Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2016-06-06 and last amended on 2015-07-23. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Jury and public excluded
  •  (1) At a hearing to determine whether evidence is admissible under subsection 276(2), the jury and the public shall be excluded.

  • Marginal note:Complainant not compellable

    (2) The complainant is not a compellable witness at the hearing.

  • Marginal note:Judge’s determination and reasons

    (3) At the conclusion of the hearing, the judge, provincial court judge or justice shall determine whether the evidence, or any part thereof, is admissible under subsection 276(2) and shall provide reasons for that determination, and

    • (a) where not all of the evidence is to be admitted, the reasons must state the part of the evidence that is to be admitted;

    • (b) the reasons must state the factors referred to in subsection 276(3) that affected the determination; and

    • (c) where all or any part of the evidence is to be admitted, the reasons must state the manner in which that evidence is expected to be relevant to an issue at trial.

  • Marginal note:Record of reasons

    (4) The reasons provided under subsection (3) shall be entered in the record of the proceedings or, where the proceedings are not recorded, shall be provided in writing.

  • 1992, c. 38, s. 2.
Marginal note:Publication prohibited
  •  (1) No person shall publish in any document, or broadcast or transmit in any way, any of the following:

    • (a) the contents of an application made under section 276.1;

    • (b) any evidence taken, the information given and the representations made at an application under section 276.1 or at a hearing under section 276.2;

    • (c) the decision of a judge or justice under subsection 276.1(4), unless the judge or justice, after taking into account the complain­ant’s right of privacy and the interests of justice, orders that the decision may be published, broadcast or transmitted; and

    • (d) the determination made and the reasons provided under section 276.2, unless

      • (i) that determination is that evidence is admissible, or

      • (ii) the judge or justice, after taking into account the complainant’s right of privacy and the interests of justice, orders that the determination and reasons may be published, broadcast or transmitted.

  • Marginal note:Offence

    (2) Every person who contravenes subsection (1) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • 1992, c. 38, s. 2;
  • 2005, c. 32, s. 13.
Marginal note:Judge to instruct jury re use of evidence

 Where evidence is admitted at trial pursuant to a determination made under section 276.2, the judge shall instruct the jury as to the uses that the jury may and may not make of that evidence.

  • 1992, c. 38, s. 2.
Marginal note:Appeal

 For the purposes of sections 675 and 676, a determination made under section 276.2 shall be deemed to be a question of law.

  • 1992, c. 38, s. 2.
Marginal note:Reputation evidence

 In proceedings in respect of an offence under section 151, 152, 153, 153.1, 155 or 159, subsection 160(2) or (3) or section 170, 171, 172, 173, 271, 272 or 273, evidence of sexual reputation, whether general or specific, is not admissible for the purpose of challenging or supporting the credibility of the complainant.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 277;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 19 (3rd Supp.), s. 13;
  • 2002, c. 13, s. 14.
Marginal note:Spouse may be charged

 A husband or wife may be charged with an offence under section 271, 272 or 273 in respect of his or her spouse, whether or not the spouses were living together at the time the activity that forms the subject-matter of the charge occurred.

  • 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 19.
Marginal note:Definition of “record”

 For the purposes of sections 278.2 to 278.9, record means any form of record that contains personal information for which there is a reasonable expectation of privacy and includes, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, medical, psychiatric, therapeutic, counselling, education, employment, child welfare, adoption and social services records, personal journals and diaries, and records containing personal information the production or disclosure of which is protected by any other Act of Parliament or a provincial legislature, but does not include records made by persons responsible for the investigation or prosecution of the offence.

  • 1997, c. 30, s. 1.
Marginal note:Production of record to accused
  •  (1) Except in accordance with sections 278.3 to 278.91, no record relating to a complainant or a witness shall be produced to an accused in any proceedings in respect of any of the following offences or in any proceedings in respect of two or more offences at least one of which is any of the following offences:

    • (a) an offence under section 151, 152, 153, 153.1, 155, 159, 160, 170, 171, 172, 173, 210, 211, 213, 271, 272, 273, 279.01, 279.011, 279.02, 279.03, 286.1, 286.2 or 286.3; or

    • (b) any offence under this Act, as it read from time to time before the day on which this paragraph comes into force, if the conduct alleged would be an offence referred to in paragraph (a) if it occurred on or after that day.

  • Marginal note:Application of provisions

    (2) Section 278.1, this section and sections 278.3 to 278.91 apply where a record is in the possession or control of any person, including the prosecutor in the proceedings, unless, in the case of a record in the possession or control of the prosecutor, the complainant or witness to whom the record relates has expressly waived the application of those sections.

  • Marginal note:Duty of prosecutor to give notice

    (3) In the case of a record in respect of which this section applies that is in the possession or control of the prosecutor, the prosecutor shall notify the accused that the record is in the prosecutor’s possession but, in doing so, the prosecutor shall not disclose the record’s contents.

  • 1997, c. 30, s. 1;
  • 1998, c. 9, s. 3;
  • 2014, c. 25, ss. 17, 48;
  • 2015, c. 13, s. 5.
Marginal note:Application for production
  •  (1) An accused who seeks production of a record referred to in subsection 278.2(1) must make an application to the judge before whom the accused is to be, or is being, tried.

  • Marginal note:No application in other proceedings

    (2) For greater certainty, an application under subsection (1) may not be made to a judge or justice presiding at any other proceedings, including a preliminary inquiry.

  • Marginal note:Form and content of application

    (3) An application must be made in writing and set out

    • (a) particulars identifying the record that the accused seeks to have produced and the name of the person who has possession or control of the record; and

    • (b) the grounds on which the accused relies to establish that the record is likely relevant to an issue at trial or to the competence of a witness to testify.

  • Marginal note:Insufficient grounds

    (4) Any one or more of the following assertions by the accused are not sufficient on their own to establish that the record is likely relevant to an issue at trial or to the competence of a witness to testify:

    • (a) that the record exists;

    • (b) that the record relates to medical or psychiatric treatment, therapy or counselling that the complainant or witness has received or is receiving;

    • (c) that the record relates to the incident that is the subject-matter of the proceedings;

    • (d) that the record may disclose a prior inconsistent statement of the complainant or witness;

    • (e) that the record may relate to the credibility of the complainant or witness;

    • (f) that the record may relate to the reliability of the testimony of the complainant or witness merely because the complainant or witness has received or is receiving psychiatric treatment, therapy or counselling;

    • (g) that the record may reveal allegations of sexual abuse of the complainant by a person other than the accused;

    • (h) that the record relates to the sexual activity of the complainant with any person, including the accused;

    • (i) that the record relates to the presence or absence of a recent complaint;

    • (j) that the record relates to the complainant’s sexual reputation; or

    • (k) that the record was made close in time to a complaint or to the activity that forms the subject-matter of the charge against the accused.

  • Marginal note:Service of application and subpoena

    (5) The accused shall serve the application on the prosecutor, on the person who has possession or control of the record, on the complainant or witness, as the case may be, and on any other person to whom, to the knowledge of the accused, the record relates, at least 14 days before the hearing referred to in subsection 278.4(1) or any shorter interval that the judge may allow in the interests of justice. The accused shall also serve a subpoena issued under Part XXII in Form 16.1 on the person who has possession or control of the record at the same time as the application is served.

  • Marginal note:Service on other persons

    (6) The judge may at any time order that the application be served on any person to whom the judge considers the record may relate.

  • 1997, c. 30, s. 1;
  • 2015, c. 13, s. 6.
 
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