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Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2022-06-20 and last amended on 2022-06-20. Previous Versions

PART XX.1Mental Disorder (continued)

Appeals (continued)

Marginal note:Powers of court of appeal

  •  (1) The court of appeal may allow an appeal against a disposition or placement decision and set aside an order made by the court or Review Board, where the court of appeal is of the opinion that

    • (a) it is unreasonable or cannot be supported by the evidence;

    • (b) it is based on a wrong decision on a question of law; or

    • (c) there was a miscarriage of justice.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (2) The court of appeal may dismiss an appeal against a disposition or placement decision where the court is of the opinion

    • (a) that paragraphs (1)(a), (b) and (c) do not apply; or

    • (b) that paragraph (1)(b) may apply, but the court finds that no substantial wrong or miscarriage of justice has occurred.

  • Marginal note:Orders that the court may make

    (3) Where the court of appeal allows an appeal against a disposition or placement decision, it may

    • (a) make any disposition under section 672.54 or any placement decision that the Review Board could have made;

    • (b) refer the matter back to the court or Review Board for re-hearing, in whole or in part, in accordance with any directions that the court of appeal considers appropriate; or

    • (c) make any other order that justice requires.

  • 1991, c. 43, s. 4
  • 1997, c. 18, s. 89

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 22, s. 26]

 [Repealed, 2005, c. 22, s. 26]

Review of Dispositions

Marginal note:Mandatory review of dispositions

  •  (1) A Review Board shall hold a hearing not later than twelve months after making a disposition and every twelve months thereafter for as long as the disposition remains in force, to review any disposition that it has made in respect of an accused, other than an absolute discharge under paragraph 672.54(a).

  • Marginal note:Extension on consent

    (1.1) Despite subsection (1), the Review Board may extend the time for holding a hearing to a maximum of twenty-four months after the making or reviewing of a disposition if the accused is represented by counsel and the accused and the Attorney General consent to the extension.

  • Marginal note:Extension for serious personal violence offence

    (1.2) Despite subsection (1), at the conclusion of a hearing under this section the Review Board may, after making a disposition, extend the time for holding a subsequent hearing under this section to a maximum of twenty-four months if

    • (a) the accused has been found not crimi­nally responsible for a serious personal injury offence;

    • (b) the accused is subject to a disposition made under paragraph 672.54(c); and

    • (c) the Review Board is satisfied on the basis of any relevant information, including disposition information within the meaning of subsection 672.51(1) and an assessment report made under an assessment ordered under paragraph 672.121(a), that the condition of the accused is not likely to improve and that detention remains necessary for the period of the extension.

  • Definition of serious personal injury offence

    (1.3) For the purposes of subsection (1.2), serious personal injury offence means

    • (a) an indictable offence involving

      • (i) the use or attempted use of violence against another person, or

      • (ii) conduct endangering or likely to endanger the life or safety of another person or inflicting or likely to inflict severe psychological damage upon another person; or

    • (b) an indictable offence referred to in section 151, 152, 153, 153.1, 155, 160, 170, 171, 172, 271, 272 or 273 or an attempt to commit such an offence.

  • Marginal note:Extension on consent — high-risk accused

    (1.31) Despite subsections (1) to (1.2), the Review Board may extend the time for holding a hearing in respect of a high-risk accused to a maximum of 36 months after making or reviewing a disposition if the accused is represented by counsel and the accused and the Attorney General consent to the extension.

  • Marginal note:Extension — no likely improvement

    (1.32) Despite subsections (1) to (1.2), at the conclusion of a hearing under subsection 672.47(4) or this section in respect of a high-risk accused, the Review Board may, after making a disposition, extend the time for holding a subsequent hearing under this section to a maximum of 36 months if the Review Board is satisfied on the basis of any relevant information, including disposition information as defined in subsection 672.51(1) and an assessment report made under an assessment ordered under paragraph 672.121(c), that the accused’s condition is not likely to improve and that detention remains necessary for the period of the extension.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (1.4) If the Review Board extends the time for holding a hearing under subsection (1.2) or (1.32), it shall provide notice of the extension to the accused, the prosecutor and the person in charge of the hospital where the accused is detained.

  • Marginal note:Appeal

    (1.5) A decision by the Review Board to extend the time for holding a hearing under subsection (1.2) or (1.32) is deemed to be a disposition for the purpose of sections 672.72 to 672.78.

  • Marginal note:Additional mandatory reviews in custody cases

    (2) The Review Board shall hold a hearing to review any disposition made under paragraph 672.54(b) or (c) as soon as practicable after receiving notice that the person in charge of the place where the accused is detained or directed to attend requests the review.

  • Marginal note:Review in case of increase on restrictions on liberty

    (2.1) The Review Board shall hold a hearing to review a decision to significantly increase the restrictions on the liberty of the accused, as soon as practicable after receiving the notice referred to in subsection 672.56(2).

