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Canadian Aviation Regulations (SOR/96-433)

Regulations are current to 2022-06-20 and last amended on 2022-03-06. Previous Versions

Part VI — General Operating and Flight Rules (continued)

Subpart 5 — Aircraft Requirements (continued)

Division II — Aircraft Equipment Requirements (continued)

Power-driven Aircraft — IFR

 No person shall conduct a take-off in a power-driven aircraft for the purpose of IFR flight unless it is equipped with

  • (a) when it is operated by day, the equipment required pursuant to paragraphs 605.16(1)(a) to (h);

  • (b) when it is operated by night, the equipment required pursuant to paragraphs 605.16(1)(a) to (k);

  • (c) an attitude indicator;

  • (d) a vertical speed indicator;

  • (e) an outside air temperature gauge;

  • (f) a means of preventing malfunction caused by icing for each airspeed indicating system;

  • (g) a power failure warning device or vacuum indicator that shows the power available to gyroscopic instruments from each power source;

  • (h) an alternative source of static pressure for the altimeter, airspeed indicator and vertical speed indicator;

  • (i) sufficient radiocommunication equipment to permit the pilot to conduct two-way communications on the appropriate frequency; and

  • (j) sufficient radio navigation equipment to permit the pilot, in the event of the failure at any stage of the flight of any item of that equipment, including any associated flight instrument display,

    • (i) to proceed to the destination aerodrome or proceed to another aerodrome that is suitable for landing, and

    • (ii) where the aircraft is operated in IMC, to complete an instrument approach and, if necessary, conduct a missed approach procedure.

Balloons — Day VFR

 No person shall conduct a take-off in a balloon for the purpose of day VFR flight unless it is equipped with

  • (a) an altimeter;

  • (b) a vertical speed indicator;

  • (c) in the case of a hot air balloon,

    • (i) a fuel quantity gauge, and

    • (ii) an envelope temperature indicator;

  • (d) in the case of a captive gas balloon, a magnetic direction indicator; and

  • (e) subject to subsections 601.08(2) and 601.09(2), a radiocommunication system adequate to permit two-way communication on the appropriate frequency when the balloon is operated within

    • (i) Class C or Class D airspace,

    • (ii) an MF area, unless the aircraft is operated pursuant to subsection 602.97(3), or

    • (iii) the ADIZ.

Balloons — Night VFR

 No person shall conduct a take-off in a balloon for the purpose of night VFR flight unless it is equipped with

  • (a) equipment required pursuant to section 605.19;

  • (b) position lights;

  • (c) a means of illuminating all of the instruments used by the flight crew, including a flashlight; and

  • (d) in the case of a hot air balloon, two independent fuel systems.

Gliders — Day VFR

 No person shall operate a glider in day VFR flight unless it is equipped with

  • (a) an altimeter;

  • (b) an airspeed indicator;

  • (c) a magnetic compass or a magnetic direction indicator; and

  • (d) subject to subsections 601.08(2) and 601.09(2), a radiocommunication system adequate to permit two-way communication on the appropriate frequency when the glider is operated within

    • (i) Class C or Class D airspace,

    • (ii) an MF area, unless the aircraft is operated pursuant to subsection 602.97(3), or

    • (iii) the ADIZ.

Seat and Safety Belt Requirements
  •  (1) Subject to subsection 605.23, no person shall operate an aircraft other than a balloon unless it is equipped with a seat and safety belt for each person on board the aircraft other than an infant.

  • (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person operating an aircraft that was type-certificated with a safety belt designed for two persons.

  • (3) A safety belt referred to in subsection (1) shall include a latching device of the metal-to-metal type.

Restraint System Requirements

 An aircraft may be operated without being equipped in accordance with section 605.22 in respect of the following persons if a restraint system that is secured to the primary structure of the aircraft is provided for each person who is

  • (a) carried on a stretcher or in an incubator or other similar device;

  • (b) carried for the purpose of parachuting from the aircraft; or

  • (c) required to work in the vicinity of an opening in the aircraft structure.

Shoulder Harness Requirements
  •  (1) No person shall operate an aeroplane, other than a small aeroplane manufactured before July 18, 1978, unless each front seat or, if the aeroplane has a flight deck, each seat on the flight deck is equipped with a safety belt that includes a shoulder harness.

  • (2) Except as provided in section 705.75, no person shall operate a transport category aeroplane unless each flight attendant seat is equipped with a safety belt that includes a shoulder harness.

