, their employment, office, duties or occupation with that issuer or with a person referred to in paragraphs (a) to (c); or

    • (e) obtained from a person who possesses or obtained the information in a manner referred to in paragraphs (a) to (d).

  • Marginal note:Tipping

    (2) Except when necessary in the course of business, a person who knowingly conveys inside information that they possess or obtained in a manner referred to in subsection (1) to another person, knowing that there is a risk that the person will use the information to buy or sell, directly or indirectly, a security to which the information relates, or that they may convey the information to another person who may buy or sell such a security, is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Saving

    (3) For greater certainty, an act is not an offence under this section if it is authorized or required, or is not prohibited, by any federal or provincial Act or regulation applicable to it.

  • Definition of inside information

    (4) In this section, inside information means information relating to or affecting the issuer of a security or a security that they have issued, or are about to issue, that

    • (a) has not been generally disclosed; and

    • (b) could reasonably be expected to significantly affect the market price or value of a security of the issuer.

  • 2004, c. 3, s. 5.
 
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