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Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (SOR/2016-151)

Regulations are current to 2021-11-17 and last amended on 2021-01-01. Previous Versions

PART 1Boilers and Heaters (continued)

Quantification (continued)

Type of Gas (continued)

Marginal note:Fixed HHV of commercial grade natural gas

 If the concentration of methane in the commercial grade natural gas introduced into the combustion chamber is fixed as 95%, in accordance with subparagraph 16(2)(a)(ii), the higher heating value of the commercial grade natural gas must, for the purpose of paragraph 29(b), be fixed as 0.03793 in accordance with subparagraph (a)(ii) of the description of HHVi in that paragraph.

Thermal Efficiency

Marginal note:Modern boiler

 The thermal efficiency of a modern boiler, for a given day, must be determined by the formula

100% – Ldfg – Lw – Lrc – Lo

where

Ldfg
is the percentage of loss of thermal efficiency due to the thermal energy contained in the boiler’s flue gas determined on a dry basis for an hour in the given day, determined in accordance with section 19;
Lw
is the percentage of loss of thermal efficiency due to the thermal energy contained in the water in the boiler’s flue gas for an hour in the given day, determined in accordance with section 20;
Lrc
is the percentage of loss of thermal efficiency due to radiation and to convection of the boiler’s surfaces for an hour in the given day, being
  • (a) for a watertube boiler, the percentage of loss of thermal efficiency that is

    • (i) set out in, as applicable, column 2, 3 or 4 of Schedule 4, if the boiler operates during that hour at, respectively, 100%, 80% or 60% of its rated capacity, for the rated capacity of the boiler set out in column 1 of that Schedule and for that percentage , or

    • (ii) interpolated on a linear basis from

      • (A) the rated capacity of the boiler within the applicable range of rated capacities as between two consecutive rows of rated capacities set out in column 1 of Schedule 4, and

      • (B) the percentage of loss of thermal efficiency at which the boiler operates during that hour as set out in

        • (I) the range between the percentages set out in columns 2 and 3 of Schedule 4, if it operates between 100% and 80% of its rated capacity, or

        • (II) the range between percentages set out in columns 3 and 4 of that Schedule, if it operates between 80% and 60% of its rated capacity,

  • (b) for a firetube boiler, 0.5%, and

  • (c) in any other case, 1%; and

Lo
is the percentage of loss of thermal efficiency due to other sources, which is deemed to be 0.1%.

Marginal note:Determination of Ldfg

 Ldfg referred to in section 18 must be determined for an hour in the given day by the formula

1.005 × (Tg – Ti)/HHVm × Mg × 100

where

Tg
is the average temperature, expressed in °C, of the flue gas, as measured in the stack, during that hour;
Ti
is the average temperature , expressed in °C, of the air introduced into the combustion chamber during that hour;
HHVm
is the higher heating value of the fuel combusted during that hour, expressed on a mass basis in kJ/kg, being
  • (a) for commercial grade natural gas,

    • (i) the higher heating value, determined in accordance with any of the required HHV methods set out in section 22 that apply, or

    • (ii) 51 800 kJ/kg, and

  • (b) in any other case, the weighted average of the higher heating value of each fuel combusted during that hour, expressed on a mass basis in kJ/kg, determined in accordance with any of the required HHV methods set out in section 22 that apply; and

Mg
is the average ratio of the mass of the flue gas to the mass of the fuel combusted, expressed in kg/kg, during that hour, determined by the formula

0.962 × [1 + %O2/(20.9 – %O2)] × Ms

where

%O2
is the percentage of oxygen, determined by volume on a dry basis, in the flue gas, determined in accordance with EPA Method 3A or ASTM D6522-11,
Ms
is the ratio of the stoichiometric mass of the flue gas to the mass of the fuel combusted, expressed in kg/kg, being
  • (a) for commercial grade natural gas,

    • (i) the ratio determined in accordance with paragraph (b), or

    • (ii) 15.3 kg/kg, and

  • (b) in any other case, the ratio determined by the formula:

    12.492C + 26.296H + N + 5.305S – 3.313O

    where the concentration of each of the following constituents of the fuel combusted is determined in accordance with subsections 23(1) and (2) and

    C
    is the concentration of carbon in the fuel combusted, expressed in kg of carbon per kg of that fuel,
    H
    is the concentration of hydrogen in the fuel combusted, expressed in kg of hydrogen per kg of that fuel,
    N
    is the concentration of nitrogen in the fuel combusted, expressed in kg of nitrogen per kg of that fuel,
    S
    is the concentration of sulphur in the fuel combusted, expressed in kg of sulphur per kg of that fuel, and
    O
    is the concentration of oxygen in the fuel combusted, expressed in kg of oxygen per kg of that fuel.

