Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2014-06-12 and last amended on 2014-06-01. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Spreading false news

 Every one who wilfully publishes a statement, tale or news that he knows is false and that causes or is likely to cause injury or mischief to a public interest is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 177.
Marginal note:Dead body

 Every one who

  • (a) neglects, without lawful excuse, to perform any duty that is imposed on him by law or that he undertakes with reference to the burial of a dead human body or human remains, or

  • (b) improperly or indecently interferes with or offers any indignity to a dead human body or human remains, whether buried or not,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 178.

PART VIINVASION OF PRIVACY

Definitions

Marginal note:Definitions

 In this Part,

“authorization”

« autorisation »

“authorization” means an authorization to intercept a private communication given under section 186 or subsection 184.2(3), 184.3(6) or 188(2);

“electro-magnetic, acoustic, mechanical or other device”

« dispositif électromagnétique, acoustique, mécanique ou autre »

“electro-magnetic, acoustic, mechanical or other device” means any device or apparatus that is used or is capable of being used to intercept a private communication, but does not include a hearing aid used to correct subnormal hearing of the user to not better than normal hearing;

“intercept”

« intercepter »

“intercept” includes listen to, record or acquire a communication or acquire the substance, meaning or purport thereof;

“offence”

« infraction »

“offence” means an offence contrary to, any conspiracy or attempt to commit or being an accessory after the fact in relation to an offence contrary to, or any counselling in relation to an offence contrary to

  • (a) any of the following provisions of this Act, namely,

    • (i) section 47 (high treason),

    • (ii) section 51 (intimidating Parliament or a legislature),

    • (iii) section 52 (sabotage),

    • (iii.1) section 56.1 (identity documents),

    • (iv) section 57 (forgery, etc.),

    • (v) section 61 (sedition),

    • (vi) section 76 (hijacking),

    • (vii) section 77 (endangering safety of aircraft or airport),

    • (viii) section 78 (offensive weapons, etc., on aircraft),

    • (ix) section 78.1 (offences against maritime navigation or fixed platforms),

    • (x) section 80 (breach of duty),

    • (xi) section 81 (using explosives),

    • (xii) section 82 (possessing explosives),

    • (xii.01) section 82.3 (possession, etc., of nuclear material, radioactive material or device),

    • (xii.02) section 82.4 (use or alteration of nuclear material, radioactive material or device),

    • (xii.03) section 82.5 (commission of indictable offence to obtain nuclear material, etc.),

    • (xii.04) section 82.6 (threats),

    • (xii.1) section 83.02 (providing or collecting property for certain activities),

    • (xii.2) section 83.03 (providing, making available, etc., property or services for terrorist purposes),

    • (xii.3) section 83.04 (using or possessing property for terrorist purposes),

    • (xii.4) section 83.18 (participation in activity of terrorist group),

    • (xii.41) section 83.181 (leaving Canada to participate in activity of terrorist group),

    • (xii.5) section 83.19 (facilitating terrorist activity),

    • (xii.51) section 83.191 (leaving Canada to facilitate terrorist activity),

    • (xii.6) section 83.2 (commission of offence for terrorist group),

    • (xii.61) section 83.201 (leaving Canada to commit offence for terrorist group),

    • (xii.62) section 83.202 (leaving Canada to commit offence that is terrorist activity),

    • (xii.7) section 83.21 (instructing to carry out activity for terrorist group),

    • (xii.8) section 83.22 (instructing to carry out terrorist activity),

    • (xii.9) section 83.23 (harbouring or concealing),

    • (xii.91) section 83.231 (hoax — terrorist activity),

    • (xiii) section 96 (possession of weapon obtained by commission of offence),

    • (xiii.1) section 98 (breaking and entering to steal firearm),

    • (xiii.2) section 98.1 (robbery to steal firearm),

    • (xiv) section 99 (weapons trafficking),

    • (xv) section 100 (possession for purpose of weapons trafficking),

    • (xvi) section 102 (making automatic firearm),

    • (xvii) section 103 (importing or exporting knowing it is unauthorized),

    • (xviii) section 104 (unauthorized importing or exporting),

    • (xix) section 119 (bribery, etc.),

    • (xx) section 120 (bribery, etc.),

    • (xxi) section 121 (fraud on government),

    • (xxii) section 122 (breach of trust),

    • (xxiii) section 123 (municipal corruption),

    • (xxiv) section 132 (perjury),

    • (xxv) section 139 (obstructing justice),

    • (xxvi) section 144 (prison breach),

    • (xxvii) subsection 145(1) (escape, etc.),

    • (xxvii.1) section 162 (voyeurism),

    • (xxviii) paragraph 163(1)(a) (obscene materials),

    • (xxix) section 163.1 (child pornography),

    • (xxix.1) section 170 (parent or guardian procuring sexual activity),

    • (xxix.2) section 171 (householder permitting sexual activity),

    • (xxix.3) section 171.1 (making sexually explicit material available to child),

    • (xxix.4) section 172.1 (luring a child),

    • (xxix.5) section 172.2 (agreement or arrangement — sexual offence against child),