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (3) Where an accused is detained in custody pursuant to a disposition made under paragraph 672.54(c) and a sentence of imprisonment is subsequently imposed on the accused in respect of another offence, the Review Board shall hold a hearing to review the disposition as soon as is practicable after receiving notice of that sentence.

  • 1991, c. 43, s. 4
  • 2005, c. 22, ss. 27, 42(F)
  • 2014, c. 6, s. 15

Marginal note:Discretionary review

  •  (1) A Review Board may hold a hearing to review any of its dispositions at any time, of its own motion or at the request of the accused or any other party.

  • Marginal note:Review Board to provide notice

    (1.1) Where a Review Board holds a hearing under subsection (1) of its own motion, it shall provide notice to the prosecutor, the accused and any other party.

  • Marginal note:Review cancels appeal

    (2) Where a party requests a review of a disposition under this section, the party is deemed to abandon any appeal against the disposition taken under section 672.72.

  • 1991, c. 43, s. 4
  • 2005, c. 22, s. 28

Marginal note:Disposition by Review Board

  •  (1) At a hearing held pursuant to section 672.81 or 672.82, the Review Board shall, except where a determination is made under subsection 672.48(1) that the accused is fit to stand trial, review the disposition made in respect of the accused and make any other disposition that the Review Board considers to be appropriate in the circumstances.

  • (2) [Repealed, 2005, c. 22, s. 29]

  • 1991, c. 43, s. 4
  • 1997, c. 18, s. 90
  • 2005, c. 22, ss. 29, 42(F)

Marginal note:Review of finding — high-risk accused

  •  (1) If a Review Board holds a hearing under section 672.81 or 672.82 in respect of a high-risk accused, it shall, on the basis of any relevant information, including disposition information as defined in subsection 672.51(1) and an assessment report made under an assessment ordered under paragraph 672.121(c), if it is satisfied that there is not a substantial likelihood that the accused  — whether found to be a high-risk accused under paragraph 672.64(1)(a) or (b)  —  will use violence that could endanger the life or safety of another person, refer the finding for review to the superior court of criminal jurisdiction.

  • Marginal note:Review of conditions

    (2) If the Review Board is not so satisfied, it shall review the conditions of detention imposed under paragraph 672.54(c), subject to the restrictions set out in subsection 672.64(3).

  • Marginal note:Review of finding by court

    (3) If the Review Board refers the finding to the superior court of criminal jurisdiction for review, the court shall, at the conclusion of a hearing, revoke the finding if the court is satisfied that there is not a substantial likelihood that the accused will use violence that could endanger the life or safety of another person, in which case the court or the Review Board shall make a disposition under any of paragraphs 672.54(a) to (c).

  • Marginal note:Hearing and disposition

    (4) Any disposition referred to in subsection (3) is subject to sections 672.45 to 672.47 as if the revocation is a verdict.

  • Marginal note:Review of conditions

    (5) If the court does not revoke the finding, it shall immediately send to the Review Board, in original or copied form, a transcript of the hearing, any other document or information related to the hearing, and all exhibits filed with it, if the transcript, document, information or exhibits are in its possession. The Review Board shall, as soon as practicable but not later than 45 days after the day on which the court decides not to revoke the finding, hold a hearing and review the conditions of detention imposed under paragraph 672.54(c), subject to the restrictions set out in subsection 672.64(3).

  • Marginal note:Appeal

    (6) A decision under subsection (1) about referring the finding to the court for review and a decision under subsection (3) about revoking the finding are deemed to be dispositions for the purpose of sections 672.72 to 672.78.

  • 1991, c. 43, s. 4
  • 2005, c. 22, s. 30
  • 2014, c. 6, s. 16

Power to Compel Appearance

Marginal note:Bringing accused before Review Board

 For the purpose of bringing the accused in respect of whom a hearing is to be held before the Review Board, including in circumstances in which the accused did not attend a previous hearing in contravention of a summons or warrant, the chairperson

  • (a) shall order the person having custody of the accused to bring the accused to the hearing at the time and place fixed for it; or

  • (b) may, if the accused is not in custody, issue a summons or warrant to compel the accused to appear at the hearing at the time and place fixed for it.

  • 1991, c. 43, s. 4
  • 2005, c. 22, ss. 32, 42(F)

Stay of Proceedings

Marginal note:Recommendation by Review Board

  •  (1) The Review Board may, of its own motion, make a recommendation to the court that has jurisdiction in respect of the offence charged against an accused found unfit to stand trial to hold an inquiry to determine whether a stay of proceedings should be ordered if

    • (a) the Review Board has held a hearing under section 672.81 or 672.82 in respect of the accused; and

    • (b) on the basis of any relevant information, including disposition information within the meaning of subsection 672.51(1) and an assessment report made under an assessment ordered under paragraph 672.121(a), the Review Board is of the opinion that

      • (i) the accused remains unfit to stand trial and is not likely to ever become fit to stand trial, and

      • (ii) the accused does not pose a significant threat to the safety of the public.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (2) If the Review Board makes a recommendation to the court to hold an inquiry, the Review Board shall provide notice to the accused, the prosecutor and any party who, in the opinion of the Review Board, has a substantial interest in protecting the interests of the accused.