Marginal note:Determination of Lw

 Lw referred to in section 18 must be determined for an hour of the given day by the formula

8.94H × [2450 + 1.989(Tg – Ti)]/HHVm × 100

where

H
is the concentration of hydrogen in the fuel combusted during that hour, expressed in kg of hydrogen per kg of that fuel, being
  • (a) for commercial grade natural gas,

    • (i) a weighted average calculated on the basis of the determination of the concentration, expressed in kg/kg, of each of the constituents of the commercial grade natural gas made in accordance with ASTM D1945-03 or ASTM D1946-90, or

    • (ii) 0.237 kg/kg, and

  • (b) in any other case, the concentration determined in accordance with subsections 23(1) and (2);

Tg
is the average temperature, expressed in °C, of the flue gas, as measured in the stack during that hour;
Ti
is the average temperature, expressed in °C, of the air introduced into the combustion chamber during that hour; and
HHVm
is the higher heating value of the fuel combusted during that hour, expressed on a mass basis in kJ/kg, being
  • (a) for commercial grade natural gas,

    • (i) the higher heating value determined in accordance with any of the required HHV methods set out in section 22 that apply, or

    • (ii) 51 800 kJ/kg, and

  • (b) in any other case, the weighted average of the higher heating value of each fuel introduced into the combustion chamber, expressed on a mass basis in kJ/kg, determined in accordance with any of the required HHV methods set out in section 22 that apply;

Marginal note:Commercial grade natural gas — determined or fixed

 The value for commercial grade natural gas for HHVm in sections 19 and 20, for Ms in section 19 and for H in section 20 must all be either

  • (a) determined

    • (i) for H, as a weighted average calculated on the basis of determinations made in accordance with the one of the ASTM methods referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) of H,

    • (ii) for HHVm, in accordance with subparagraph (a)(i) of HHVm, and

    • (iii) for Ms, by the formula set out in paragraph (b) of Ms; or

  • (b) fixed as the applicable ratio referred to, respectively, in H, HHVm and Ms.

Marginal note:Required HHV methods

 The required HHV methods are

  • (a) for gaseous fuels, as applicable,

    • (i) the ASTM D1826-94 method entitled Standard Test Method for Calorific (Heating) Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Continuous Recording Calorimeter, published by ASTM,

    • (ii) the ASTM D3588-98 method entitled Standard Practice for Calculating Heat Value, Compressibility Factor, and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels, published by ASTM,

    • (iii) the ASTM D4891-89 method entitled Standard Test Method for Heating Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Stoichiometric Combustion, published by ASTM, and

    • (iv) the GPA Standard 2172-09 method entitled Calculation of Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibility and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer, published by the Gas Processors Association of the United States and by the American Petroleum Institute (API) of the United States as the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 14.5 (R2014);

  • (b) for liquid fuels, as applicable,

    • (i) the ASTM D240-09 method entitled Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter, published by ASTM, and

    • (ii) the ASTM D4809-09ae1 method entitled Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method), published by ASTM; and

  • (c) for solid fuels, as applicable,

    • (i) the ASTM D5865-12 method entitled Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Coke, published by ASTM, and

    • (ii) the ASTM D5468-02 method entitled Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific and Ash Value of Waste Materials, published by ASTM.

Marginal note:Constituents of fuel

  •  (1) The concentration of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen per kilogram of fuel introduced into the combustion chamber must be determined as a weighted average of the concentration of each of the constituents of each fuel in accordance with subsection (2).

  • Marginal note:Required concentration standards and calculation methods

    (2) The concentration of the constituents of fuel must be determined

    • (a) for gaseous fuels, in accordance with, as applicable,

      • (i) ASTM D1945-03, and

      • (ii) ASTM D1946-90;

    • (b) for liquid fuels,

      • (i) in the case of the concentration of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, in accordance with the ASTM D5291-10 method entitled Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants, published by ASTM,

      • (ii) in the case of the concentration of sulphur, in accordance with the ASTM D4294-10 method entitled Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, published by ASTM, and

      • (iii) in the case of the concentration of oxygen, to be the remaining concentration after removing the determinations made for the concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur; and

    • (c) for solid fuel that

      • (i) is coal or coke,

        • (A) in the case of the concentration of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, in accordance with the ASTM D5373-08 method entitled Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal, published by ASTM,

        • (B) in the case of the concentration of sulphur, in accordance with the ASTM D4239-12 method entitled Standard Test Method for Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke Using High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion, published by ASTM, and

        • (C) in the case of the concentration of oxygen, to be the remaining concentration after removing the determinations made for the concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur, and