  • (3) No person shall operate a small aeroplane manufactured after December 12, 1986, the initial type certificate of which provides for not more than nine passenger seats, excluding any pilot seats, unless each forward- or aft-facing seat is equipped with a safety belt that includes a shoulder harness.

  • (4) No person shall operate a helicopter manufactured after September 16, 1992, the initial type certificate of which specifies that the helicopter is certified as belonging to the normal or transport category, unless each seat is equipped with a safety belt that includes a shoulder harness.

  • (5) No person operating an aircraft shall conduct any of the following flight operations unless the aircraft is equipped with a seat and a safety belt that includes a shoulder harness for each person on board the aircraft:

    • (a) aerobatic manoeuvres;

    • (b) class B, C or D external load operations conducted by a helicopter; and

    • (c) aerial application, or aerial inspection other than flight inspection for the purpose of calibrating electronic navigation aids, conducted at altitudes below 500 feet AGL.

General Use of Safety Belts and Restraint Systems
  •  (1) The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall direct all of the persons on board the aircraft to fasten safety belts, including any shoulder harness,

    • (a) during movement of the aircraft on the surface;

    • (b) during take-off and landing; and

    • (c) at any time during flight that the pilot-in-command considers it necessary that safety belts be fastened.

  • (2) The directions referred to in subsection (1) also apply to the use of the following restraint systems:

    • (a) a child restraint system;

    • (b) a restraint system used by a person who is engaged in parachute descents; and

    • (c) a restraint system used by a person when working in the vicinity of an opening in the aircraft structure.

  • (3) Where an aircraft crew includes flight attendants and the pilot-in-command anticipates that the level of turbulence will exceed light turbulence, the pilot-in-command shall immediately direct each flight attendant to

    • (a) discontinue duties relating to service;

    • (b) secure the cabin; and

    • (c) occupy a seat and fasten the safety belt provided, including any shoulder harness.

  • (4) Where an aircraft is experiencing turbulence and the in-charge flight attendant considers it necessary, the in-charge flight attendant shall

    • (a) direct all of the passengers to fasten their safety belts; and

    • (b) direct all flight attendants to discontinue duties relating to service, to secure the cabin, to occupy the assigned seats and to fasten the safety belts provided, including any shoulder harness, and to do so oneself.

  • (5) Where the in-charge flight attendant has given directions in accordance with subsection (4), the in-charge flight attendant shall so inform the pilot-in-command.

Use of Passenger Safety Belts and Restraint Systems
  •  (1) Where the pilot-in-command or the in-charge flight attendant directs that safety belts be fastened, every passenger who is not an infant shall

    • (a) ensure that the passenger’s safety belt, including any shoulder harness, or restraint system is properly adjusted and securely fastened;

    • (b) if responsible for an infant for which no child restraint system is provided, hold the infant securely in the passenger’s arms; and

    • (c) if responsible for a person who is using a child restraint system, ensure that the person is properly secured.

  • (2) No passenger shall be responsible for more than one infant.

Use of Crew Member Safety Belts
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), the crew members on an aircraft shall be seated at their stations with their safety belts, including any shoulder harness, fastened

    • (a) during take-off and landing;

    • (b) at any time that the pilot-in-command directs; and

    • (c) in the case of crew members who are flight attendants, at any time that the in-charge flight attendant so directs pursuant to paragraph 605.25(4)(b).

  • (2) Where the pilot-in-command directs that safety belts be fastened by illuminating the safety belt sign, a crew member is not required to comply with paragraph (1)(b)

    • (a) during movement of the aircraft on the surface or during flight, if the crew member is performing duties relating to the safety of the aircraft or of the passengers on board;

    • (b) where the aircraft is experiencing light turbulence, if the crew member is a flight attendant and is performing duties relating to the passengers on board; or

    • (c) if the crew member is occupying a crew rest facility during cruise flight and the restraint system for that facility is properly adjusted and securely fastened.

  • (3) The pilot-in-command shall ensure that at least one pilot is seated at the flight controls with safety belt, including any shoulder harness, fastened during flight time.

Child Restraint System
  •  (1) No operator of an aircraft shall permit the use of a child restraint system on board the aircraft unless

    • (a) the person using the child restraint system is accompanied by a parent or guardian who will attend to the safety of the person during the flight;

    • (b) the weight and height of the person using the child restraint system are within the range specified by the manufacturer;

    • (c) the child restraint system bears a legible label indicating the applicable design standards and date of manufacture;

    • (d) the child restraint system is properly secured by the safety belt of a forward-facing seat that is not located in an emergency exit row and does not block access to an aisle; and

    • (e) the tether strap is used according to the manufacturer’s instructions or, where subsection (2) applies, secured so as not to pose a hazard to the person using the child restraint system or to any other person.