    • (xxx) section 184 (unlawful interception),

    • (xxxi) section 191 (possession of intercepting device),

    • (xxxii) subsection 201(1) (keeping gaming or betting house),

    • (xxxiii) paragraph 202(1)(e) (pool-selling, etc.),

    • (xxxiv) subsection 210(1) (keeping common bawdy house),

    • (xxxv) subsection 212(1) (procuring),

    • (xxxvi) subsection 212(2) (procuring),

    • (xxxvii) subsection 212(2.1) (aggravated offence in relation to living on the avails of prostitution of a person under the age of eighteen years),

    • (xxxviii) subsection 212(4) (offence — prostitution of person under eighteen),

    • (xxxix) section 235 (murder),

    • (xxxix.1) section 244 (discharging firearm with intent),

    • (xxxix.2) section 244.2 (discharging firearm — recklessness),

    • (xl) section 264.1 (uttering threats),

    • (xli) section 267 (assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm),

    • (xlii) section 268 (aggravated assault),

    • (xliii) section 269 (unlawfully causing bodily harm),

    • (xliii.1) section 270.01 (assaulting peace officer with weapon or causing bodily harm),

    • (xliii.2) section 270.02 (aggravated assault of peace officer),

    • (xliv) section 271 (sexual assault),

    • (xlv) section 272 (sexual assault with a weapon, threats to a third party or causing bodily harm),

    • (xlvi) section 273 (aggravated sexual assault),

    • (xlvii) section 279 (kidnapping),

    • (xlvii.1) section 279.01 (trafficking in persons),

    • (xlvii.11) section 279.011 (trafficking of a person under the age of eighteen years),

    • (xlvii.2) section 279.02 (material benefit),

    • (xlvii.3) section 279.03 (withholding or destroying documents),

    • (xlviii) section 279.1 (hostage taking),

    • (xlix) section 280 (abduction of person under sixteen),

    • (l) section 281 (abduction of person under fourteen),

    • (li) section 282 (abduction in contravention of custody order),

    • (lii) section 283 (abduction),

    • (liii) section 318 (advocating genocide),

    • (liv) section 327 (possession of device to obtain telecommunication facility or service),

    • (liv.1) section 333.1 (motor vehicle theft),

    • (lv) section 334 (theft),

    • (lvi) section 342 (theft, forgery, etc., of credit card),

    • (lvi.1) section 342.01 (instruments for copying credit card data or forging or falsifying credit cards),

    • (lvii) section 342.1 (unauthorized use of computer),

    • (lviii) section 342.2 (possession of device to obtain computer service),

    • (lix) section 344 (robbery),

    • (lx) section 346 (extortion),

    • (lxi) section 347 (criminal interest rate),

    • (lxii) section 348 (breaking and entering),

    • (lxii.1) section 353.1 (tampering with vehicle identification number),

    • (lxiii) section 354 (possession of property obtained by crime),

    • (lxiii.1) section 355.2 (trafficking in property obtained by crime),

    • (lxiii.2) section 355.4 (possession of property obtained by crime — trafficking),

    • (lxiv) section 356 (theft from mail),

    • (lxv) section 367 (forgery),

    • (lxvi) section 368 (use, trafficking or possession of forged document),

    • (lxvi.1) section 368.1 (forgery instruments),

    • (lxvii) section 372 (false messages),

    • (lxviii) section 380 (fraud),

    • (lxix) section 381 (using mails to defraud),

    • (lxx) section 382 (fraudulent manipulation of stock exchange transactions),

    • (lxx.1) subsection 402.2(1) (identity theft),

    • (lxx.2) subsection 402.2(2) (trafficking in identity information),

    • (lxx.3) section 403 (identity fraud),

    • (lxxi) section 423.1 (intimidation of justice system participant or journalist),

    • (lxxii) section 424 (threat to commit offences against internationally protected person),

    • (lxxii.1) section 424.1 (threat against United Nations or associated personnel),

    • (lxxiii) section 426 (secret commissions),

    • (lxxiv) section 430 (mischief),

    • (lxxv) section 431 (attack on premises, residence or transport of internationally protected person),

    • (lxxv.1) section 431.1 (attack on premises, accommodation or transport of United Nations or associated personnel),

    • (lxxv.2) subsection 431.2(2) (explosive or other lethal device),

    • (lxxvi) section 433 (arson),

    • (lxxvii) section 434 (arson),

    • (lxxviii) section 434.1 (arson),

    • (lxxix) section 435 (arson for fraudulent purpose),

    • (lxxx) section 449 (making counterfeit money),

    • (lxxxi) section 450 (possession, etc., of counterfeit money),

    • (lxxxii) section 452 (uttering, etc., counterfeit money),

    • (lxxxiii) section 462.31 (laundering proceeds of crime),

    • (lxxxiv) subsection 462.33(11) (acting in contravention of restraint order),

    • (lxxxv) section 467.11 (participation in criminal organization),

    • (lxxxvi) section 467.12 (commission of offence for criminal organization), or

    • (lxxxvii) section 467.13 (instructing commission of offence for criminal organization),

