Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2016-08-15 and last amended on 2016-06-17. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Where warrant not necessary

 A peace officer, or a public officer who has been appointed or designated to administer or enforce any federal or provincial law and whose duties include the enforcement of this or any other Act of Parliament, may, in the course of his or her duties, exercise any of the powers described in subsection 487(1) or 492.1(1) without a warrant if the conditions for obtaining a warrant exist but by reason of exigent circumstances it would be impracticable to obtain a warrant.

  • 1997, c. 18, s. 46.
Marginal note:Restriction on publication

 If a search warrant is issued under section 487 or 487.1 or a search is made under such a warrant, every one who publishes in any document, or broadcasts or transmits in any way, any information with respect to

  • (a) the location of the place searched or to be searched, or

  • (b) the identity of any person who is or appears to occupy or be in possession or control of that place or who is suspected of being involved in any offence in relation to which the warrant was issued,

without the consent of every person referred to in paragraph (b) is, unless a charge has been laid in respect of any offence in relation to which the warrant was issued, guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 69;
  • 2005, c. 32, s. 16.
Marginal note:Order denying access to information
  •  (1) On application made at the time an application is made for a warrant under this or any other Act of Parliament, an order under any of sections 487.013 to 487.018 or an authorization under section 529 or 529.4, or at a later time, a justice, a judge of a superior court of criminal jurisdiction or a judge of the Court of Quebec may make an order prohibiting access to, and the disclosure of, any information relating to the warrant, order or authorization on the ground that

    • (a) the ends of justice would be subverted by the disclosure for one of the reasons referred to in subsection (2) or the information might be used for an improper purpose; and

    • (b) the reason referred to in paragraph (a) outweighs in importance the access to the information.

  • Marginal note:Reasons

    (2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(a), an order may be made under subsection (1) on the ground that the ends of justice would be subverted by the disclosure

    • (a) if disclosure of the information would

      • (i) compromise the identity of a confidential informant,

      • (ii) compromise the nature and extent of an ongoing investigation,

      • (iii) endanger a person engaged in particular intelligence-gathering techniques and thereby prejudice future investigations in which similar techniques would be used, or

      • (iv) prejudice the interests of an innocent person; and

    • (b) for any other sufficient reason.

  • Marginal note:Procedure

    (3) Where an order is made under subsection (1), all documents relating to the application shall, subject to any terms and conditions that the justice or judge considers desirable in the circumstances, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any term or condition concerning the duration of the prohibition, partial disclosure of a document, deletion of any information or the occurrence of a condition, be placed in a packet and sealed by the justice or judge immediately on determination of the application, and that packet shall be kept in the custody of the court in a place to which the public has no access or in any other place that the justice or judge may authorize and shall not be dealt with except in accordance with the terms and conditions specified in the order or as varied under subsection (4).

  • Marginal note:Application for variance of order

    (4) An application to terminate the order or vary any of its terms and conditions may be made to the justice or judge who made the order or a judge of the court before which any proceedings arising out of the investigation in relation to which the warrant or production order was obtained may be held.

  • 1997, c. 23, s. 14, c. 39, s. 1;
  • 2004, c. 3, s. 8;
  • 2014, c. 31, s. 22.
Marginal note:Execution of search warrant

 A warrant issued under section 487 or 487.1 shall be executed by day, unless

  • (a) the justice is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for it to be executed by night;

  • (b) the reasonable grounds are included in the information; and

  • (c) the warrant authorizes that it be executed by night.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 488;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 70;
  • 1997, c. 18, s. 47.
Marginal note:Definitions
  •  (1) In this section,

    custodian

    gardien

    custodian means a person in whose custody a package is placed pursuant to subsection (2); (gardien)

    document

    document

    document, for the purposes of this section, has the same meaning as in section 321; (document)

    judge

    juge

    judge means a judge of a superior court of criminal jurisdiction of the province where the seizure was made; (juge)

    lawyer

    avocat

    lawyer means, in the Province of Quebec, an advocate, lawyer or notary and, in any other province, a barrister or solicitor; (avocat)

    officer

    fonctionnaire

    officer means a peace officer or public officer. (fonctionnaire)

  • Marginal note:Examination or seizure of certain documents where privilege claimed

    (2) Where an officer acting under the authority of this or any other Act of Parliament is about to examine, copy or seize a document in the possession of a lawyer who claims that a named client of his has a solicitor-client privilege in respect of that document, the officer shall, without examining or making copies of the document,

    • (a) seize the document and place it in a package and suitably seal and identify the package; and

    • (b) place the package in the custody of the sheriff of the district or county in which the seizure was made or, if there is agreement in writing that a specified person act as custodian, in the custody of that person.