  • (2) Where a seat incorporates design features to reduce occupant loads, such as the crushing or separation of certain components, and the seat is in compliance with the applicable design standards, no person shall use the tether strap on the child restraint system to secure the system.

  • (3) Every passenger who is responsible for a person who is using a child restraint system on board an aircraft shall be

    • (a) seated in a seat adjacent to the seat to which the child restraint system is secured;

    • (b) familiar with the manufacturer’s installation instructions for the child restraint system; and

    • (c) familiar with the method of securing the person in the child restraint system and of releasing the person from it.

Flight Control Locks

 No operator of an aircraft shall permit the use of a flight control lock in respect of the aircraft unless

  • (a) the flight control lock is incapable of becoming engaged when the aircraft is being operated; and

  • (b) an unmistakable warning is provided to the person operating the aircraft whenever the flight control lock is engaged.

De-icing or Anti-icing Equipment

 No person shall conduct a take-off or continue a flight in an aircraft where icing conditions are reported to exist or are forecast to be encountered along the route of flight unless

  • (a) the pilot-in-command determines that the aircraft is adequately equipped to operate in icing conditions in accordance with the standards of airworthiness under which the type certificate for that aircraft was issued; or

  • (b) current weather reports or pilot reports indicate that icing conditions no longer exist.

Oxygen Equipment and Supply
  •  (1) No person shall operate an unpressurized aircraft unless it is equipped with sufficient oxygen dispensing units and oxygen supply to comply with the requirements set out in the table to this subsection.

    TABLE

    Oxygen Requirements for Unpressurized Aircraft

    Column IColumn II
    ItemPersons for Whom Oxygen Supply Must Be AvailablePeriod of Flight and Cabin-Pressure-Altitude
    1All crew members and 10 per cent of passengers and, in any case, no less than one passengerEntire period of flight exceeding 30 minutes at cabin-pressure-altitudes above 10,000 feet ASL but not exceeding 13,000 feet ASL
    2All persons on board the aircraft
    • (a) Entire period of flight at-cabin-pressure altitudes above 13,000 feet ASL

    • (b) For aircraft operated in an air transport service under the conditions referred to in paragraph (a), a period of flight of not less than one hour

  • (2) No person shall operate a pressurized aircraft unless it is equipped with sufficient oxygen dispensing units and oxygen supply to provide, in the event of cabin pressurization failure at the most critical point during the flight, sufficient oxygen to continue the flight to an aerodrome suitable for landing while complying with the requirements of the table to this subsection.

    TABLE

    Minimum Oxygen Requirements for Pressurized Aircraft Following Emergency Descent (Note 1)

    Column IColumn II
    ItemPersons for Whom Oxygen Supply Must Be AvailablePeriod of Flight and Cabin-Pressure-Altitude
    1All crew members and 10 per cent of passengers and, in any case, no less than one passenger
    • (a) Entire period of flight exceeding 30 minutes at cabin-pressure-altitudes above 10,000 feet ASL but not exceeding 13,000 feet ASL

    • (b) Entire period of flight at cabin-pressure-altitudes above 13,000 feet ASL

    • (c) For aircraft operated in an air transport service under the conditions referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), a period of flight of not less than

      • (i) 30 minutes (Note 2), and

      • (ii) for flight crew members, two hours for aircraft the type certificate of which authorizes flight at altitudes exceeding FL 250 (Note 3)

    2All passengers
    • (a) Entire period of flight at cabin-pressure-altitudes exceeding 13,000 feet ASL

    • (b) For aircraft operated in an air transport service under the conditions referred to in paragraph (a), a period of flight of not less than 10 minutes

    Note 1: In determining the available supply, the cabin-pressure- altitude descent profile for the routes concerned must be taken into account.

    Note 2: The minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a constant rate of descent from the aircraft’s maximum operating altitude authorized in the type certificate to 10,000 feet ASL in 10 minutes, followed by 20 minutes at 10,000 feet ASL.

    Note 3: The minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a constant rate of descent from the aircraft’s maximum operating altitude authorized in the type certificate to 10,000 feet ASL in 10 minutes, followed by 110 minutes at 10,000 feet ASL.

 
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