  • (b) section 198 (fraudulent bankruptcy) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act,

  • (b.1) any of the following provisions of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Implementation Act, namely,

    • (i) section 6 (production, etc., of biological agents and means of delivery), or

    • (ii) section 7 (unauthorized production, etc., of biological agents),

  • (c) any of the following provisions of the Competition Act, namely,

    • (i) section 45 (conspiracies, agreements or arrangements between competitors),

    • (ii) section 47 (bid-rigging), or

    • (iii) subsection 52.1(3) (deceptive telemarketing),

  • (d) any of the following provisions of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, namely,

    • (i) section 5 (trafficking),

    • (ii) section 6 (importing and exporting), or

    • (iii) section 7 (production),

  • (e) section 3 (bribing a foreign public official) of the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act,

  • (e.1) the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act,

  • (f) either of the following provisions of the Customs Act, namely,

    • (i) section 153 (false statements), or

    • (ii) section 159 (smuggling),

  • (g) any of the following provisions of the Excise Act, 2001, namely,

    • (i) section 214 (unlawful production, sale, etc., of tobacco or alcohol),

    • (ii) section 216 (unlawful possession of tobacco product),

    • (iii) section 218 (unlawful possession, sale, etc., of alcohol),

    • (iv) section 219 (falsifying or destroying records),

    • (v) section 230 (possession of property obtained by excise offences), or

    • (vi) section 231 (laundering proceeds of excise offences),

  • (h) any of the following provisions of the Export and Import Permits Act, namely,

    • (i) section 13 (export or attempt to export),

    • (ii) section 14 (import or attempt to import),

    • (iii) section 15 (diversion, etc.),

    • (iv) section 16 (no transfer of permits),

    • (v) section 17 (false information), or

    • (vi) section 18 (aiding and abetting),

  • (i) any of the following provisions of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, namely,

    • (i) section 117 (organizing entry into Canada),

    • (ii) section 118 (trafficking in persons),

    • (iii) section 119 (disembarking persons at sea),

    • (iv) section 122 (offences related to documents),

    • (v) section 126 (counselling misrepresentation), or

    • (vi) section 129 (offences relating to officers), or

  • (j) any offence under the Security of Information Act,

and includes any other offence that there are reasonable grounds to believe is a criminal organization offence or any other offence that there are reasonable grounds to believe is an offence described in paragraph (b) or (c) of the definition “terrorism offence” in section 2;

“police officer”

« policier »

“police officer” means any officer, constable or other person employed for the preservation and maintenance of the public peace;

“private communication”

« communication privée »

“private communication” means any oral communication, or any telecommunication, that is made by an originator who is in Canada or is intended by the originator to be received by a person who is in Canada and that is made under circumstances in which it is reasonable for the originator to expect that it will not be intercepted by any person other than the person intended by the originator to receive it, and includes any radio-based telephone communication that is treated electronically or otherwise for the purpose of preventing intelligible reception by any person other than the person intended by the originator to receive it;

“public switched telephone network”

« réseau téléphonique public commuté »

“public switched telephone network” means a telecommunication facility the primary purpose of which is to provide a land line-based telephone service to the public for compensation;

“radio-based telephone communication”

« communication radiotéléphonique »

“radio-based telephone communication” means any radiocommunication within the meaning of the Radiocommunication Act that is made over apparatus that is used primarily for connection to a public switched telephone network;

“sell”

« vendre »

“sell” includes offer for sale, expose for sale, have in possession for sale or distribute or advertise for sale;

“solicitor”

« avocat »

“solicitor” means, in the Province of Quebec, an advocate or a notary and, in any other province, a barrister or solicitor.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 183;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), ss. 7, 23, c. 1 (2nd Supp.), s. 213, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 13, c. 29 (4th Supp.), s. 17, c. 42 (4th Supp.), s. 1;
  • 1991, c. 28, s. 12;
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 90;
  • 1993, c. 7, s. 5, c. 25, s. 94, c. 40, s. 1, c. 46, s. 4;
  • 1995, c. 39, s. 140;
  • 1996, c. 19, s. 66;
  • 1997, c. 18, s. 7, c. 23, s. 3;
  • 1998, c. 34, s. 8;
  • 1999, c. 2, s. 47, c. 5, s. 4;
  • 2000, c. 24, s. 43;
  • 2001, c. 32, s. 4, c. 41, ss. 5, 31, 133;
  • 2002, c. 22, s. 409;
  • 2004, c. 15, s. 108;
  • 2005, c. 32, s. 10, c. 43, s. 1;
  • 2008, c. 6, s. 15;
  • 2009, c. 2, s. 442, c. 22, s. 4, c. 28, s. 3;
  • 2010, c. 3, s. 1, c. 14, s. 2;
  • 2012, c. 1, s. 24;
  • 2013, c. 8, s. 2, c. 9, s. 14, c. 13, s. 7.