  • Marginal note:Application to judge

    (3) Where a document has been seized and placed in custody under subsection (2), the Attorney General or the client or the lawyer on behalf of the client, may

    • (a) within fourteen days from the day the document was so placed in custody, apply, on two days notice of motion to all other persons entitled to make application, to a judge for an order

      • (i) appointing a place and a day, not later than twenty-one days after the date of the order, for the determination of the question whether the document should be disclosed, and

      • (ii) requiring the custodian to produce the document to the judge at that time and place;

    • (b) serve a copy of the order on all other persons entitled to make application and on the custodian within six days of the date on which it was made; and

    • (c) if he has proceeded as authorized by paragraph (b), apply, at the appointed time and place, for an order determining the question.

  • Marginal note:Disposition of application

    (4) On an application under paragraph (3)(c), the judge

    • (a) may, if the judge considers it necessary to determine the question whether the document should be disclosed, inspect the document;

    • (b) where the judge is of the opinion that it would materially assist him in deciding whether or not the document is privileged, may allow the Attorney General to inspect the document;

    • (c) shall allow the Attorney General and the person who objects to the disclosure of the document to make representations; and

    • (d) shall determine the question summarily and,

      • (i) if the judge is of the opinion that the document should not be disclosed, ensure that it is repackaged and resealed and order the custodian to deliver the document to the lawyer who claimed the solicitor-client privilege or to the client, or

      • (ii) if the judge is of the opinion that the document should be disclosed, order the custodian to deliver the document to the officer who seized the document or some other person designated by the Attorney General, subject to such restrictions or conditions as the judge deems appropriate,

      and shall, at the same time, deliver concise reasons for the determination in which the nature of the document is described without divulging the details thereof.

  • Marginal note:Privilege continues

    (5) Where the judge determines pursuant to paragraph (4)(d) that a solicitor-client privilege exists in respect of a document, whether or not the judge has, pursuant to paragraph (4)(b), allowed the Attorney General to inspect the document, the document remains privileged and inadmissible as evidence unless the client consents to its admission in evidence or the privilege is otherwise lost.

  • Marginal note:Order to custodian to deliver

    (6) Where a document has been seized and placed in custody under subsection (2) and a judge, on the application of the Attorney General, is satisfied that no application has been made under paragraph (3)(a) or that following such an application no further application has been made under paragraph (3)(c), the judge shall order the custodian to deliver the document to the officer who seized the document or to some other person designated by the Attorney General.

  • Marginal note:Application to another judge

    (7) Where the judge to whom an application has been made under paragraph (3)(c) cannot act or continue to act under this section for any reason, subsequent applications under that paragraph may be made to another judge.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition

    (8) No officer shall examine, make copies of or seize any document without affording a reasonable opportunity for a claim of solicitor-client privilege to be made under subsection (2).

  • Marginal note:Authority to make copies

    (9) At any time while a document is in the custody of a custodian under this section, a judge may, on an ex parte application of a person claiming a solicitor-client privilege under this section, authorize that person to examine the document or make a copy of it in the presence of the custodian or the judge, but any such authorization shall contain provisions to ensure that the document is repackaged and that the package is resealed without alteration or damage.

  • Marginal note:Hearing in private

    (10) An application under paragraph (3)(c) shall be heard in private.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (11) This section does not apply in circumstances where a claim of solicitor-client privilege may be made under the Income Tax Act or under the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 71;
  • 2000, c. 17, s. 89;
  • 2001, c. 41, s. 80.
 
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