      • (ii) is derived from waste,

        • (A) in the case of the concentration of carbon and hydrogen, in accordance with the ASTM E777-08 method entitled Standard Test Method for Carbon and Hydrogen in the Analysis Sample of Refuse-Derived Fuel, published by ASTM,

        • (B) in the case of the concentration of nitrogen, in accordance with the ASTM E778-08 method entitled Standard Test Methods for Nitrogen in the Analysis Sample of Refuse-Derived Fuel, published by ASTM ,

        • (C) in the case of the concentration of sulphur, in accordance with the ASTM E775-87(2008)e1 method entitled Standard Test Methods for Total Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Refuse-Derived Fuel, published by ASTM, and

        • (D) in the case of the concentration of oxygen, to be the remaining concentration after removing the determinations made for the concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur.

Marginal note:Difference of temperature — preheated air

 For a modern heater that is equipped to preheat air, the difference between the temperature of its preheated air and the ambient air, for a given hour, must be determined by the formula

Tp − Ta

where

Tp
is the average temperature, expressed in °C, of the heater’s preheated air introduced into the combustion chamber during the given hour, as measured at the point of introduction to the combustion chamber; and
Ta
is the average temperature, expressed in °C, of the ambient air introduced into the preheater during the given hour, as measured at the point of introduction to the air preheater.

Determination of NOx Emission Intensity

Stack Test or CEMS Test

Marginal note:Conditions

 The NOx emission intensity of a boiler or heater must be determined by means of

  • (a) a stack test or a CEMS test, if

    • (i) the boiler’s or heater’s rated capacity is at most 262.5 GJ/h, or

    • (ii) the boiler’s or heater’s rated capacity is more than 262.5 GJ/h and its NOx emission intensity was less than 80% of the NOx emission intensity limit applicable to it under any of sections 6, 7, 9 to 11, 13 and 14, as determined by means of one or more stack tests during

      • (A) its initial test conducted under section 33, and

      • (B) each of the first two compliance tests conducted under subparagraph 38(2)(c)(i); and

  • (b) subject to subsections 26(1) and paragraphs 33(2)(a) and 38(2)(a), a CEMS test in any other case.

Marginal note:Identification — exception to paragraph 25(b)

  •  (1) The NOx emission intensity of a boiler or heater that is to be determined under paragraph 25(b) must be determined for a given hour in accordance with subsection (2), if the boiler or heater

    • (a) is not equipped with a CEMS; and

    • (b) has been identified under subsection (5) with another boiler or heater whose NOx emission intensity is determined for that given hour by means of a CEMS test as a rolling hourly average.

  • Marginal note:Greater of stack test and CEMS test

    (2) The NOx emission intensity of a boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(a) for each hour is the greater of

    • (a) the result of a stack test that is applicable to that hour, and

    • (b) the rolling hourly average for that hour determined by means of a CEMS test conducted on the other boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(b).

  • Marginal note:Identification

    (3) A boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(a) may be identified with another boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(b) if the following conditions are met:

    • (a) they have the same manufacturer;

    • (b) they have the same rated capacity;

    • (c) they are designed to have the same NOx emission intensity;

    • (d) they have the same equipment to preheat air, if any;

    • (e) they combust fuel from a common source;

    • (f) they are juxtaposed; and

    • (g) they are

      • (i) both class 80,

      • (ii) both class 70,

      • (iii) both transitional or modern, or one is transitional and the other is modern, or

      • (iv) both redesigned within the meaning of paragraph 10(2)(b).

  • Marginal note:When identification made

    (4) The identification is made as of

    • (a) for class 80 boilers or heaters, the earlier of

      • (i) the recommissioning date of the boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(a), if it underwent a major modification, and

      • (ii) January 1, 2026;

    • (b) for class 70 boilers or heaters, the earlier of

      • (i) the recommissioning date of the boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(a), if it underwent a major modification, and

      • (ii) January 1, 2036;

    • (c) for transitional or modern boilers or heaters, the commissioning date of the boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(a); and

    • (d) for redesigned boilers or heaters referred to in section 10, the recommissioning date of the boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(a).

  • Marginal note:Identification by recording

    (5) The identification is made on the recording of the following information:

    • (a) the name of the manufacturer — along with the serial number, make and model — of the boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(a);

    • (b) the name of the manufacturer — along with the serial number, make and model — of the other boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(b);

    • (c) documentation that establishes that those boilers or heaters meet the conditions set out in paragraphs (3)(b) to (g);

    • (d) an indication that the boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (a) is identified with the boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (b); and

    • (e) the date of the recording.

  • Marginal note:At most four identifications

    (6) At most four boilers or heaters may be identified under subsection (5) with a given other boiler or heater referred to in paragraph (1)(b).

 
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