PART 4Actions (continued)
Discovery and Inspection (continued)
Discovery of Documents (continued)
Marginal note:Order for production and inspection
229 On motion, the Court may order the production for inspection and copying by a party of any document referred to in subsection 228(1), at a time and place and in a manner set out in the order.
Marginal note:Relief from production
230 On motion, the Court may relieve a party from production for inspection of any document, having regard to
(a) the issues in the case and the order in which they are likely to be resolved; and
(b) whether it would be unduly onerous to require the person to produce the document.
Marginal note:Disclosure or production not admission
231 The disclosure of a document or its production for inspection does not constitute an admission of its authenticity or admissibility in the action.
Marginal note:Undisclosed or privileged document
(a) disclosed on a party's affidavit of documents as a document for which no privilege has been claimed;
(b) produced for inspection by a party, or a person examined on behalf of one of the parties, on or subsequent to examinations for discovery; or
(c) produced by a witness who is not, in the opinion of the Court, under control of the party.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a document that is used solely as a foundation for, or as a part of a question in, cross-examination or re-examination.
- SOR/2010-176, s. 3(F).
Marginal note:Production from non-party with leave
233 (1) On motion, the Court may order the production of any document that is in the possession of a person who is not a party to the action, if the document is relevant and its production could be compelled at trial.
Marginal note:Personal service on non-party
(2) Notice of a motion for an order under subsection (1) shall be personally served on the person who is in possession of the document.
Marginal note:Preparation of certified copy
(3) The Court may, in an order under subsection (1), give directions for the preparation of a certified copy of the document to be used instead of the original.
Examinations for Discovery
Marginal note:Both oral and written examination
234 (1) A party may conduct an examination for discovery by way of both an oral and a written examination only with leave of the Court or with the consent of the person being examined and all other parties entitled to examine that person.
Marginal note:Oral examination by two or more parties
(2) Where two or more parties are entitled to examine a person, the examination for discovery shall be by way of an oral examination, except with leave of the Court or with the consent of the person being examined and all other parties entitled to examine that person.
Marginal note:Single examination
235 Except with leave of the Court, a party may examine for discovery any adverse party only once.
Marginal note:When examination may be initiated
(a) the pleadings are closed and the examining party has served its affidavit of documents;
(b) the pleadings are closed and the adverse party consents to the examination being conducted before the examining party has served its affidavit of documents; or
(c) the adverse party is in default of serving and filing its pleadings and leave of the Court has been obtained.
Marginal note:Examination by defendant
(2) Subject to subsection (3), a defendant may examine a plaintiff at any time after the statement of claim is filed.
Marginal note:Multiple defendants
(3) Where two or more defendants are represented by the same solicitor, none of them may examine the plaintiff before filing a defence unless all of them examine the plaintiff at the same time.
Marginal note:Representative selected
Marginal note:Examination of Crown
(2) Where the Crown is to be examined for discovery, the Attorney General of Canada shall select a representative to be examined on its behalf.
Marginal note:Order for substitution
(3) The Court may, on the motion of a party entitled to examine a person selected under subsection (1) or (2), order that some other person be examined.
Marginal note:Examination of assignee
(4) Where an assignee is a party to an action, the assignor may also be examined for discovery.
Marginal note:Examination of trustee in bankruptcy
(5) Where a trustee in bankruptcy is a party to an action, the bankrupt may also be examined for discovery.
Marginal note:Examination of party under legal disability
(6) If a party intends to examine for discovery a person who is appointed under paragraph 115(1)(b) to represent a person under a legal disability, the party may, with leave of the Court, also examine the person under a legal disability.
Marginal note:Examination of nominal party
(7) Where a party intends to examine for discovery a person bringing or defending an action on behalf of another person who is not a party, with leave of the Court, the party may also examine that other person.
- SOR/2013-18, s. 5.
Marginal note:Examination of non-parties with leave
238 (1) A party to an action may bring a motion for leave to examine for discovery any person not a party to the action, other than an expert witness for a party, who might have information on an issue in the action.
Marginal note:Personal service on non-party
(2) On a motion under subsection (1), the notice of motion shall be served on the other parties and personally served on the person to be examined.
Marginal note:Where Court may grant leave
(3) The Court may, on a motion under subsection (1), grant leave to examine a person and determine the time and manner of conducting the examination, if it is satisfied that
(a) the person may have information on an issue in the action;
(b) the party has been unable to obtain the information informally from the person or from another source by any other reasonable means;
(c) it would be unfair not to allow the party an opportunity to question the person before trial; and
(d) the questioning will not cause undue delay, inconvenience or expense to the person or to the other parties.
Marginal note:Expenses of person examined
Marginal note:Assistance of solicitor
(2) A person being examined under rule 238 is entitled to be assisted by a solicitor.
Marginal note:Costs of solicitor
(3) On motion, the Court may, in special circumstances, order that the costs of a solicitor assisting a person to be examined under rule 238 be included in the amounts paid under subsection (1).
Marginal note:Questioning by other parties
(4) A person being examined under rule 238 may also be questioned by any other party.
Marginal note:Cross-examination or hearsay
(5) A person being examined under rule 238 shall not be cross-examined and shall not be required to give hearsay evidence.
Marginal note:Use as evidence at trial
(6) The testimony of a person who was examined under rule 238 shall not be used as evidence at trial but, if the person is a witness at trial, it may be used in cross-examination in the same manner as any written statement of a witness.
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