  • Marginal note:Inquiry

    (3) As soon as practicable after receiving the recommendation referred to in subsection (1), the court may hold an inquiry to determine whether a stay of proceedings should be ordered.

  • Marginal note:Court may act on own motion

    (4) A court may, of its own motion, conduct an inquiry to determine whether a stay of proceedings should be ordered if the court is of the opinion, on the basis of any relevant information, that

    • (a) the accused remains unfit to stand trial and is not likely to ever become fit to stand trial; and

    • (b) the accused does not pose a significant threat to the safety of the public.

  • Marginal note:Assessment order

    (5) If the court holds an inquiry under subsection (3) or (4), it shall order an assessment of the accused.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (6) Section 672.51 applies to an inquiry of the court under this section.

  • Marginal note:Stay

    (7) The court may, on completion of an inquiry under this section, order a stay of proceedings if it is satisfied

    • (a) on the basis of clear information, that the accused remains unfit to stand trial and is not likely to ever become fit to stand trial;

    • (b) that the accused does not pose a significant threat to the safety of the public; and

    • (c) that a stay is in the interests of the proper administration of justice.

  • Marginal note:Proper administration of justice

    (8) In order to determine whether a stay of proceedings is in the interests of the proper administration of justice, the court shall consider any submissions of the prosecutor, the accused and all other parties and the following factors:

    • (a) the nature and seriousness of the alleged offence;

    • (b) the salutary and deleterious effects of the order for a stay of proceedings, including any effect on public confidence in the administration of justice;

    • (c) the time that has elapsed since the commission of the alleged offence and whether an inquiry has been held under section 672.33 to decide whether sufficient evidence can be adduced to put the accused on trial; and

    • (d) any other factor that the court considers relevant.

  • Marginal note:Effect of stay

    (9) If a stay of proceedings is ordered by the court, any disposition made in respect of the accused ceases to have effect. If a stay of proceedings is not ordered, the finding of unfit to stand trial and any disposition made in respect of the accused remain in force, until the Review Board holds a disposition hearing and makes a disposition in respect of the accused under section 672.83.

  • 2005, c. 22, s. 33

Marginal note:Appeal

  •  (1) The Court of Appeal may allow an appeal against an order made under subsection 672.851(7) for a stay of proceedings, if the Court of Appeal is of the opinion that the order is unreasonable or cannot be supported by the evidence.

  • Marginal note:Effect

    (2) If the Court of Appeal allows the appeal, it may set aside the order for a stay of proceedings and restore the finding that the accused is unfit to stand trial and the disposition made in respect of the accused.

  • 2005, c. 22, s. 33

Interprovincial Transfers

Marginal note:Interprovincial transfers

  •  (1) An accused who is detained in custody or directed to attend at a hospital pursuant to a disposition made by a court or Review Board under paragraph 672.54(c) or a court under section 672.58 may be transferred to any other place in Canada where

    • (a) the Review Board of the province where the accused is detained or directed to attend recommends a transfer for the purpose of the reintegration of the accused into society or the recovery, treatment or custody of the accused; and

    • (b) the Attorney General of the province to which the accused is being transferred, or an officer authorized by that Attorney General, and the Attorney General of the province from which the accused is being transferred, or an officer authorized by that Attorney General, give their consent.

  • Marginal note:Transfer where accused in custody

    (2) Where an accused who is detained in custody is to be transferred, an officer authorized by the Attorney General of the province where the accused is being detained shall sign a warrant specifying the place in Canada to which the accused is to be transferred.

  • Marginal note:Transfer if accused not in custody

    (2.1) An accused who is not detained in custody may be transferred to any other place in Canada where

    • (a) the Review Board of the province from which the accused is being transferred recommends a transfer for the purpose of the reintegration of the accused into society or the recovery or treatment of the accused; and

    • (b) the Attorney General of the province to which the accused is being transferred, or an officer authorized by that Attorney General, and the Attorney General of the province from which the accused is being transferred, or an officer authorized by that Attorney General, give their consent.

  • Marginal note:Order

    (3) Where an accused is being transferred in accordance with subsection (2.1), the Review Board of the province from which the accused is being transferred shall, by order,

    • (a) direct that the accused be taken into custody and transferred pursuant to a warrant under subsection (2); or

    • (b) direct that the accused attend at a specified place in Canada, subject to any conditions that the Review Board of the province to or from which the accused is being transferred considers appropriate.

  • 1991, c. 43, s. 4
  • 2005, c. 22, s. 34
 
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